Effects of lasalocid or monensin on legume or grain (feedlot) bloat

Journal of Animal Science (Impact Factor: 2.11). 07/1983; 56(6):1400-6.
Source: PubMed


Doses of .66 to .99 mg monensin/kg body weight reduced legume bloat in cattle about 66% when compared with pretreatment bloat scores. Similar doses of lasalocid reduced legume bloat about 26%. A dose of 44 mg poloxalene/kg body weight (recommended dose for field use) reduced legume bloat 100%. Monensin or lasalocid combined with 25 or 50% of the recommended dose of poloxalene reduced bloat under that of the antibiotics alone, but did not achieve 100% reduction. The antibiotic thiopeptin provided no preventive effect on legume bloat. Lasalocid, monensin or an experimental polyether antibiotic (X-14,547 A) at a dose of 1.32 mg/kg body weight when tested on cattle bloated on high grain diets reduced bloat by 92, 64 and 25%, respectively. Lasalocid at .66 mg/kg effectively prevented bloat from developing when given to animals before the feeding of high grain diets; however, a 1.32-mg dose was required to control bloat in cattle that were already bloating before they were given lasalocid. A dose of 1.32 mg salinomycin was ineffective in controlling grain bloat.

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    • "Bloat: Bloat result from excess production of stable foam in the rumen (Bartley et al., 1983). Gas becomes entrapped within the reticulo-rumen and failure of the eructation mechanism causes acute abdominal distension. "
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    ABSTRACT: Ionophores are feed additives that alter rumen microbial populations through ion transfer across cell membranes. Although ionophores have been used widely in the ruminant's nutrition for improved feed efficiency and control of coccidiosis. Ionophores have been studied regarding several potential effects on ruminant animals, including influences on health, meat production, milk production and reproduction. This review will provide practitioners with relevant references in the published literature regarding ionophore use in ruminants' nutrition. It should also give some guidance as to what effects might be anticipated with the use of ionophores in ruminant animals.
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    • "Monensin reduces acidosis by directly inhibiting the lactate-producing bacteria (e.g., Streptococcus bovis, lactobacilli) (Dennis, et al., 1981). Bloat is a serious animal production problem that occurs when fermentation gases are retained in the ruminal fluid rather than eructated, often due to an increase in the viscosity of the ruminal fluids, resulting in an accumulation of gas that causes a " swelling " of the rumen that can asphyxiate the animal (Bartley, et al., 1985; Katz, et al., 1986). The anti-bloat effects of monensin are mediated by a direct inhibition of encapsulated ( " slimeproducing " ) bacteria, as well as a decrease in overall ruminal gas production (Galyean and Owens, 1988). "
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    ABSTRACT: Ionophores (such as monensin, lasalocid, laidlomycin, salinomycin and narasin) are antimicrobial compounds that are commonly fed to ruminant animals to improve feed efficiency. These antimicrobials specifically target the ruminal bacterial population and alter the microbial ecology of the intestinal microbial consortium, resulting in increased carbon and nitrogen retention by the animal, increasing production efficiency. Ionophores transport ions across cell membranes of susceptible bacteria, dissipating ion gradients and uncoupling energy expenditures from growth, killing these bacteria. Not all bacteria are susceptible to ionophores, and several species have been shown to develop several mechanisms of ionophore resistance. The prophylactic use of antimicrobials as growth promotants in food animals has fallen under greater scrutiny due to fears of the spread of antibiotic resistance. Because of the complexity and high degree of specificity of ionophore resistance, it appears that ionophores do not contribute to the development of antibiotic resistance to important human drugs. Therefore it appears that ionophores will continue to play a significant role in improving the efficiency of animal production in the future.
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    • "Ionophores have a considerable advantage over other available propionic precursors such as 1,2-propanediol and sodium propionate, as they can be readily mixed into the ration, are inexpensive and do not significantly depress appetite. In pasture based dairy systems the potential to control bloating is a significant advantage (Bartley et a/., 1983). Further trials will be needed to establish the role of ionopliores in dairy production. "

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