The role of lipoic acid residues in the pyruvate dehydrogenase multienzyme complex of Escherichia coli

Biochemical Journal (Impact Factor: 4.4). 01/1982; 199(3):505-11. DOI: 10.1042/bj1990505
Source: PubMed


Two lipoic acid residues on each dihydrolipoamide acetyltransferase (E2) chain of the pyruvate dehydrogenase multienzyme complex of Escherichia coli were found to undergo oxidoreduction reactions with NAD+ catalysed by the lipoamide dehydrogenase component. It was observed that: (a) 2 mol of reagent/mol of E2 chain was incorporated when the complex was incubated with N-ethylmaleimide in the presence of acetyl-SCoA and NADH; (b) 4 mol of reagent/mol of E2 chain was incorporated when the complex was incubated with N-ethylmaleimide in the presence of NADH; (c) between 1 and 2 mol of acetyl groups/mol of E2 chain was incorporated when the complex was incubated with acetyl-SCoA plus NADH; (d) 2 mol of acetyl groups/mol of E2 chain was incorporated when the complex was incubated with pyruvate either before or after many catalytic turnovers through the overall reaction. There was no evidence to support the view that only half of the dihydrolipoic acid residues can be reoxidized by NAD+. However, chemical modification of lipoic acid residues with N-ethylmaleimide was shown to proceed faster than the accompanying loss of enzymic activity under all conditions tested, which indicates that not all the lipoyl groups are essential for activity. The most likely explanation for this result is an enzymic mechanism in which one lipoic acid residue can take over the function of another.

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Available from: Michael J Danson
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    ABSTRACT: The pyruvate dehydrogenase complex of Escherichia coli contains two lipoic acid residues per dihydrolipoamide acetyltransferase chain, and these are known to engage in the part-reactions of the enzyme. The enzyme complex was treated with trypsin at pH 7.0, and a partly proteolysed complex was obtained that had lost almost 60% of its lipoic acid residues although it retained 80% of its pyruvate dehydrogenase-complex activity. When this complex was treated with N-ethylmaleimide in the presence of pyruvate and the absence of CoASH, the rate of modification of the remaining S-acetyldihydrolipoic acid residues was approximately equal to the accompanying rate of loss of enzymic activity. This is in contrast with the native pyruvate dehydrogenase complex, where under the same conditions modification proceeds appreciably faster than the loss of enzymic activity. The native pyruvate dehydrogenase complex was also treated with lipoamidase prepared from Streptococcus faecalis. The release of lipoic acid from the complex followed zero-order kinetics for most of the reaction, whereas the accompanying loss of pyruvate dehydrogenase-complex activity lagged substantially behind. These results eliminate a model for the enzyme mechanism in which specifically one of the two lipoic acid residues on each dihydrolipoamide acetyltransferase chain is essential for the reaction. They are consistent with a model in which the dihydrolipoamide acetyltransferase component contains more lipoic acid residues than are required to serve the pyruvate decarboxylase subunits under conditions of saturating substrates, enabling the function of an excised or inactivated lipoic acid residue to be taken over by another one. Unusual structural properties of the enzyme complex might permit this novel feature of the enzyme mechanism.
    Preview · Article · Jan 1982 · Biochemical Journal
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    ABSTRACT: A computer modeling system developed to analyze experimental data for inactivation of the Escherichia coli alpha-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase complex (KGDC) accompanying release of lipoyl moieties by lipoamidase and by trypsin [Hackert, M.L., Oliver, R.M. & Reed, L.J. (1983) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 80, 2226-2230] was used to analyze analogous data for the E. coli pyruvate dehydrogenase complex (PDC). The model studies indicate that the activity of PDC, as found for KGDC, is influenced by redundancies and random processes, which we describe as a multiple random coupling mechanism. In both complexes more than one lipoyl moiety services each pyruvate dehydrogenase (EC or alpha-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase (EC (E1) subunit, and an extensive lipoyl-lipoyl interaction network for exchange of electrons and possibly acyl groups must also be present. The best fit between computed and experimental data for PDC was obtained with a model that has four lipoyl domains with four or, more probably, eight lipoyl moieties servicing each E1 subunit. The lipoyl-lipoyl interaction network for PDC has lipoyl domain interactions similar to those found for KGDC plus the additional possibility of interaction of a lipoyl moiety and its paired mate on each dihydrolipoamide acetyltransferase (EC (E2) subunit. The two lipoyl moieties on an E2 subunit in PDC appear to be functionally indistinguishable, each servicing the acetyltransferase site of that E2 subunit and a dihydrolipoamide dehydrogenase (EC (E3) subunit if the latter is bound to that particular E2 subunit. The observed difference between inactivation of PDC by lipoamidase and by trypsin appears to be due to dead-end competitive inhibition by lipoyl domains that have been modified by excision of lipoyl moieties by lipoamidase.
    Preview · Article · Jun 1983 · Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
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    ABSTRACT: The nucleotide sequence of the aceF gene, which encodes the dihydrolipoamide acetyltransferase component (E2) of the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex of Escherichia coli K12, has been determined using the dideoxy chain-termination method. The aceF gene comprises 1887 base pairs (629 codons excluding the initiation codon AUG); it is preceded by a short intercistronic segment of 14 base pairs containing a good ribosomal binding site, and it is followed closely by a potential rho-independent terminator. The results extend by 1980 base pairs the previously sequenced segment of 3780 base pairs containing the structural gene (aceE) of the pyruvate dehydrogenase component (E1) and they confirm that aceE and aceF are the proximal and distal genes of the ace operon. The amino terminus, carboxy-terminal sequence and amino acid composition of the acetyltransferase subunit predicted from the nucleotide sequence are in excellent agreement with previous studies with the purified protein. The predicted molecular weight (Mr= 65959) confirms experimental values derived from sedimentation equilibrium analysis and indicates that the higher values (78 000–89 000) that have been reported are due to unusual features of the protein that lead to anomalous mobilities during sodium dodecyl sulphate/polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and in gel filtration. The primary structure fully supports conclusions, based on limited tryptic proteolysis, that the acetyltransferase subunit possesses two heterologous domains: the lipoyl domain and the subunit binding and catalytic domain. The lipoyl domain corresponds to the amino-terminal segment of the protein. It is acidic and contains three remarkably homologous repeating units of approximately 100 amino acids, each possessing a potential lipoyl binding site and a region that is characteristically rich in alanine and proline residues. The subunit binding and catalytic domain occupies most of the residual polypeptide in the carboxy-terminal segment.
    Full-text · Article · Aug 1983 · European Journal of Biochemistry
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