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LSD psychosis or LSD-induced schizophrenia? A multimethod inquiry

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Abstract

We studied whether patients hospitalized for LSD psychosis are clinically separable from acute schizophrenics. The family histories, manifest symptoms, premorbid adjustment, and profiles on an extensive test battery were analyzed for 52 LSD psychotics and 29 matched first-break schizophrenics. The LSD patients did not differ from schizophrenics in incidence of psychosis or suicide among the parents. However, the rate of parental alcoholism for LSD psychotics far exceeded that for schizophrenics and the general population. The two groups were distinguished on some clinical features but were equivalent in premorbid adjustment, on most cognitive measures when initially hospitalized or reassessed three to five years later, and in number of subsequent rehospitalizations. Thus, in most respects the LSD psychotics were fundamentally similar to schizophrenics in geneaology, phenomenology, and course of illness. The findings supported a model of LSD psychosis as a drug-induced schizophreniform reaction in persons vulnerable to both substance abuse and psychosis.

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... Another retrospective population study did not find an association between any lifetime ''psychedelic'' use and panic attacks or depression, but did report an association between dependence on ''psychedelics'' and panic attacks [40]; however, in this study the number of events was small, and the dissociative anesthetic PCP was included as a psychedelic, even though it is well known that PCP has quite different subjective effects, dependence potential, and neurobiological mechanisms than the serotonergic psychedelics. A follow-up of 29 patients with firstbreak psychosis attributed to LSD use found that these individuals were ''essentially similar'' to first-break psychosis patients with no LSD use in terms of premorbid adjustment, course of illness, and family history of inpatient treatment, and course of illness [41] (see also [28]). ...
... Many psychiatric disorders are believed to be heavily influenced by genetics and earlier experiences, even if symptoms are often first triggered by a stressful event. Note, however, that people with first-episode psychosis often have no apparent family or personal history of mental illness, whether or not if they have previously used psychedelics [41]. 5) Because of the striking subjective effects of psychedelics, some people attribute psychiatric symptoms to the use of psychedelics even if the symptoms started months or years later. ...
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The classical serotonergic psychedelics LSD, psilocybin, mescaline are not known to cause brain damage and are regarded as non-addictive. Clinical studies do not suggest that psychedelics cause long-term mental health problems. Psychedelics have been used in the Americas for thousands of years. Over 30 million people currently living in the US have used LSD, psilocybin, or mescaline. To evaluate the association between the lifetime use of psychedelics and current mental health in the adult population. Data drawn from years 2001 to 2004 of the National Survey on Drug Use and Health consisted of 130,152 respondents, randomly selected to be representative of the adult population in the United States. Standardized screening measures for past year mental health included serious psychological distress (K6 scale), mental health treatment (inpatient, outpatient, medication, needed but did not receive), symptoms of eight psychiatric disorders (panic disorder, major depressive episode, mania, social phobia, general anxiety disorder, agoraphobia, posttraumatic stress disorder, and non-affective psychosis), and seven specific symptoms of non-affective psychosis. We calculated weighted odds ratios by multivariate logistic regression controlling for a range of sociodemographic variables, use of illicit drugs, risk taking behavior, and exposure to traumatic events. 21,967 respondents (13.4% weighted) reported lifetime psychedelic use. There were no significant associations between lifetime use of any psychedelics, lifetime use of specific psychedelics (LSD, psilocybin, mescaline, peyote), or past year use of LSD and increased rate of any of the mental health outcomes. Rather, in several cases psychedelic use was associated with lower rate of mental health problems. We did not find use of psychedelics to be an independent risk factor for mental health problems.
... Around this time, Wilson's auditory hallucinations also started worsening, until by 1969 they had all the characteristics recognisable in his contemporary hallucinations (namely those of accusations and threats in the second-person, making liberal reference to the devil). Though Wilson indulged in LSD far less than other drugs he used (various sources stating that he took it no more than three times), it would seem foolish to discount the role the substance played in his mental degradation post-1965, especially in light of circumstantial evidence of similarities between LSD psychosis and actual psychosis (Young 1974;Vardy & Kay, 1983) and more explicit findings that LSD presents a significant independent risk for psychosis in predisposed individuals (Abraham & Aldridge, 1993;Vardy & Kay, 1983). Furthermore, only the truly cynical would discount its additional effects on his creative exploits. ...
... Around this time, Wilson's auditory hallucinations also started worsening, until by 1969 they had all the characteristics recognisable in his contemporary hallucinations (namely those of accusations and threats in the second-person, making liberal reference to the devil). Though Wilson indulged in LSD far less than other drugs he used (various sources stating that he took it no more than three times), it would seem foolish to discount the role the substance played in his mental degradation post-1965, especially in light of circumstantial evidence of similarities between LSD psychosis and actual psychosis (Young 1974;Vardy & Kay, 1983) and more explicit findings that LSD presents a significant independent risk for psychosis in predisposed individuals (Abraham & Aldridge, 1993;Vardy & Kay, 1983). Furthermore, only the truly cynical would discount its additional effects on his creative exploits. ...
Article
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The suggestion of a relationship between creativity and mental disorder has existed for centuries, and has been advocated by many psychological researchers. The present analysis offers a consideration of the nature of mental disorder present in Brian Wilson, an individual recognised as one of the most creative figures in 20th century popular music. Using converging biographical evidence, and the diagnostic program Opcrit, Wilson’s diagnosis is concluded to be schizoaffective. Employing details of his drug abuse, various models of schizoaffective spectra are examined, in particular a reconsideration of the LSD model of schizophrenia. The model is shown to be useful for positive schizophrenic symptoms including overinclusion, a potentially key element of creativity. In doing so, this psychobiographical analysis allows examination of potential relationships between mental disorder and creativity, the effects of various narcotics on creativity and various elements of mental disorder, the efficacy of various drug models of psychotic disorders, and the overlap between psychotic and affective disorders.
... Intriguingly, mesolimbic D 2 receptors are known to be linked to the pathogenesis of psychosis (Kapur et al., 2000) and since psychedelics drugs like LSD are known to induce psychotic-like effects (Vardy and Kay, 1983), we should consider the hypothesis that the mesolimbic D 2 receptor activation may play a role in the LSD-mediated psychotic-like state, especially at higher doses (see De Gregorio et al., 2016a). Finally, a few studies reported also the involvement of D 4 receptors in the LSD's mechanism of action. ...
... A study of patients hospitalized for LSD-induced psychosis showed a substantial degree of overlap between the symptoms of LSD-induced psychosis and early symptoms of schizophrenia (Gouzoulis-Mayfrank et al., 1998). While users of these drugs and individuals with schizophrenia differ in their sociodemographic variables (such as parental alcoholism), they share remarkable similarities in factors such as genealogy, cognitive measures, clinical outcomes, and rate of subsequent hospitalizations (Vardy and Kay, 1983). Recently, a study carried out by Preller and colleagues highlighted the impact of psychedelic compounds on the distortions of self-representation and the related dysfunctional social cognition (Preller et al., 2018). ...
Chapter
Depression and anxiety are psychiatric diagnoses commonly associated with low quality of life and low percentage of responsiveness by patients treated with currently available drugs. Thus, research into alternative compounds to treat these disorders is essential to guarantee a patient's remission. The last decade has witnessed a revamped interest for the application of psychedelic medicine for the treatment of mental disorders due to anecdotal reports and clinical studies which show that low doses of D-lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) and psilocybin may have antidepressant effects. LSD and psilocybin have demonstrated mood-modulating properties likely due to their capacity to modulate serotonergic (5-HT), dopaminergic (DA) and glutamatergic systems. LSD, belonging to the category of “classic halluginogens,” interacts with the 5-HT system through 5HT1A, and 5HT2A receptors, with the DA system through D2 receptors, and indirectly also the glutamatergic neurotransmission thought the recruitment of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors. Randomized clinical studies have confirmed its antidepressant and anxiolytic effects in humans. Thus, in this chapter, we will review the pharmacology of psychedelic drugs, report the most striking clinical evidence which substantiate the therapeutic potentials of these fascinating compounds in mood disorders, and look into the horizon of where psychedelic medicine is heading.
... There are several reports describing the clinically disruptive effects of LSD on aspects of social behaviour (Hensala et al., 1967;Langs and Barr, 1968;Vardy and Kay, 1983). Bowers (1970) and Wyatt et al. (1972) have reported improvements in schizophrenics treated with tryptophan, the precursor to 5-HT, but these were not specific to social behaviour. ...
Article
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Social dysfunction in schizophrenia is one of the key negative symptoms, which to date is not adequately addressed by treatment with both typical and atypical antipsychotics. A number of different pharmacological models of social withdrawal are used to mimic social dysfunction in rats, such as amphetamine, N-methyl-D-aspartic acid antagonists, cannabinergic and serotonergic receptor ligands. The purpose of this review is to discuss and compare these models of social withdrawal with a focus on their face, construct and predictive validities. Various techniques and strategies used to observe and analyze rodent social behaviour and other factors that are of relevance to this paradigm have also been examined. After comparing the reports, we are of the opinion that to improve replicability of any given model and its antipsychotic screening potential and the reliability of comparisons made, efforts need to be directed towards cross-laboratory standardization of variables that may confound experimental outcomes and cause discrepancies in results reported. In keeping with an earlier suggestion this may be facilitated through the creation of an online consortium for behavioural neuroscientists to share and compare methodologies, laboratory layouts and perhaps even raw data.
... Moreover, another environmental factor that can contribute to the onset of schizophrenia is hallucinogenic drug abuse (3). LSD, DOI, and psilocybin can induce schizophrenia-like psychosis in healthy human subjects (3,4,(44)(45)(46), and in the case of psilocybin, the effect can be blocked by ketanserin. Furthermore, these drugs induce schizophrenia-like traits in animals such as a PPI deficit (47,48) and stereotypic head twitches (16,17,49). ...
Article
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Maternal infection during pregnancy increases the risk for schizophrenia in offspring. In rodent models, maternal immune activation (MIA) yields offspring with schizophrenia-like behaviors. None of these behaviors are, however, specific to schizophrenia. The presence of hallucinations is a key diagnostic symptom of schizophrenia. In mice, this symptom can be defined as brain activation in the absence of external stimuli, which can be mimicked by administration of hallucinogens. We find that, compared with controls, adult MIA offspring display an increased stereotypical behavioral response to the hallucinogen 2,5-dimethoxy-4-iodoamphetamine (DOI), an agonist for serotonin receptor 2A (5-HT2AR). This may be explained by increased levels of 5-HT2AR and downstream signaling molecules in unstimulated MIA prefrontal cortex (PFC). Using manganese-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging to identify neuronal activation elicited by DOI administration, we find that, compared with controls, MIA offspring exhibit a greater manganese (Mn(2+)) accumulation in several brain areas, including the PFC, thalamus, and striatum. The parafascicular thalamic nucleus, which plays the role in the pathogenesis of hallucinations, is activated by DOI in MIA offspring only. Additionally, compared with controls, MIA offspring demonstrate higher DOI-induced expression of early growth response protein 1, cyclooxygenase-2, and brain-derived neurotrophic factor in the PFC. Chronic treatment with the 5-HT2AR antagonist ketanserin reduces DOI-induced head twitching in MIA offspring. Thus, the MIA mouse model can be successfully used to investigate activity induced by DOI in awake, behaving mice. Moreover, manganese-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging is a useful, noninvasive method for accurately measuring this type of activity.
... A third factor that could confound the association between cannabis use and age at onset of psychosis is the use of other illicit drugs, such as stimulants (Brady et al. 1991 ;Satel et al. 1991 ;Landabaso et al. 2002 ;McKetin et al. 2006) and hallucinogens (Vardy & Kay, 1983), that have been reported to precipitate psychotic symptoms. Although these drugs have not yet been shown to have an additional affect on age at onset of psychosis (Barnes et al. 2006 ;González-Pinto et al. 2008 ;Barrigon et al. 2010), the nonsignificant relationship between these other illicit drugs and age of onset might also be the result of insufficient power. ...
Article
Cannabis use is associated with an earlier age at onset of psychotic illness. The aim of the present study was to examine whether this association is confounded by gender or other substance use in a large cohort of patients with a non-affective psychotic disorder. In 785 patients with a non-affective psychotic disorder, regression analysis was used to investigate the independent effects of gender, cannabis use and other drug use on age at onset of first psychosis. Age at onset was 1.8 years earlier in cannabis users compared to non-users, controlling for gender and other possible confounders. Use of other drugs did not have an additional effect on age at onset when cannabis use was taken into account. In 63.5% of cannabis-using patients, age at most intense cannabis use preceded the age at onset of first psychosis. In males, the mean age at onset was 1.3 years lower than in females, controlling for cannabis use and other confounders. Cannabis use and gender are independently associated with an earlier onset of psychotic illness. Our findings also suggest that cannabis use may precipitate psychosis. More research is needed to clarify the neurobiological factors that make people vulnerable to this precipitating effect of cannabis.
... It would be preferable to have a data set with data on both exposure to traumatic events and childhood depression, as well as other risk factors, such as history of childhood abuse, and family history of mental illness (McCann et al., 2014;Proal et al., 2014). Note, a study of 52 people hospitalized for first psychotic episode shortly after LSD use found that they had elevated rates of parental psychiatric hospitalization, similar to people with schizophrenia (Vardy and Kay 1983). ...
... In a study comparing cases of LSD psychosis and known cases of schizophrenia, it was found that both have similar Visual-motor deficits, almost had similar intellectual profiles, scored the same on Rorschach scale of thought disorder and similar percentage and distribution of psychiatric rehospitalization [111]. Another study found that schizophrenic patients who had a history of taking psychedelics have an earlier onset of the disease, had better premorbid personalities, and thus psychedelic drugs might cause schizophrenia in genetically susceptible individuals [112]. ...
Article
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Psychedelics might be the oldest psychoactive agents known used for inducing religious or mystical experiences. Their strong psychoactive effect was discovered accidentally in 1943 after the synthesis of Lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) in 1937. These drugs became a mainstream area of research following the synthesis of LSD, however, several political and social factors led to their ban in 1966, after which research on psychedelics was limited. These drugs became a major topic of scientific and ethical debate in the 1990’s and the recent times have seen a ‘Psychedelic renaissance’ where the therapeutic value of psychedelics is being reconsidered. This article reports the historic perspective of psychedelics, pharmacologic action by 5-HT2A receptor agonism, psychological effects and compares the proposed therapeutic uses including uses in depression, PTSD, anxiety-related disorders, drug and alcohol addiction, neurodegenerative diseases and auto-immune diseases to potential harms including development of tolerance, hallucinogen persisting perception disorder and potential psychosis. An analysis of history, pharmacology, and comparison of benefits and harms lead to the conclusion that the potential therapeutic benefits significantly outweigh the potential harms thus further research and clinical trials need to be conducted across different countries and cultures for legal approval in clinical use.
... Lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) or 'acid' is a synthetic hallucinogen which was originally used in the 1950s as an experimental psychiatric drug. 9 It is absorbed rapidly following oral ingestion, with effects manifesting within thirty minutes and lasting eight to ten hours. 10 It acts as a partial agonist at the serotonin receptor 11 causing alterations in thought, mood and perception. ...
Article
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The use of illicit substances is a growing concern in emergency medicine and results in an increasing number of hospital admissions and fatalities. MDMA (3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine) and LSD (lysergic acid diethylamide) are two such drugs which have similar physical and psychological effects and are normally detected in blood and urine testing within 24–48 hours of ingestion. We present a case of a 22-year-old man who was found unconscious and unresponsive. History suggested the ingestion of illicit substances within the past 24 hours; however, urine and blood toxicology screening was negative. The patient was initially diagnosed with and treated for meningoencephalitis; however, CSF findings were negative. During the patient's recovery, he developed upper motor neurone neurological signs with pupillary dilatation. An MRI scan of the head was performed which revealed unusual features consistent with toxic leukoencephalopathy, most likely as a result of illicit substance intake. Further history was acquired confirming that the patient had ingested MDMA and LSD. The patient's presentation and course of admission is presented, with the clinical features of MDMA toxicity and the finding of toxic leukoencephalopathy reviewed.
... The recreational use of LSD by counterculture youths in the Western world during the 1960s led to a focused study on psychedelics. The people who use either LSD or psilocybin suffer from incidence of psychosis that are identical to those of schizophrenia patients (Keeler, 1965;Vardy & Kay, 1983). Extensive behavioral and neuroimaging data show that these hallucinogens stimulate 5-HT-2AR, especially those expressed on neocortical pyramidal cells. ...
Chapter
The positive symptoms of schizophrenia such as disorganized speech, delusions, and hallucinations seem to unique to humans. Current research on schizophrenia in general has remained very challenging, thanks to growing numbers in theories about the cause and progression of the disease. A lack of behavioral methods to selectively study positive symptom-like behaviors or alternative behaviors has made it even more challenging to develop animal models with rational pathology of schizophrenia. However, emerging neuroimaging findings and rich information obtained from several decades of hallucinogen studies are encouraging to establish animal models to explore various causative theories for positive symptoms in schizophrenia. In this chapter, we review neuroimaging and pharmacological findings related to delusions and hallucinations and briefly introduce behavioral methods to investigate positive symptom-related behaviors in animal models of schizophrenia.
... It would be preferable to have a data set with data on both exposure to traumatic events and childhood depression, as well as other risk factors, such as history of childhood abuse, and family history of mental illness (McCann et al., 2014;Proal et al., 2014). Note, a study of 52 people hospitalized for first psychotic episode shortly after LSD use found that they had elevated rates of parental psychiatric hospitalization, similar to people with schizophrenia (Vardy and Kay 1983). ...
... LSD is well known to cause psychosis and its hallucinogenic properties have been linked to its serotonin-2A receptor (5-HT2A) mediation (Vardy & Kay, 1983). ...
Chapter
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This chapter focuses on the concept of substance-induced psychosis (SIP) and its diagnostic classifications. SIP is triggered by psychogenic substances and its diagnosis is dependent on specific time criteria. The diagnosis is important clinically especially as treatment and follow-up may differ between other types of psychosis and SIP. In addition, SIP is associated with significant comorbidities. Up to half of SIP patients are given a diagnosis of primary psychosis in the years following their initial diagnosis, raising the question of whether the change of diagnosis is due to evolution of the illness or cases of erogenous diagnoses. We do not have clear, evidence-based treatment guidelines for this patient group, making further studies on this area crucial.
... Of particular note, LSD-induced psychotic symptoms were more pronounced in 18 out of 20 relatives of schizophrenics [24], suggesting that persons with a greater genetic predisposition to schizophrenia are more susceptible to an LSD-induced psychotic response, as likewise suggested by studies of cannabis [25,26]. In keeping with these results, Vardy and Kay [27] suggested that LSD-induced psychosis was a drug-induced schizophreniform reaction, and that there was a greater response to LSD in individuals with a genetic predisposition to schizophrenia. Similarly, Ungerleider et al. [28] found that symptoms of schizophrenia, measured with the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI), are more common among LSD users with pre-existent prolonged psychosis, and concluded that " LSD interacts with schizoid traits " . ...
Article
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D-Lysergic Acid Diethylamide (LSD) is known for its hallucinogenic properties and psychotic-like symptoms, especially at high doses. It is indeed used as a pharmacological model of psychosis in preclinical research. The goal of this review was to understand the mechanism of action of psychotic-like effects of LSD. We searched Pubmed, Web of Science, Scopus, Google Scholar and articles’ reference lists for preclinical studies regarding the mechanism of action involved in the psychotic-like effects induced by LSD. LSD’s mechanism of action is pleiotropic, primarily mediated by the serotonergic system in the Dorsal Raphe, binding the 5-HT2A receptor as a partial agonist and 5-HT1A as an agonist. LSD also modulates the Ventral Tegmental Area, at higher doses, by stimulating dopamine D2, Trace Amine Associate receptor 1 (TAAR1) and 5-HT2A. More studies clarifying the mechanism of action of the psychotic-like symptoms or psychosis induced by LSD in humans are needed. LSD’s effects are mediated by a pleiotropic mechanism involving serotonergic, dopaminergic, and glutamatergic neurotransmission. Thus, the LSD-induced psychosis is a useful model to test the therapeutic efficacy of potential novel antipsychotic drugs, particularly drugs with dual serotonergic and dopaminergic (DA) mechanism or acting on TAAR1 receptors.
... Such experiences can be not only incredibly harrowing, but also potentially dangerous. Although highly distressing psychedelic experiences are typically transient, such states may precipitate mental health problems in predisposed individuals, such as those with psychotic disorders (Nichols, 2016;Vardy & Kay, 1983 Accordingly, these substances should be approached with great caution. ...
Article
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Recent studies implicate the use of psychedelic substances in the treatment of psychiatric conditions. However, this literature also suggests that the psychedelics may have utility in the promotion of positive adult development. Accordingly, this paper outlines a study exploring this premise. An online sample (n = 684) of psychedelic users and non-users (age range: 18–24 to 75–84; median = 25–34) was recruited. Conditional process analysis was used to assess whether the relationship between psychedelic use and two facets of adult development, adjustment and growth, would be mediated by openness to experience, awe-proneness, and mystical experiences, and whether these relationships would be moderated by drug-use reflection/integration. Results show that the direct relationship between psychedelic use and growth was moderated by drug-use reflection/integration. In addition, the indirect relationship between psychedelic use and adjustment was mediated through awe-proneness, while the indirect relationships between psychedelic use and growth were mediated via awe-proneness and openness to experience; drug-use reflection/integration moderated these mediated relationships. In addition, drug-use reflection/integration directly predicted openness, awe-proneness, and growth. These findings suggest that, when used with self-expansive intentions and actively reflected upon and integrated post use, psychedelics may augment positive adult development.
... This statement has been amply confirmed. Vardy and Kay (1983), comparing patients hospitalized for LSD psychosis with first-break schizophrenics, suggested that LSD psychosis was a drug-induced schizophreniform reaction; moreover they concluded that there was a greater psychotic response to LSD in persons with genetic predisposition to schizophrenia. ...
Article
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The prevalent view today is that schizophrenia is a syndrome rather than a specific disease. Liability to schizophrenia is highly heritable. It appears that multiple genetic and environmental factors operate together to push individuals over a threshold into expressing the characteristic clinical picture. One environmental factor which has been curiously neglected is the evidence that certain drugs can induce schizophrenia-like psychosis. In the last 60 years, improved understanding of the relationship between drug abuse and psychosis has contributed substantially to our modern view of the disorder suggesting that liability to psychosis in general, and to schizophrenia in particular, is distributed trough the general population in a similar continuous way to liability to medical disorders such as hypertension and diabetes. In this review we examine the main hypotheses resulting from the link observed between the most common psychotomimetic drugs (lysergic acid diethylamide, amphetamines, cannabis, phencyclidine) and schizophrenia.
... Depending on the psychotic content, delusions are classified as persecutory, grandiose, erotic, nihilistic, or somatic. Other symptoms of LSD-specific psychosis are religious delusions and/or pathological hyperreligiousness (138)(139)(140). ...
Article
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Lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) is a drug known for its hallucinogenic properties especially at high doses and in recent years has been used as a pharmacological model to study the neurological substrate of psycho-sis, the effect of antipsychotics, and, in recent decades, the possibility of using it as a remedy for some diseases is being studied. The purpose of this review is to analyze reference reports published in Pubmed, Web of Science, Scopus, Google Scholar, articles on preclinical and clinical studies related to LSD, history of use, pharmacokinet-ic properties, mechanism of action by activating serotonergic, dopaminergic, glutamate receptor systems, TAAR₁ receptors, amine receptors and effects on the rewarding brain system, pilot preclinical and clinical studies as a therapeutic model for the treatment of depression, anxiety, stress and addictions. We have considered acute psychotic dose-dependent intoxications and chronic psychosis.
... Of particular note, LSD-induced psychotic symptoms were more pronounced in 18 out of 20 relatives of schizophrenics [24], suggesting that persons with a greater genetic predisposition to schizophrenia are more susceptible to an LSD-induced psychotic response, as likewise suggested by studies of cannabis [25,26]. In keeping with these results, Vardy and Kay [27] suggested that LSD-induced psychosis was a drug-induced schizophreniform reaction, and that there was a greater response to LSD in individuals with a genetic predisposition to schizophrenia. ...
... However, researchers on illegal drug use among the general population have long maintained that psychedelics can lead to mental health problems, including drug-induced psychosis. This research is mostly several decades old (Strassman, 1984;Vardy & Kay, 1983), although there are some more recent case studies (Sami et al., 2015). There is also some newer research on the association between 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) and psychiatric disorders including psychosis (McGuire et al., 1994;Schifano et al., 1998). ...
Thesis
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This dissertation presents and discusses a range of articles related to studies in entheogenic spirituality. As these studies have understood the matter, entheogenic spirituality is a phenomenon involving the use of entheogenic drugs – LSD, psilocybin, DMT, MDMA, and cannabis – in informal settings for spiritual purposes. It is connected to entheogenic experience, but also to the integration of experience for purposes of personal growth. The most common characteristics for entheogenic experiences were connected to insight, positive feelings, and improved connections to other people and to nature. Experiences with mystical-type characteristics such as ego dissolution and unification with transcendent forces were important to many spiritual entheogen users, but not to everybody, and rarely to spiritual cannabis users. The individual articles relate the specific findings they discuss to extant research, although most of this research has been performed by academics working in fields outside the Study of Religions. There is also a small but growing literature on entheogenic spirituality by scholars of religion, however, and the overview article discusses how my research relates to this literature. In addition, it discusses the issue of how entheogenic spirituality challenges our understanding of religion in an overall sense, and particularly from the perspective on the relationship between religion and power. As a largely non-institutionalized form of religion, entheogenic spirituality does not conform to an understanding of religion as involving institutions. Nevertheless, it can be understood in relation to discourse, practice, community, and experience as a form of institution-less religion. Since entheogens are apparently highly efficacious means of inducing experiences with mystical-type characteristics, furthermore, and since such characteristics may serve as a basis for claims to spiritual authority, entheogenic spirituality has the apparent capacity to challenge the authority and power of religious institutions. The overview article discusses how a power-centric perspective on religion may help us understand both the position of entheogenic spirituality in modern western societies and the position of studies in entheogenic spirituality in the modern academy.
... These observations might indicate that not only the thalamus but also the whole corticostriato-thalamo-cortical circuitry is involved in altered brain functioning in schizophrenia as well as in altered states of consciousness induced by LSD, as has already suspected (Geyer and Vollenweider, 2008;Andreasen, 1999). Maybe these similarities could also explain why hallucinogenic drugs can induce psychotic episodes in vulnerable subjects (Vardy and Kay, 1983), rather than in the general population (Johansen and Krebs, 2015) as they might act on a system that is already impaired in patients in at-risk states of psychosis (Anticevic et al., 2015). ...
Article
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LSD is an ambiguous substance, said to mimic psychosis and to improve mental health in people suffering from anxiety and depression. Little is known about the neuronal correlates of altered states of consciousness induced by this substance. Limited previous studies indicated profound changes in functional connectivity of resting state networks after the administration of LSD. The current investigation attempts to replicate and extend those findings in an independent sample. In a double-blind, randomized, cross-over study, 100 μg LSD and placebo were orally administered to 20 healthy participants. Resting state brain activity was assessed by functional magnetic resonance imaging. Within-network and between-network connectivity measures of ten established resting state networks were compared between drug conditions. Complementary analysis were conducted using resting state networks as sources in seed-to-voxel analyses. Acute LSD administration significantly decreased functional connectivity within visual, sensorimotor and auditory networks and the default mode network. While between-network connectivity was widely increased and all investigated networks were affected to some extent, seed-to-voxel analyses consistently indicated increased connectivity between networks and subcortical (thalamus, striatum) and cortical (precuneus, anterior cingulate cortex) hub structures. These latter observations are consistent with findings on the importance of hubs in psychopathological states, especially in psychosis, and could underlay therapeutic effects of hallucinogens as proposed by a recent model.
... On kuitenkin näyttöä siitä, että psykedeelit voivat laukaista riskiryhmään kuuluville ihmisille psykoottisia jaksoja. Tämä on pyritty ottamaan huomioon uudemmissa kliinisissä tutkimuksissa, joissa psykoosidiagnoosi ja -alttius ovat olleet ulosrajaustekijöitä (13,14). Psykoosialttiuden arvioinnin vaikeuden vuoksi tämä saattaa olla haitoista ongelmallisin, mikäli psykedeelit tulisivat hoitokäyttöön. ...
Article
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Psykedeelit eli serotonergiset hallusinogeenit ovat viime vuosikymmenen aikana keränneet yhä enemmän kiinnostusta neurobiologisessa ja psykiatrisessa tutkimuksessa. Psykedeeleillä on alustavan näytön perusteella positiivisia vaikutuksia masennuksen ja ahdistuksen sekä riippuvuuksien ja kivun hoidossa. Psykedeelien vaikutuksen tärkein molekulaarinen mekanismi on serotoniinireseptorin (5-HT2A-reseptorin) aktivointi. Subjektiivisesti koetut sekä hoidolliset vaikutukset välittynevät useita eri välittäjäaineita käyttävien hermoratojen toiminnallisten muutosten kautta. Näiden muutosten mekanismeja ei toistaiseksi tunneta. Psykedeelit muun muassa vähentävät aivojen tärkeiden yhteyskeskusten aktiivisuutta sekä mahdollisesti lisäävät hermosolujen muovautuvuutta.
... None of us can know in advance if we are vulnerable to this risk, and significantly many hardened chemical abusers refuse to take it. Indeed, it has long been observed acid casualties present clinically in a very similar way to newly diagnosed schizophrenics, more of which later 56 . ...
... Psilocybin has been once safely used in patients with OCD in a clinically controlled environment (Moreno et al. 2006), but nothing can be inferred to non-clinically controlled environments. Meanwhile, it is widely known psychedelics induce hallucinations, which can result in prolonged adverse reactions including Hallucinogen Persisting Perception Disorder (Breakey et al. 1974;Fink et al. 1966;Halpern, Lerner, and Passie 2018;Litjens et al. 2014;Vardy and Kay 1983). ...
... Also, the concomitant use of other substance classes, either intentionally or unintentionally due to adulterations, could be a health risk since LSD has been shown to potentiate the neurotoxic effect of MDMA in animals [85]. Notably, in addition to the acute effects and risks of SPs, there are also several reports of subacute and long-term persisting adverse psychological effects associated with their recreational use, including psychosis [86], hallucinogen persisting perception disorder (HPPD) [87], and depersonalisation/derealisation syndrome (DDS) [88], especially emphasising risks and potential consequences of unintended ingestion as mis-sold substances or adulterants by unprepared users. ...
Article
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Purpose of Review With the continuous emergence of new psychoactive substances, drug checking (DC) services are challenged by an increasingly complex drug market. Considering the resumed scientific and public interest in serotonergic psychedelics (SPs) like LSD, psilocybin, and 2C-B, we present the results of a literature search investigating the presence and proportion of SPs in DC samples. Recent Findings In 15 identified reports, submission and detection rates of SPs were comparably low, but increasing. Samples contained considerable amounts of adulterations or analogues, mostly novel SPs with unknown toxicological profiles and in some cases potentially life-threatening effects. The detection of SPs, however, requires advanced analysis techniques currently not available to most DC services. Summary Given the substantial proportion of novel SPs in DC samples and the associated risks, DC can be a valuable harm reduction and monitoring tool for SPs if analysis techniques with high sensitivity are employed.
... However, researchers on illegal drug use among the general population have long maintained that psychedelics can lead to mental health problems, including drug-induced psychosis. This research is mostly several decades old (Strassman, 1984;Vardy & Kay, 1983), although there are some more recent case studies (Sami et al., 2015). There is also some newer research on the association between 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) and psychiatric disorders including psychosis (McGuire et al., 1994;Schifano et al., 1998). ...
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Aims This article argues that despite a resurgence in research on psychedelics over the last two decades, we still have little insight into the psychedelics user population. Furthermore, there is currently little agreement between researchers as to the long-term mental health consequences of psychedelics use. Design In a methodological review of a range of studies in psychedelics use, it is demonstrated that these studies tend to focus on specific segments of the user population while excluding others. These population segments are probably connected to different patterns of use, which in turn are likely to result in different long-term consequences. Results The divergent findings on the consequences of psychedelics use may be explained, at least in part, by the fact that different research strategies explore different segments of the user population. Studies focusing on user segments with problematic usage patterns tend to find that psychedelics use is negative for mental health, while studies on infrequent users tend to find that psychedelics use is positive for mental health. Conclusion Because the field of psychedelics studies lacks a reliable model of the user population, it is difficult for researchers to contextualise and assess the broader validity of their findings. To remedy this situation, the article presents three theoretical models of the user population that afford us with tentative means of contextualising findings and thereby may clarify present disagreements.
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To simplify the understanding of schizophrenia, psychiatry has invested important efforts into the modelling of the disease. For obvious ethical reasons, sleep deprivation and sensory deprivation models have been rejected in the last decades. Thus, the psychotic disorders induced by psychoactive substances remain the main heuristic models of schizophrenia. Most of the work in the pharmacological modelling of schizophrenia has occurred in the sixties and seventies. Still, some observations retain their interest: 1) lasting up to six months, the amphetamine psychosis remains the best model of the positive symptoms of paranoid schizophrenia; 2) hallucinogens such as LSD or psilocybine reproduce, at best, the psychotic phenomenology observed during the first episodes of schizophrenia; 3) anesthetic dissociatives (PCP & ketamine) faithfully reproduce thought disorder, as well as the frontal cognitive deficits and certain negative symptoms of schizophrenia; 4) cannabis reproduces with fidelity the depersonalization states observed among schizophrenics; 5) alcohol hallucinosis could be the best model of the patients' hallucinations; 6) the psychotic disorder induced by muscarinic antagonists is not usually considered as a schizophrenia model, but its occurrence signals that cholinergic dysfunctions could be associated with the cognitive symptoms of the disease. As such, these observations go hand in hand with the common view of schizophrenia as a pathology of general cerebral disconnectivity that would affect a plurality of neurotransmitter systems. In their acute effects, psychostimulants (amphetamines and cocaine) induce a general state of vigilance (euphoria, sustained attention, hyperactivity, etc.) that is not similar to schizophrenia. In fact, the acute effects of psychostimulants are in sharp contrast with the negative symptoms of the pathology (flat affect, anhedonia, apathy, etc.) However, after a sensitization period (increased effects for a same dose), psychostimulants can induce an authentic psychotic disorder, a phenomenon first reported by Young and Scoville in 1938 with amphetamines [1]. Following that observation, experimental studies have been undertaken in the sixties and seventies, in order to reproduce the amphetamine psychosis [2, 3]. Being succesful, those studies have encouraged researchers, at the time, to espouse amphetamine psychosis as the best pharmacological model of schizophrenia. The heterogeneity of the symptoms of schizophrenia represents a challenge to the clinician or the researcher interested in this psychological disorder. Apart from the classical positive/negative symptoms dichotomy, schizophrenia is associated with distinctive cognitive deficits, mood disturbances and motor dysfunctions.
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Evidence for reconsolidation in non-human animals has accumulated rapidly in the last decade, providing compelling` demonstration for this phenomenon across species and memory paradigms. In vast contrast, scant evidence exists for human reconsolidation to date. A major reason for this discrepancy is the invasive nature of current techniques used to investigate reconsolidation, which are difficult to apply in humans. Pharmacological blockade of reconsolidation, for example, has been typically used in animals as a proof of concept. However, most compounds used in these studies are toxic for humans, and those compounds that are safe target related, but not direct mechanisms of reconsolidation. Thus, although human reconsolidation has been hypothesized, there is limited evidence it actually exists. The best evidence for human reconsolidation emerges from non-invasive techniques that "update" memory during reconsolidation rather than block it, a technique only rarely used in animal research. Here we discuss the current state of human reconsolidation and the challenges ahead. We review findings on reconsolidation of emotional associative, episodic, and procedural memories, using invasive and non-invasive techniques. We discuss the possible interpretation of these results, attempt to reconcile some inconsistencies, and suggest a conceptual framework for future research.
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Clinical sub-groups of schizophrenia, namely drug related, traumatic, anxiety and stress sensitivity sub-types, have been proposed for use in research, training and practice. They were developed on the basis of clinical observation but have not yet been used in research or clinical practice to any great extent. To develop a semi-structured clinical interview for psychosis sub-groups (SCIPS) and determine the best diagnostic criteria with the highest inter-rater reliability, test-retest reliability and concurrent validity for sub-grouping patients with schizophrenia according to a newly developed classification scheme. The SCIPS was developed based upon discussion with the clinician researchers who had developed and were using the sub-groups. Kappa coefficients were calculated between two independent diagnostic assessments with the SCIPS (for inter-rater reliability and test-retest reliability, n = 20) and between the SCIPS diagnosis and the sub-groupings as determined independently with highest achievable validity (for concurrent validity, n = 21) for patients with schizophrenia. These inter-rater reliability and concurrent validity were compared among five different sets of diagnostic criteria to determine which was most reliable and valid. A set of diagnostic criteria with the highest inter-rater reliability and concurrent validity was determined. Kappa coefficients (95% confidence interval) for the inter-rater reliability and concurrent validity were 0.93 (0.66-1.20) and 0.73 (0.47-1.00), respectively, with these diagnostic criteria. The SCIPS is a promising tool with which to sub-group patients with schizophrenia according to this recently developed classification scheme. The semi-structured interview achieves acceptable inter-rater and test-retest reliability and concurrent validity.
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Facts box Phencyclidine (PCP), ketamine, D-lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) and 3, 4-methylenedioxy-methamphetamine (MDMA) have been variously referred to as schizophrenomimetics, psychotogens, or psychotomimetics. There have been many reports that these drugs can induce psychotic symptoms (hallucinations, delusions, formal thought disorder, or catatonia-like abnormalities) in the absence of delirium. here is abundant evidence that PCP induces psychotic disorder beyond the acute symptoms of intoxication. There is no clear evidence that either LSD or MDMA induces psychotic disorder, let alone schizophrenia, in individuals who did not have vulnerability to schizophrenia premorbidly. PCP and ketamine are noncompetitive antagonists of the N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) glutamatergic receptor that bind at the intrachannel site of the receptor to prevent calcium ion flux into the cell. LSD is a serotonin-like hallucinogenic indoleamine that acts as an agonist at the serotonin-subtype-2A (5HT2A) receptor, and MDMA is an indirect serotonin agonist. Rodent and primate models induced by PCP and analogues have been presented as models of human schizophrenia, with construct validity, showing homologous behavior, cognitive deficits, alterations in regional brain activation, and underlying neuronal dysfunction, to PCP-induced psychotomimetic effects in healthy volunteers and patients with schizophrenia. Ketamine is considered to be a safe and valid model of PCP psychosis and applicable to preclinical human studies. More translational science is needed to relate animal findings to humans and vice versa. In this chapter, the potential role of glutamatergic and serotonergic neurotransmitter systems in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia is examined from the perspective of the psychotomimetic effects of i) phencyclidine (PCP) and ketamine, noncompetitive antagonists of the N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) glutamatergic receptor that bind at the intrachannel site of the receptor to prevent calciumion flux into the cell; ii) D-lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD), a serotonin-like hallucinogenic indoleamine that acts as an agonist at the serotonin-subtype-2A (5HT2A) receptor; and iii) 3, 4-methylenedioxy-methamphetamine (MDMA), an indirect serotonin agonist.
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Hallucinogenic agents have been used by humans for thousands of years. These agents, who derive from a variety of natural and synthetic sources, share the property of inducing a wide range of effects on perception, cognition, and affect in the absence of a delirium. Psychosocial factors affecting the outcome of hallucinogen intoxication include the user's instructional set, the environmental setting, degree of suggestibility, and personality type. 3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA), commonly known as “ecstasy,” is a synthetic amphetamine analog that is also similar to mescaline. Neurological examination, an acute urine sample for toxicological screening, and computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging of the brain is helpful in ruling out treatable non- acid diethylamide (LSD) -related psychotic disorders. Hallucinogen Persisting Perception Disorder (HPPD) appears to occur only rarely in people who have had significant use of hallucinogens.
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History Identifying Characteristics Exposure Dose Effect Toxicokinetics Histopathology and Pathophysiology Clinical Response Diagnostic Testing Treatment References
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Clinical case reports suggest that regular MDMA use can be associated with chronic psychiatric symptoms which persist after the cessation of drug use. Neuropsychological comparisons of regular MDMA users and controls also suggest that MDMA use may lead to memory deficits, with other cognitive processes relatively unaffected. This paper reviews these studies and discusses a number of methodological issues that impact on the interpretation of the findings. Methods for examining the biological effects of MDMA use in man are also outlined. Future research should clarify whether MDMA use has long term psychological effects, and if these are related to changes in central serotonergic function.
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When drug-induced psychoses were first identified in the mid-20th century, schizophrenia was considered a discrete disease with a likely genetic cause. Consequently, drug-induced psychoses were not considered central to understanding schizophrenia as they were thought to be phenocopies rather than examples of the illness secondary to a particular known cause. However, now that we know that schizophrenia is a clinical syndrome with multiple component causes, then it is clear that the drug-induced psychoses have much to teach us. This article shows how the major neuropharmacological theories of schizophrenia have their origins in studies of the effects of drugs of abuse. Research into the effects of LSD initiated the serotonergic model; amphetamines the dopamine hypothesis, PCP and ketamine the glutamatergic hypothesis, while most recently the effects of cannabis have provoked interest in the role of endocannabinoids in schizophrenia. None of these models account for the complete picture of schizophrenia; rather the various drug models mimic different aspects of the illness. Determining the different molecular effects of those drugs whose pharmacological effects do and do not mimic the various aspects of schizophrenia has much to teach us concerning the pathogenesis of the illness. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
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This is my main research chapter in our 2008 book on Therapy with Psychoactive Substances. At that time we mainly focussed on the work of a Swiss group called the Schweizerische Ärztevereinigung für Psycholytische Therapie (SÄPT). My qualitative and partly historical work about them resulted in a structured set of topics and "rules" that the therapists applied in their endeavour to conduct responsible and patient-centered psychotherapy with LSD, MDMA or psilocybin. The field was still very much developing when the Swiss Association for Psycholytic Medicine was able to legally practice this form of therapy. The text still provides very interesting insights into the challenges facing therapists and researchers when it comes to developing effective therapies with entactogenes and psychedelics. Since this is a highly divisive and strangely underresearched field the value of this book is to narrate historical practice and evidence and bring it into connection with beginning research at that time. In the year 2015 (when writing this abstract) things have changed dramatically. Neuroscience and even some therapy research with LSD, MDMA and other mind-opening drugs has begun at a number of University and even outside of the academic field. Die Professionalisierung Substanz-unterstützter Psychotherapie (SPT). Available from: https://www.researchgate.net/publication/265514154_Die_Professionalisierung_Substanz-untersttzter_Psychotherapie_(SPT)?fulltextDialog=true [accessed May 27, 2015].
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This is the opening chapter and editors foreword of our 2008 book on Therapy with Psychoactive Substances. At that time we mainly focussed on the work of a Swiss group called the Schweizerische Ärztevereinigung für Psycholytische Therapie (SÄPT). Our qualitative and historical work about them was compemented by original texts from authors in the field. Since this is a highly divisive and strangely underresearched field the value of this book is to narrate historical practice and evidence and bring it into connection with beginning research at that time. In the year 2015 (when writing this abstract) things have changed dramatically. Neuroscience and even some therapy research with LSD, MDMA and other mind-opening drugs has begun at a number of University and even outside of the academic field.
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Schizophrenia is a complex mental health disorder with positive, negative and cognitive symptom domains. Approximately one third of patients are resistant to currently available medication. New therapeutic targets and a better understanding of the basic biological processes that drive pathogenesis are needed in order to develop therapies that will improve quality of life for these patients. Several drugs that act on neurotransmitter systems in the brain have been suggested to model aspects of schizophrenia in animals and in man. In this paper, we selectively review findings from dopaminergic, glutamatergic, serotonergic, cannabinoid, GABA, cholinergic and kappa opioid pharmacological drug models to evaluate their similarity to schizophrenia. Understanding the interactions between these different neurotransmitter systems and their relationship with symptoms will be an important step towards building a coherent hypothesis for the pathogenesis of schizophrenia.
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This chapter focuses on hallucinogens. The psychedelics or hallucinogens are probably the most complex and controversial, and in many ways are the most fascinating group of psychoactive compounds in our pharmacopoeia. Humans have used these agents - which are found in plants, fungi, and other animals - for millennia. Their nomenclature, chemistry and pharmacology, and effects are discussed.
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Physicians who treat adolescents invariably face cases of substance use and abuse. In the past 20 years the use of psychoactive chemicals has become an accepted and, in a statistical sense, even a “normal” part of adolescence and young adulthood. Regardless of the physician’s attitude about drug use and despite shifting legislative responses, the majority of youth today by the time they become adults will have had experience with alcohol, tobacco, caffeine, and marijuana.1 A significant proportion of adolescents regularly use drugs such as hallucinogens, amphetamines, cocaine, sedative-hypnotics, opiates, and inhalants.
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In what direction substance abuse comorbidity modifies the course and outcome of major psychiatric disorders is not yet established. We designed the index study to generate some empirical hypotheses regarding outcome of major psychiatric disorders in patients with substance abuse comorbidity. The sample included patients of two major psychiatric disorders – Schizophrenia and Mania. Each diagnostic category consisted of two subgroups – (i) single diagnosis (n=30) and (ii) dual dignosis (n=30) drawn from the patients presenting at Institute of Mental Health and Hospital, Agra. PANSS (Kay et al. 1987) was administered on each patient at admission in indoor facilities and at three month follow up irrespective of admission status. The non-parametric analysis indicated that substance abuse comorbidity group particularly mania subgroup showed superior outcome at follow up.
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Serotonerge Halluzinogene wie LSD und Psilocybin besitzen kein abhängigkeitserzeugendes Potenzial und zeigen eine niedrige Toxizität. Sie stehen jedoch im Verdacht, das Auftreten von Störungsbildern begünstigen zu können, die die akute Wirkung der Substanz überdauern oder erst verzögert auftreten. Zu diesen zählt vor allem die Gruppe der Flashbacks und der anhaltenden Wahrnehmungsstörung nach Einnahme von Halluzinogenen (HPPD), die in internationalen Klassifikationssystemen operationalisiert wird. In diesem Artikel konzeptuelle, klinische und epidemiologische Aspekte dieser Phänomene dargestellt, um einen Beitrag zur Einschätzung des Risikopotenzials dieser Substanzen geben zu können.
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This site features forensic toxicological information on commonly abused drugs. Typically, the site specifies a drug with synonyms, describes its source (synthesis), its physiological action (drug class), its medical and/or recreational uses, routes of administration (i.e. oral, intravenous, inhalation), its pharmacodynamics (effects on various body systems), interactions with other drugs,how one can interpret blood concentrations,how to interpret concentrations of the drug in urine, psychological effects, tolerance, and each report concludes with references and recommended reading.
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Serotonerge Halluzinogene wie LSD und Psilocybin besitzen kein abhängigkeitserzeugendes Potenzial und zeigen eine niedrige Toxizität. Sie stehen jedoch im Verdacht, das Auftreten von Störungsbildern begünstigen zu können, die die akute Wirkung der Substanz überdauern oder erst verzögert auftreten. Zu diesen zählt vor allem die Gruppe der Flashbacks und der anhaltenden Wahrnehmungsstörung nach Einnahme von Halluzinogenen (HPPD), die in internationalen Klassifikationssystemen operationalisiert wird. In diesem Artikel konzeptuelle, klinische und epidemiologische Aspekte dieser Phänomene dargestellt, um einen Beitrag zur Einschätzung des Risikopotenzials dieser Substanzen geben zu können.
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Drugs are tested at the preclinical stage in animal populations that are usually inbred and display little variation from animal to animal. Data from animal studies in one country are usually comparable with that of another, provided the animal species and strain are the same. This chapter discusses some of the major factors related to patient genetic identity and how they live their lives, on drug metabolism and how these factors affect the goal of maintaining drug levels within the patient's therapeutic window. The factors discussed in the chapter are the effects of age, diet, disease, gender, ethanol, and smoking. Genetic diversity manifests in differences in single DNA nucleotides and/or whole genes that code for particular proteins. The chapter discusses genetic polymorphisms in Cytochrome P450 systems and nonconjugative systems, conjugative polymorphisms such as acetylation, methylation, uridine diphosphate glucuronosyl transferase 1A1, and sulphonation, and transporter polymorphisms.
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A study was carried out on a group of 95 schizophrenic patients (DSM-III-R criteria) under the age of 35, 23 of whom were cannabis abusers in the past year. The objective of the study was to evaluate the effect of cannabis on positive and negative schizophrenic symptoms, evaluated using Andreasen's Scales for the Assessment of Positive and Negative Symptoms (SAPS and SANS). There were no statistically significant differences between the groups on the SAPS; the group of cannabis abusers had higher scores except for the delusions subscale. On the SANS nonabusers scored higher, with a significant difference on the alogia subscale. The results suggest that the consumption of cannabis by schizophrenic patients could attenuate negative symptoms, which would support the self-medication hypothesis of cannabis abuse.
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Retrospective studies of alcoholic populations have suggested an association between minimal brain dysfunction (MBD) in childhood and the emergence of alcoholism in adult life. The association of MBD, childhood antisocial behavior, and antisocial personality in adulthood has also been suggested. This study replicated those combined findings in a middle class population of hospitalized alcoholics. Questionnaires were administered to 64 sequential admissions in order to retrospectively assess childhood and adult antisocial personality. DSM-III criteria were used. Findings of this study suggest that childhood MBD behavior indeed predicts adult antisocial behavior. We also found that 45% of the patients reported retrospectively a childhood conduct disorder as well as evidence of MBD. There was also a partially overlapped sample that carried a present time diagnosis of sociopathy. Social class considerations did not affect our findings. We conclude that this alcoholic population manifested early psychopathology including childhood conduct disorder and MBD.
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100 schizophrenic patients were rated on the 2 scales. 2 different approaches are represented. The RPRS determinant scores and form level ratings are related to the outcome of schizophrenic illness. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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This study: (a) compared 40 Ss with cerebral damage with 40 matched nondamaged Ss on 4 commonly used psychometric instruments, as well as W-B Vocabulary and MMPI L Scale; and (b) investigated the relationship between these tests and 4 dimensions (laterality, severity, progressiveness, and diffuseness). Using artificial base rates, the rank order for "accuracy" was: Memory for Designs Test (MFD), Spiral Aftereffect Test (SAET), Trail Making Test (TMT), Bender Gestalt, Vocabulary, L. Combining the 3 "best" tests increased accuracy slightly. Some variables were significantly associated with laterally (TMT, A minus B; MFD); severity (SAET); progressiveness (L; TMT, A minus B; age); diffuseness (age). (25 ref.) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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The aims of this study were to compare the psychiatric morbidity occurring in the close relatives (N = 332) of patients showing nuclear forms of schizophrenia with that of a control group (N = 201), and to consider the findings in relation to the concept of the schizophrenic "spectrum' and to some genetic theories of schizophrenia. About one third of each group were interviewed by a psychiatrist using defined diagnostic criteria, and information of varying degrees of completeness was obtained about the remainder. After considering possible biases, it was concluded that the "spectrum disorders' most likely to be biologically related to schizophrenia were personality disorders of non-neurotic type, either alone or in combination with another diagnosis. The results, however, did not fit well with the model of dominant inheritance of schizophrenia and schizoid disease proposed by Heston (1970).
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100 LSD users and 46 nonuser controls were administered the MMPI and participated in a structured interview concerning contact with mental health agencies and social and demographic characteristics and drug use. There was a much higher incidence of psychopathology among LSD users than nonusers, with "conduct disorder" and psychosis being the most frequent profile diagnoses. Special MMPI scales provided a picture of alienation and emotional disturbances for users. Interview data suggest that these disturbances might have predated LSD use. A desire for self-change and rejection of present social values are suggested as possible explanations for the use of hallucinogens.
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Assessed 71 schizophrenic and nonschizophrenic hospitalized patients on 3 scales for aspects indicative of a thinking disorder on the Rorschach: disruption of logical thought, irrelevant or personalized associations, and elaboration in affective terms. Each scale could be reliably scored according to the criteria described. The scales correlated significantly with other Rorschach scores suggestive of thought disorder. All 3 scales were significantly higher in schizophrenic Ss than in depressed Ss (p < .05). 2 of the 3 scales were related (p < .01) to ratings of bizarre behavior. Results suggest that the scales can be used to investigate the nature of thinking disorder. (17 ref.)
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The authors surveyed a sample of psychiatrists, psychiatric residents, internists, general practitioners, and psychologists in Los Angeles County to determine the number of patients with adverse LSD reactions seen by these professionals during an 18-month period. Over 2,000 adverse reactions were reported on, and the authors regard this as a conservative estimate. Although many clinicians feel that the number of adverse LSD reactions is decreasing, the data reported here indicate a substantial increase from the first six-month period to the third.
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Typical of the contradictory research with the Rorschach are the attempts to validate Whole responses as an expression of intellectual strivings. The present study investigates the relationship between Whole responses and intelligence by examining the qualitative features of Whole responses over a broad range of IQ. Five subjects were selected in each of eight ten-point WAIS IQ intervals ranging from 60–70 to 130–140. Using the Friedman qualitative scoring system it was found that only the cognitively complex and accurately perceived Whole responses had a positive significant relationship to IQ. This finding indicates the importance in research of attending to qualitative features of Rorschach responses rather than simply summing conventional scoring categories.