Article

Effects of Three Resistance Training Programs on Muscular Strength And Absolute and Relative Endurance

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Abstract

The effects of three resistance training programs on muscular strength and on absolute and relative muscular endurance were investigated. Forty-three male college students were randomly assigned to the training protocols. The high resistance-low repetition group (n = 15) performed three sets of 6–8 RM (repetition maximum) per session. The medium resistance-medium repetition subjects (n = 16) trained by doing two sets of 30–40 RM per session, while the low resistance-high repetition group (n = 12) used a single set of 100–150 RM. All subjects trained with the bench press exercise three times per week for nine weeks. Tests of strength (1-RM), absolute and relative endurance were administered before and after training. Statistical analyses revealed that the 20% improvement in maximum strength by the high resistance-low repetition group was greater than the 8 and 5% gains reported for the medium resistance-medium repetition and low resistance-high repetition groups, respectively. Relative to absolute endurance, however, the 41 percent and 39 percent improvements registered by the low resistance-high repetition and medium resistance-medium repetition groups, respectively, were not significantly greater than the 28% gain reported for the high resistance-low repetition group. Results for the relative endurance test revealed that the high resistance-low repetition group's performance actually decreased by 7% after training, and was significantly poorer than the 22% and 28% improvements made by the other two groups. It was concluded that human skeletal muscle makes both general and specific adaptations to a training stimulus, and that the balance of these adaptations is to some extent dependent upon the intensity and duration of the training protocol used.

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... "set" x "repetitions", 3 x 10, 2 x 20, etc.) or bVL. The strength-endurance continuum is one training concept stating that training with higher repetitions and lighter intensities will elicit more endurance effects, 3/17 while lifting with heavier intensities and lower repetitions will lead to more strength improvements (3,12,52). However, this concept does not account for rest periods and the cross-over effect of RT on improving endurance performance (7,52). ...
... With such large bVL variations a better suited method of comparing RT programs would be by estimating work with volume load (VL) (21,24,25,38,41,45,46). However, many of the studies satisfying the criteria of this review did not report training VL (3,9,18,27,40,42,45,47,52). ...
... As shown in the following table (See Table 1), VL can fluctuate drastically between 8 and 12 repetitions which (8)(9)(10)(11)(12) repetitions) is a commonly prescribed bVL for HVRT in the literature (38,41,(45)(46)(47) or it can be equated by a drastic reduction in intensity with higher repetitions. Additionally, when implementing a RM scheme there is a range in which the repetitions should be performed (i.e. 3 x 8-12 RM, 2 x 15-20 RM, 4 x 6-8 RM, etc.), and if a weight can be lifted more than the prescribed number of repetitions then the weight is increased during the training session or in the following training session (3,9,18,40,41,(45)(46)(47)52) which further muddles comparisons. observed ranged from 4 to 24 weeks averaging 8 ± 4.6 weeks. ...
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Performing resistance training (RT) may improve physical performance capabilities, with anaerobic work capacity (AWC) being one of the characteristics targeted by coaches and athletes. High volume resistance training (HVRT) is typically prescribed in RT programs with the expectancy of improving AWC. However, much of the research available is unclear concerning the effects of HVRT on AWC over time. Therefore, this review will focus on the longitudinal effects of HVRT on AWC. Searches were conducted on SportDiscus, PubMed, Google Scholar, relevant articles from references of qualifying studies, and by using strategies previously suggested (20). Fourteen studies met the following inclusion criteria: a) peer-reviewed, b) testing of AWC pre-and post-HVRT, c) subjects between the ages of 18-40 years, d) a study of at least 4 weeks in duration, e) the study had to use a RT intervention with a set and repetition scheme of ≥ 3 x 8 or base volume load (bVL) of 24 reps, f) and training had to occur at least twice a week for multiple muscle groups. Contrasting protocols within qualifying studies made it challenging to compare between them. Many 1/17 studies did not meet our criteria mainly due to lack of required duration and pre-and post-training performance testing. The findings of this review indicate that moderately high-volume load (VL) of 4 ± 1 sets of 12 ± 3 repetitions can improve AWC more efficiently than higher VL protocols while mitigating potential strength losses, especially when enough intra-set rest is provided. Moreover, the various implemented protocols and mixed results make generalizability impractical. Coaches and athletes should use this information with good judgement. Reporting full descriptions of the protocols (ie. VL per day) and the inclusion of performance measurements are warranted for future research to understand the contributions of HVRT to AWC.
... Notably this number of repetitions was completed across 7-10 sets of 10 repetitions. Furthermore, DeLorme does not use the term muscular endurance throughout this article, in contrast to what other authors have stated [10][11][12] . Instead, DeLorme was making reference to what is now considered aerobically based endurance exercise modalities (e.g., "stairclimbing, walking, bicycling" and "running several miles a day"). ...
... page 649) describes the principles of double-progression; that, when performing a given exercise, as the number of repetitions increases beyond a target range (e.g.,[8][9][10][11][12] a person should increase the load being used, which has the subsequent effect of reducing the repetitions possible, and so the trainee repeats the process as he or she becomes stronger. Whilst DeLorme does not provide a citation for this concept our research suggests that this originates from Allan Calvert in his text "The First Course in BodyBuilding and Muscle Developing Exercises"16 . ...
... and Campos, et al. 12 [3][4][5][9][10][11]). Furthermore, only Campos et al. 12 took any measurement of muscle hypertrophy. ...
Article
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Objectives: The accepted wisdom within resistance training is that differing loads and corresponding repetition maximum (RM) ranges are optimal for inducing specific adaptations. For example, prominent organizations and their respective publications have typically prescribed heavy loads for maximal strength increases (>85% 1RM/<6RM), more moderate loads for hypertrophy (67-85% 1RM/6-12RM) and lighter loads for local muscular endurance (LME; <67% 1RM/>12RM). Since we believe these recommendations originate from a misunderstanding and misinterpretation of DeLorme's strength-endurance continuum, the aim of this narrative review is to discuss the preponderance of research surrounding training load and strength and LME adaptations. Design & Methods: Narrative Review Results: The current body of literature fails to support recommendations for the use of specific loads for specific strength, hypertrophy or LME adaptations. Furthermore, that the strength-endurance continuum originally presented by DeLorme was never intended to compare the use of heavier- and lighter-load resistance training, but rather to consider the adaptations to strength training and aerobically based endurance exercise. Finally, a lack of clarity considering absolute- and relative- LME has confounded understanding of this adaptation. Conclusions: The body of research supports that absolute LME appears to adapt as a result of maximal strength increases. However, relative LME shows minimal response to strength training with either heavier- or lighter-loads. We present the limitations of the current body of research and promote specifically detailed recent research as well as the importance of generality of strength and LME in both sporting and real-world settings.
... Kassal dayanıklılık, submaksimal kassal devamlılık ve yüksek şiddetli dayanıklılık kuvvet antrenmanlarıyla gelişmektedir. Belirli yükteki maksimum tekrar sayısı kuvvet antrenmanlarıyla artmaktadır [110,11]. Orta ve düşük şiddetteki direnç antrenmanları ...
... yüksek tekrar sayısı ile birçok çalışmada en yüksek kassal dayanıklılık geliştiren antrenman tipi olarak kabul edilmiştir [110,111,129,181]. Klasik kuvvet antrenmanları ile; ...
... kuvvet ve kassal dayanıklılık arasındaki ilişki yüksek olsa da, kassal dayanıklılık gelişmekte fakat belirgin gelişme spesifik antrenmanlar ile ortaya çıkmaktadır [110,182]. Fakat orta ve şiddetli yüklenmeler düşük dinlenme süreleri ile uygulandığında yine kassal dayanıklılık artmaktadır [110,111]. Bunun yanında submaksimal izometrik çalışmalar ile açıya özgü kassal dayanıklılığın geliştiği bilinmektedir [185,186]. ...
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This study compared the effects of dynamic and static core training programs on speed, agility, related anaerobic power tests, core stability tests and body composition measurements in recreational soccer players. A static (n = 14) and dynamic (n = 13) training group performed three 30 min sessions per week for eight weeks meanwhile attended normal soccer training sessions with a control group (n = 11). Effects of different core training regimes were compared after eight weeks the with repeated measures MANOVA (p<0,05) for field, core stabilization and body composition tests. Sprint (10m-30m), agility (505-Arrowhead), vertical and standing long jump scores did not increased in any groups and no difference found between groups. Neither group demonstrated difference for body composition measurements (weight, body mass index, waist/hip ratio, body fat percentage) for repeated test scores and between groups comparisons. Two experiment groups improved in dynamic and static core stabilization tests except the plank test (for plank test, dynamic and conrtol group has the same score) while control group did not changed. Core stabilization tests showed that the improvements of experiment groups affected by the movement specifity and static training group increased static test scores (plank 23,8% - back isometric 28,9% - leg raise 15,6%) while dynamic training group increased mostly the dynamic test scores (sit-up 21,2%, push up 16,2%). Results indicate that both training types improved movement related measures of core stability but did not transfer into any anaerobic skills and body composition. Core stability training is not generate sufficient stimulus to improve power and strength dependent performance skills like sprint and agility and not required to be the main part of soccer conditioning programs.
... These findings indicate that muscle hypertrophy may be more responsive in untrained individuals because of the large window for adaptation, masking differential effects of training modalities and dosages (17), and not show an obvious load-dependent relationship when resistance training sets are performed until volitional failure (6,18). In contrast, Schoenfeld and colleagues (7) reported that 8 wk of resistance training at high loads (2)(3)(4) induced greater strength gains in recreationally trained men compared with moderate loads (8)(9)(10)(11)(12), whereas increases in elbow extensor and quadriceps femoris muscle thickness were higher for the moderate-load group. Consequently, it is unclear as to loading effects on muscle hypertrophy when resistance training is undertaken until volitional failure. ...
... as per the Cochrane Handbook guideline (25). Furthermore, to avoid overestimating the weight of a study by entering it multiple times in the analysis (25), experimental groups from the studies were combined when considered within the same resistance training load group (e.g., three sets of 30-40 RM and three sets of 100-150 RM defined as low-load resistance training [2]), as well as outcomes when considered within the same outcome category (e.g., lower-body muscle hypertrophy or upper-body muscle strength). Analyses were conducted for overall studies, and a subgroup analysis was provided for best-quality studies based on the risk of bias assessment. ...
... A total of 747 healthy men and women with an average age of 23.4 ± 3.0 yr participated in the included studies. Seventeen studies compared low-versus high-load resistance training (2,5,6,33,34,36,38,39,(42)(43)(44)(45)(46)(49)(50)(51)53), four compared lowversus moderate-load (35,40,47,52), five compared moderateversus high-load (7,32,37,41,48), and two studies compared low-versus moderate-versus high-load (3,4 (3)(4)(5)(6)(7)32,(35)(36)(37)(38)(39)43,44,49,50), followed by 8 studies assessing the upper limbs (4,7,32,34,45,47,48,50) and 5 studies assessing the whole body (e.g., dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry) (33,40,42,46,53), whereas lower-body muscle strength was assessed in 20 studies (3)(4)(5)(6)(7)32,33,35,(38)(39)(40)(41)(42)(43)(44)46,48,(50)(51)(52), followed by 12 studies assessing upper-body muscle strength (2,4,7,33,40,41,43,45,47,48,50,51), all using the 1-RM test. Eighteen studies reported the total volume performed during the intervention (4,5,7,(32)(33)(34)(35)(37)(38)(39)(40)(41)(42)(43)(44)(45)48,50). ...
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Purpose: To analyse the effect of resistance training (RT) performed until volitional failure with low-, moderate- and high-loads on muscle hypertrophy and muscle strength in healthy adults; and assess the possible participant-, design-, and training-related covariates which may affect the adaptations. Methods: Using PRISMA guidelines, MEDLINE, CINAHL, EMBASE, SPORTDiscus, and Web of Science databases were searched. Including only studies that performed sets to volitional failure, the effects of low- (>15 RM), moderate- (9-15 RM), and high-load (≤8 RM) RT were examined in healthy adults. Network meta-analysis was undertaken to calculate the standardised mean difference (SMD) between RT loads in overall and subgroup analysis involving studies deemed high-quality. Associations between participant-, design-, and training-related covariates with SMD's were assessed by univariate and multivariate network meta-regression analysis. Results: Twenty-eight studies involving 747 healthy adults were included. Although no differences in muscle hypertrophy between RT loads were found in overall (P= .113 - .469) or subgroup analysis (P= .871 - .995), greater effects were observed in untrained participants (P= .033), and participants with some training background who undertook more RT sessions (P= .031 - .045). Muscle strength improvement was superior for both high-load and moderate-load compared to low-load RT in overall and subgroup analysis (SMD= 0.60 - 0.63 and 0.34 - 0.35, respectively; P< .001 - .003), with a non-significant but superior effect for high- compared to moderate-load (SMD= 0.26 - 0.28, P= .068). Conclusion: While muscle hypertrophy improvements appear to be load independent, increases in muscle strength are superior in high-load RT programs. Untrained participants exhibit greater muscle hypertrophy while undertaking more RT sessions provides superior gains in those with previous training experience.
... Support for the repetition continuum is derived from the seminal work of DeLorme [4], who proposed that high-load resistance exercise enhances muscle strength/power while low-resistance exercise improves muscular endurance, and that these loading zones are incapable of eliciting adaptations achieved by the other. Subsequent research by Anderson and Kearney from 1982 [5] and Stone et al., 1994 [6] provided, in part, additional support to Delorme's hypothesis, forming the basis of what is now commonly accepted as theory. However, emerging research challenges various aspects of the theory. ...
... Early work by Anderson and Kearney [5] lent support for the acquisition of muscular endurance along a repetition continuum. These researchers allocated 43 untrained young men to perform bench press training at either a high-(3 sets of 6 to 8RM), medium-(2 sets of 30 to 40RM) or low-(1 set of 100 to 150RM) load over a 9-week study period. ...
... These findings suggest that a repetition continuum for local muscular endurance seems more relevant to the lower body than the upper body musculature. Note that the "medium" and "low" load conditions in both the Anderson and Kearney [5] and Stone and Coulter [6] studies employed repetition ranges >15RM, which encompasses the "endurance" aspect of the repetition continuum. Moreover, a progressively fewer number of sets were performed for the lighter load condition in these studies, raising the question as to whether an advantage would have been shown for muscular endurance if sets had been equated rather than volume load. ...
Article
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Loading recommendations for resistance training are typically prescribed along what has come to be known as the “repetition continuum”, which proposes that the number of repetitions performed at a given magnitude of load will result in specific adaptations. Specifically, the theory postulates that heavy load training optimizes increases maximal strength, moderate load training optimizes increases muscle hypertrophy, and low-load training optimizes increases local muscular endurance. However, despite the widespread acceptance of this theory, current research fails to support some of its underlying presumptions. Based on the emerging evidence, we propose a new paradigm whereby muscular adaptations can be obtained, and in some cases optimized, across a wide spectrum of loading zones. The nuances and implications of this paradigm are discussed herein.
... On the other hand, Delorme [10] proposed that high loads increase maximal strength/power while low loads improve muscular endurance. Previous studies have provided partial support for Delorme's hypothesis, underpinning what is currently accepted as theory [11,12]. Although some guidelines suggest the use of high and moderate loads to development maximal strength and muscle hypertrophy, several studies showed increases in maximal strength and muscle hypertrophy after resistance training with low loads (i.e., <60% 1RM) [13][14][15][16][17]. ...
... Reports not retrieved (n = 0) Table 2 shows the characteristics of the participants in the 23 studies that were selected for systematic review regarding the sample size, age, height, weight, and training status (mean ± SD) of the 563 participants, where 454 were untrained (80.6%) [11,[14][15][16][17][21][22][23]26,28,29,[38][39][40][41][42][43][44][45] and 109 were recreationally trained (19.4%) [13,46,47] in resistance training. Table 3 shows the characteristics of the studies that were selected for the systematic review regarding the study design, time of analysis, resistance exercise(s), prescription, weekly frequency, movement tempo, volume, and findings. ...
... Table 3 shows the characteristics of the studies that were selected for the systematic review regarding the study design, time of analysis, resistance exercise(s), prescription, weekly frequency, movement tempo, volume, and findings. Regarding the assessment of maximal strength development, 13 studies assessed dynamic strength using 1RM (56.5%) [11,[13][14][15]17,[21][22][23]29,44,[46][47][48] and another four studies assessed the isometric strength (17.4%) [26,38,39,45]. In addition, five studies simultaneously assessed dynamic strength using 1RM and isometric strength using a maximal voluntary isometric contraction (MVIC) (21.7%) [16,28,[41][42][43], and, finally, one study assessed isometric strength using maximal isometric voluntary torque (4.4%) [40]. ...
Article
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The load in resistance training is considered to be a critical variable for neuromuscular adaptations. Therefore, it is important to assess the effects of applying different loads on the development of maximal strength and muscular hypertrophy. The aim of this study was to systematically review the literature and compare the effects of resistance training that was performed with low loads versus moderate and high loads in untrained and trained healthy adult males on the development of maximal strength and muscle hypertrophy during randomized experimental designs. The Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines (2021) were followed with the eligibility criteria defined according to participants, interventions, comparators, outcomes, and study design (PICOS): (P) healthy males between 18 and 40 years old, (I) interventions performed with low loads, (C) interventions performed with moderate or high loads, (O) development of maximal strength and muscle hypertrophy, and (S) randomized experimental studies with between-or within-subject parallel designs. The literature search strategy was performed in three electronic databases (Embase, PubMed, and Web of Science) on 22 August 2021. Results: Twenty-three studies with a total of 563 participants (80.6% untrained and 19.4% trained) were selected. The studies included both relative and absolute loads. All studies were classified as being moderate-to-high methodological quality, although only two studies had a score higher than six points. The main findings indicated that the load magnitude that was used during resistance training influenced the dynamic strength and isometric strength gains. In general, comparisons between the groups (i.e., low, moderate, and high loads) showed higher gains in 1RM and maximal voluntary isometric contraction when moderate and high loads were used. In contrast, regarding muscle hypertrophy, most studies showed that when resistance training was performed to muscle failure, the load used had less influence on muscle hypertrophy. The current literature shows that gains in maximal strength are more pronounced with high and moderate loads compared to low loads in healthy adult male populations. However, for muscle hypertrophy, studies indicate that a wide spectrum of loads (i.e., 30 to 90% 1RM) may be used for healthy adult male populations. Citation: Lacio, M.; Vieira, J.G.; Trybulski, R.; Campos, Y.; Santana, D.; Filho, J.E.; Novaes, J.; Vianna, J.; Wilk, M. Effects of Resistance Training
... The database search yielded 15,010 potential studies (after duplicates removed), and following the screening, a total of 14 studies met the eligibility criteria [7,8,24,[28][29][30][31][32][33][34][35][36][37][38]. The literature search results are presented in Fig. 1. ...
... Resistance training interventions ranged from 8 to 12 weeks with training frequencies ranging from 2-3 sessions per week. Sets of low repetitions (median ranging from 1 to 4 repetitions) were performed in 4 studies [7,8,30,33], moderate repetitions (median ranging from 7 to 13 repetitions) in all 14 studies [7,8,24,[28][29][30][31][32][33][34][35][36][37][38], and high repetitions (median ranging from 18 to 125 repetitions) in 11 studies and 13 intervention groups [24,[28][29][30][31][32][34][35][36][37][38]. Eleven studies compared sets of moderate to high repetitions [24,[28][29][30][31][32][34][35][36][37][38], four studies compared low to moderate repetitions [7,8,30,33], and one study compared low to high repetitions [30]. ...
... Resistance training interventions ranged from 8 to 12 weeks with training frequencies ranging from 2-3 sessions per week. Sets of low repetitions (median ranging from 1 to 4 repetitions) were performed in 4 studies [7,8,30,33], moderate repetitions (median ranging from 7 to 13 repetitions) in all 14 studies [7,8,24,[28][29][30][31][32][33][34][35][36][37][38], and high repetitions (median ranging from 18 to 125 repetitions) in 11 studies and 13 intervention groups [24,[28][29][30][31][32][34][35][36][37][38]. Eleven studies compared sets of moderate to high repetitions [24,[28][29][30][31][32][34][35][36][37][38], four studies compared low to moderate repetitions [7,8,30,33], and one study compared low to high repetitions [30]. ...
Article
Objectives To examine the effect of total repetitions per set on local muscular endurance (LME) assessed via maximal repetitions to concentric muscular failure using loads based on a percentage of pre-intervention one-repetition maximum (%1RMPRE) and post-intervention 1RM (%1RMPOST). News Four electronic databases were searched using terms related to LME and resistance training. Studies were deemed eligible for inclusion if they met a strict criteria. Random effects (Hedges’ g) meta-analyses were undertaken to estimate the effect of lower versus higher repetitions on LME assessed via two methods. Possible predictors that may have influenced training-related effects were explored using univariate analyses. Fourteen studies were included in this review. There was a large effect in favour of a higher number of repetitions per set for LME assessed by %1RMPOST (g = 0.97, P < 0.001, 95% CI 0.53 to 1.40), but no difference when assessed by %1RMPRE (g = 0.09, P = 0.49, 95% CI −0.17 to 0.35). A sub-analysis revealed a large effect in favour of high repetitions (median range of 18–125) compared to moderate repetitions (median range of 7–13) for LME assessed by %1RMPOST (g = 1.08, P < 0.001, 95% CI = 0.60 to 1.56). “Changes in strength” moderated the lower versus higher repetition effects on LME assessed by %1RMPOST (P = 0.002). Conclusion Resistance training with a higher number of repetitions (≥ 15) is more effective than lower repetitions for enhancing LME when assessed using a given percentage of post-intervention 1RM but not pre-intervention 1RM.
... For this study, we developed a customized force-lickometer system to measure spontaneous lick force in rats during unrestrained drinking, and a tongue exercise spout that permits individualized resistance training overnight in the rat's home cage. We utilized a high-repetition/low-resistance (i.e., strength endurance) exercise paradigm designed for muscle growth (Anderson and Kearney, 1982), which consisted of two non-consecutive overnight sessions. Following the exercise program, we evaluated the effect of targeted tongue exercise on hypoglossal-tongue axis function (via videofluoroscopy), strength (via force-lickometer), and structure (via MRI of the brainstem and tongue). ...
... Though beneficial effects were shown for rat models of primary aging (Kletzien et al., 2013;Cullins et al., 2018;Krekeler et al., 2018) and Parkinson's disease (Ciucci et al., 2011(Ciucci et al., , 2013, this tongue exercise training paradigm in the ALS rat model was detrimental, causing further reduction in lick rate during drinking and no discernable improvement in tongue strength (Ma et al., 2017). For this reason, we chose to investigate a high-repetition/low-resistance (∼40% greater than MVLF) exercise paradigm designed for strength endurance and flexibility (Anderson and Kearney, 1982) that may be more tailored to prevent the characteristic weakened, slowed, fatigued, and limited tongue motion caused by MNDs. Our results thus far show beneficial treatment effects in our rat model, without any harmful outcomes. ...
Article
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The tongue plays a crucial role in the swallowing process, and impairment can lead to dysphagia, particularly in motor neuron diseases (MNDs) resulting in hypoglossal-tongue axis degeneration (e.g., amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and progressive bulbar palsy). This study utilized our previously established inducible rodent model of dysphagia due to targeted degeneration of the hypoglossal-tongue axis. This model was created by injecting cholera toxin B conjugated to saporin (CTB-SAP) into the genioglossus muscle of the tongue base for retrograde transport to the hypoglossal (XII) nucleus via the hypoglossal nerve, which provides the sole motor control of the tongue. Our goal was to investigate the effect of high-repetition/low-resistance tongue exercise on tongue function, strength, and structure in four groups of male rats: (1) control + sham exercise (n = 13); (2) control + exercise (n = 10); (3) CTB-SAP + sham exercise (n = 13); and (4) CTB-SAP + exercise (n = 12). For each group, a custom spout with adjustable lick force requirement for fluid access was placed in the home cage overnight on days 4 and 6 post-tongue injection. For the two sham exercise groups, the lick force requirement was negligible. For the two exercise groups, the lick force requirement was set to ∼40% greater than the maximum voluntary lick force for individual rats. Following exercise exposure, we evaluated the effect on hypoglossal-tongue axis function (via videofluoroscopy), strength (via force-lickometer), and structure [via Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) of the brainstem and tongue in a subset of rats]. Results showed that sham-exercised CTB-SAP rats had significant deficits in lick rate, swallow timing, and lick force. In exercised CTB-SAP rats, lick rate and lick force were preserved; however, swallow timing deficits persisted. MRI revealed corresponding degenerative changes in the hypoglossal-tongue axis that were mitigated by tongue exercise. These collective findings suggest that high-repetition/low-resistance tongue exercise in our model is a safe and effective treatment to prevent/diminish signs of hypoglossal-tongue axis degeneration. The next step is to leverage our rat model to optimize exercise dosing parameters and investigate corresponding treatment mechanisms of action for future translation to MND clinical trials.
... Initially, much of the information on resistance training was largely anecdotal with a slow growth of research around the late 1890s [6]. The first paper investigating the effects of resistance training across a wide range of load/repetitions was published in 1982 [7]. Anderson and Kearney investigated the effects of three different resistance programs: high load/low repetition (6-8 repetitions maximum, RM), medium load/medium repetition (30-40RM), and low load/ high repetition (100-150RM). ...
... Anderson and Kearney investigated the effects of three different resistance programs: high load/low repetition (6-8 repetitions maximum, RM), medium load/medium repetition (30-40RM), and low load/ high repetition (100-150RM). The high-load group showed the greatest improvement in maximal strength (1RM), whereas, the lowest-load group showed the greatest improvement in muscular endurance (maximum number of repetitions at 40%1RM) [7]. Measurements of local muscular endurance are divided into two categories: absolute and relative endurance [8]. ...
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An increased ability to supply energy to skeletal muscle is expected to contribute to greater athletic performance, and therefore, a variety of training methods are used for improving these energy supply systems. These methods are classified into two broad categories: a bout of continuous exercise at a given load/intensity and intermittent bouts of exercise at a given load/intensity with recovery intervals. Interestingly, recent work suggests that a training method which starts at a high load/intensity and gradually decreases the exercise load/intensity within a given training set (stepwise load reduction training) may provide a range of adaptations. In resistance training, the load starts off high and is then reduced as the set continues which is expected to simultaneously increase muscle strength, endurance, and size. In training focused on aerobic and anaerobic metabolic systems, intensity starts off high and is then reduced as the exercise continues which is expected to simultaneously increase maximal anaerobic power, anaerobic capacity, and aerobic capacity. Because stepwise load reduction training has no recovery intervals between each load/intensity, the training effects are achieved within a short time per session (several minutes). However, only minimal evidence exists to support the effects of stepwise load reduction training; therefore, further studies with larger samples are needed.
... A realização do teste de 1 repetição máxima (1RM) seguiu os seguintes procedimentos: foram permitidas até seis tentativas para identificar o peso máximo que a voluntária poderia levantar em uma repetição, conforme sugerido por Anderson e Kearney [14], com um intervalo de três minutos entre as mesmas. Antes da realização do teste de 1RM não foram permitidos alongamentos ou qualquer outro tipo de exercício físico. ...
... Na terceira visita, após descanso de 48 h do teste de 1RM, foi realizado o número máximo de repetições possível no Leg press (Pré-suplementação: M1) com o peso correspondente a 80% de 1RM, em 3 séries com 1 min de intervalo de recuperação [14]. Para análise dos dados, foi utilizado tanto o somatório de todas as séries, como o número de repetições em cada série. ...
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Introdução: A creatina tem sido considerada agente ergogênico para indivíduos onívoros e vegetarianos, porém, nota-se lacuna importante sobre o efeito dessa suplementação sobre a performance de veganos, grupo que apresenta maiores restrições nutricionais dentre os vegetarianos. Objetivo: Analisar o efeito da suplementação de creatina sobre performance em teste de força e composição corporal de veganas. Métodos: Quatorze veganas não-atletas foram randomicamente distribuídas em grupo creatina (n = 7) e placebo (n = 7). Antes e depois da suplementação (0,3 g kg-1 d-1 por 7 dias) foram realizados testes de performance em leg press (3 séries de repetições máximas até falha, a 80% de uma repetição máxima, 60 segundos de intervalo), e antropometria. Resultados: Após suplementação, houve diferenças significativa no número de repetições na primeira série e no somatório das três séries para ambos grupos, porém, com o o tamanho do efeito (effect size) e delta percentual superiores para grupo creatina. Na segunda série, não houve diferenças significativas entre grupos e momentos, porém, effect size e delta percentual também foram superiores para grupo creatina. Não foi observada alteração significativa na composição corporal. Conclusão: A suplementação de creatina apresentou maior efeito sobre performance em teste de força para membros inferiores, quando comparadas ao placebo, sem alterar composição corporal.
... A total of 36 studies measured dynamic 1-RM strength in one or more of the following exercises: bench press, chest press, overhead press, seated row, lat pulldown, forearm flexion, elbow extension, elbow flexion, leg press, squat, knee extension, knee flexion, back extension, and abdominal bend. Twenty (Anderson & Kearney, 1982 Figure 2 and included 537 and 650 ES values from 36 studies for high-load and low-load RT, respectively. There was an advantage for high-load RT versus low-load RT on dynamic 1-RM strength (ES = 0.34, 95% CI: 0.15 to 0.52; P = 0.0003). ...
... While our analysis broadly classified the RT protocols used by included studies as either higher or lower load, there was considerable variation within the definitions of higher-and lower-load RT, both in terms of load and training volume. Indeed, higher-load RT protocols varied from examples including 8-9 sets at 4-5-RM (Hisaeda et al., 1996) and 1 set at 80% 1-RM (Stefanaki et al., 2019), while lower-load RT protocols varied from examples including 3 sets of 12-14 (50% 1-RM) (Beneka et al., 2005) to 1 x 100-150-RM (Anderson & Kearney, 1982). Such differences in the magnitude of divergence between higher-load and lower-load RT conditions would undoubtedly influence the magnitude of effects favouring either loading condition on outcome measures. ...
Article
This systematic review and meta-analysis determined resistance training (RT) load effects on various muscle hypertrophy, strength, and neuromuscular performance task [e.g., countermovement jump (CMJ)] outcomes. Relevent studies comparing higher-load [>60% 1-repetition maximum (RM) or <15-RM] and lower-load (≤60% 1-RM or ≥ 15-RM) RT were identified, with 45 studies (from 4713 total) included in the meta-analysis. Higher- and lower-load RT induced similar muscle hypertrophy at the whole-body (lean/fat-free mass; [ES (95% CI) = 0.05 (−0.20 to 0.29), P = 0.70]), whole-muscle [ES = 0.06 (−0.11 to 0.24), P = 0.47], and muscle fibre [ES = 0.29 (−0.09 to 0.66), P = 0.13] levels. Higher-load RT further improved 1-RM [ES = 0.34 (0.15 to 0.52), P = 0.0003] and isometric [ES = 0.41 (0.07 to 0.76), P = 0.02] strength. The superiority of higher-load RT on 1-RM strength was greater in younger [ES = 0.34 (0.12 to 0.55), P = 0.002] versus older [ES = 0.20 (−0.00 to 0.41), P = 0.05] participants. Higher- and lower-load RT therefore induce similar muscle hypertrophy (at multiple physiological levels), while higher-load RT elicits superior 1-RM and isometric strength. The influence of RT loads on neuromuscular task performance is however unclear.
... For example, 1-3 sets with 10-15 repetitions for beginners, or multiple sets with 10-25 repetitions, or even more, for advanced athletes, rest intervals should last <90 s [27]. Extreme settings of strength endurance training are reported to work with 150 repetitions in less than 5 min per set [32]. ...
... The transitions from resistance training to strength endurance to muscle endurance is flowing [27]. There is no hard threshold; it seems more likely to be a continuum, a "strength-endurance continuum", with high load/low repetitions on the one side and low load/high repetitions on the other side [32,33] (Figure 2). ...
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In the last few years, the muscular system has gained attention due to the discovery of the muscle-secretome and its high potency for retaining or regaining health. These cytokines, described as myokines, released by the working muscle, are involved in anti-inflammatory, metabolic and immunological processes. These are able to influence human health in a positive way and are a target of research in metabolic diseases, cancer, neurological diseases, and other non-communicable diseases. Therefore, different types of exercise training were investigated in the last few years to find associations between exercise, myokines and their effects on human health. Particularly, resistance training turned out to be a powerful stimulus to enhance myokine release. As there are different types of resistance training, different myokines are stimulated, depending on the mode of training. This narrative review gives an overview about resistance training and how it can be utilized to stimulate myokine production in order to gain a certain health effect. Finally, the question of why resistance training is an important key regulator in human health will be discussed.
... It's a consistent finding that high-repetition training increases strength endurance (Anderson, 1982;Campos, 2002;Schoenfeld, 2015). This is in line with the tenants of training specificity and the SAID (specific adaptations to imposed demands) principle. ...
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The purpose of this study was to investigate sex differences in fatigability and recovery from resistance exercise. Male and female subjects with at least one year of bench press experience (N = 21 males and 21 females) performed a fatigue protocol consisting of barbell bench press with 75% 1RM loads for sets of 5 repetitions, with 90 seconds between sets, until concentric failure. Recovery was monitored for the subsequent 72 hours using subjective ratings of soreness and estimated 1RM strength derived from load-velocity profiles. The female subjects completed more reps during the fatigue protocol (Females: 58.3 ± 27.3; Males: 29.6 ± 10.6; p = 0.0001), but post-training soreness and recovery of estimated 1RM strength did not significantly differ between sexes. Results suggest that women fatigue slower than men during multiple sets of bench press, and can recover from training at a similar rate despite completing a larger relative workload.
... Current evidence concerning training theory in uninjured individuals reports that strength adaptations are achieved across a range of training intensities (40-95% maximal intensity) [144]. It is typically recommended that 40-60% neuromuscular activation is needed at a minimum for a strengthening effect [145], although there is a dose-response relationship with greater gains in strength from exercise which elicit higher neuromuscular activation values [146][147][148]. The American College of Sports Medicine recommends loads of 60-70% 1RM for the development of muscle strength and 70-85% for hypertrophy [149]. ...
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Outcomes following anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction need improving, with poor return-to-sport rates and high risk of secondary re-injury. There is a need to improve rehabilitation strategies after ACL reconstruction, if we can support enhanced patient outcomes. This paper discusses how to optimise the mid-stage rehabilitation process after ACL reconstruction. Mid-stage is a difficult and vitally important stage of the functional recovery process and provides the foundation on which to commence late-stage rehabilitation training. Often many aspects of mid-stage rehabilitation (e.g. knee extensors isolated muscle strength) are not actually restored prior to return-to-sport. In addition, if we are to allow time for optimal late-stage rehabilitation and return-to-sport training, we need to optimise the mid-stage rehabilitation approach and complete it in a timely manner. This paper forms a key part of a strategy to optimise the ACL rehabilitation approach and considers factors more specific to mid-stage rehabilitation characterised in 3 areas: (1) muscle strength: muscle and joint specific, in particular at the knee level, with the knee extensors and flexors and distally with the triceps surae and proximally with the lumbo-pelvic-hip complex, as well as closed kinetic chain strength; (2) altered basic motor patterning (movement quality) and (3) fitness re-conditioning. In addition, the paper provides recommendations on how to implement these into practice, discussing training planning and programming and suggests specific screening to monitor work and when the athlete is able to progress to the next stage (e.g. late-stage rehabilitation criteria).
... 52 Neuromuscular activation of 40-60% is recommended as a minimum for a strengthening effect, 53 although it is apparent there is a dose-response relationship with greater gains in strength from exercise which elicit higher neuromuscular activation values. [54][55][56] Around 70% of activation is thought to elicit an optimal 'strengthening' effect and achieve desired adaptations in muscle morphology, such as hypertrophy. 45,52,53,57 Traditionally, it was believed that very high loads were necessary to bring about activation of all type II motor units based on the Henneman size principle 58 and achieve full and complete muscle hypertrophy (targeted at all motor units). ...
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The Gluteus Maximus (GM) muscle is the largest and most powerful in the human body. It plays an important role in optimal functioning of the human movement system as well as athletic performance. It is however, prone to inhibition and weakness which contributes to chronic pain, injury and athletic under-performance. As such, understanding how to assess and treat GM dysfunction is an important aspect of sports science and medicine, as it has relevance for injury prevention, rehabilitation and performance enhancement. Despite GMs considerable importance there is little research attempting to translate evidence into practice to support practitioners when faced with 'sleepy glutes'. This clinical commentary discusses the importance of GM for athletic performance and injury risk; factors which contribute to GM dysfunction and then provides evidenced informed approaches to assess and treat GM dysfunction. This can be used as part of rehabilitation or injury prevention practices as well as athletic performance training. Level of evidence: 5.
... Indeed, DeLorme's classic work suggested that RET using low repetition/high resistance favoured adaptations for strength, power, and hypertrophy, whereas training with high repetition/low resistance increased muscular endurance and oxidative potential (101). From this, a repetition training continuum (102) or repetition maximum continuum (103) has been hypothesised such that the number of repetitions allowed by the resistance will result in very specific training adaptations. In order to enable a clear outline of program design, early work by Bird et al. (104) collated this information and created a visual representation of RE prescription. ...
Article
The importance of regular exercise for glucose management in individuals with type 1 diabetes is magnified by its acknowledgment as a key adjunct to insulin therapy by several governmental, charitable, and healthcare organisations. However, although activelyencouraged,exerciseparticipationratesremainlow,withglycaemicdisturbances and poor cardiorespiratory fitness cited as barriers to long-term involvement. These fears are perhaps exacerbated by uncertainty in how different forms of exercise can considerably alter several acute and chronic physiological outcomes in those with type 1 diabetes. Thus, understanding the bodily responses to specific forms of exercise is important for the provision of practical guidelines that aim to overcome these exercise barriers. Currently, the majority of existing exercise research in type 1 diabetes has focused on moderate intensity continuous protocols with less work exploring predominately non-oxidative exercise modalities like resistance exercise. This is surprising, considering the known neuro-muscular, osteopathic, metabolic, and vascular benefits associated with resistance exercise in the wider population. Considering that individuals with type 1 diabetes have an elevated susceptibility for complications within these physiological systems, the wider health benefits associated with resistance exercise may help alleviate the prevalence and/or magnitude of pathological manifestation in this population group. This review outlines the health benefits of resistance exercise with reference to evidence in aiding some of the common complications associated with individuals with type 1 diabetes.
... L'allenamento di forza è stato ampiamente studiato e in letteratura è possibile trovare diversi lavori sperimentali con l'obiettivo di individuare metodologie utili a migliorare la forza muscolare con e senza incremento della massa muscolare, come per esempio l'allenamento di forza ad alta intensità 1 . Infatti, per ottenere i massimi benefici da un allenamento di forza, l'American College of Sports Medicine suggerisce di sollevare un carico non inferiore al 70% di una ripetizione massimale (1RM) 2,3 . È stato però dimostrato che esercizi di forza con bassi carichi di lavoro (20% di 1RM) in condizione di restrizione di flusso ematico ottenuto tramite appositi manicotti (Kaatsu Training) hanno portato a miglioramenti dell'ipertrofia e della forza muscolare simili, se non addirittura maggiori, a quelli ottenuti con esercizi ad alta intensità (HI-RT) 4,5 . ...
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The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of slow strip set (SSS) resistance training on dynamic sport specific movements. 22 martial artists were randomly divided into two groups: the experimental group (EG) performed 4 weeks of SSS resistance training and the control group (CG) performed the usual resistance training of Wing Chun martial artists. The SSS consisted on exercising at the bench press with slow movement (5s for eccentric and 5s for concentric phase), relatively low load (50%1RM), and two overload strips of 20% and until exhaustion. Before and after the intervention, subjects were tested on one maximal repetition (1RM) and peak power (PP) during bench press, maximum push-up repetitions in 5 (PU5) and 15 seconds (PU15) and maximum punch repetitions in 5 (P5) and 15 seconds (P15). The EG improved PP (p = 0.004; ES = 0.64), 1RM (p < 0.001; ES = 0.55), PU5 (p = 0.008; ES = 0.58) and PU15 (p < 0.004; ES = 0.45) while the CG parameters did not improve from pre to post training period. However, P5 and P15 did not change from pre to post training in both groups. The main effect of this training seems to be that the dynamic sport specific movement (P5 and P15) does not get worse.
... The maximum number of repetitions was achieved when the volunteer was unable to perform flexion/extension and/or a controlled rhythm. At the time of the post-training test the 60% load was determined according to the value previously found in the post-training 1RM test [22]. ...
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The objective was to verify the effect of low-load resistance training with blood flow restriction (LL + BFR) on the rating of perceived exertion (RPE). In addition, strength and muscular endurance were evaluated. 26 male subjects were divided into two groups: (a) low-load resistance training with blood flow restriction at 30% 1RM (one repetition maximum), and (b) high-load (HL) resistance training without blood flow restriction at 80% 1RM. The training lasted 8 weeks (three times a week) and consisted of elbow flexion and knee extensor exercises. RPE was assessed using the OMNI scale in sessions before and after training. The maximum dynamic force was evaluated using the 1RM test, and muscular endurance was assessed by the test of the number of repetitions at 60% 1RM. The RPE was higher in the pre-training session for elbow flexion exercise in the HL group as compared to the LL + BFR group (HL: 7.84 ± 1.25 LL: 6.34 ± 1.27; p < 0.05), besides being higher in the HL group in elbow flexion (HL: 8.61 ± 0.83 LL: 6.00 ± 1.53; p < 0.05) and knee extensor (HL: 8.38 ± 0.83 LL: 6.00 ± 1.89; p < 0.05) exercises in the post-training session when comparing the groups. Also in LL + BFR there was significant difference between moments in knee extensor (baseline: 8.30 ± 1.08 post: 6.00 ± 1.89; p < 0.05). There were strength gains in both groups, whereas they were greater for the HL group in the knee extensor exercise (p < 0.05). There were, in both groups, significant increase in muscular endurance (p < 0.05). Lastly, there was a negative correlation in strength with RPE in LL + BFR. In conclusion, the RPE reduced in LL + BFR resistance training compared to HL after 8 weeks of training. In addition, both methods were effective for increasing muscular strength and endurance.
... Presumably, being able to train with this tiring method using smaller edges could provoke greater fatigue due to a greater muscle activation (Ahtiainen & Häkkinen, 2009) (Also, the smaller the hold is, the more mechanical tension is needed to grip it effectively, and the more intensephysical and psychological-the resulting effort is). As Anderson & Kearney (1982) suggest, training-induced fatigue can have different effects depending on the way it is produced. In their work, the participants who did a higher volume (100-150 RM) experienced greater homeostatic perturbations in the muscle. ...
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This is the extended version of the article presented at the 3rd International Rock Climbing Research Congress, hosted in Telluride, USA fro 5th-7th August 2016 with the title: "Comparison of the Effects of Three Hangboard Training Programs on Maximal Finger Strength in Rock Climbers." The online version can be found on: https://en-eva-lopez.blogspot.com.es/2018/03/maximal-hangs-intermittent-hangs.html
... When training for hypertrophy, contractile proteins are expected to be added to existing sarcomeres [17] to increase fiber diameter and length, making the fiber stronger and more durable against future damage brought on by the same stimulus [18]. This effect is more pronounced in untrained lifters because most training designs are novel to this population and their muscle fibers have yet to develop a "resistance" to various stimuli. ...
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Resistance training may differentially affect morphological adaptations along the length of uni-articular and bi-articular muscles. The purpose of this study was to compare changes in muscle morphology along the length of the rectus femoris (RF) and vastus lateralis (VL) in response to resistance training. Following a 2-wk preparatory phase, 15 resistance-trained men (24.0 ± 3.0 y, 90.0 ± 13.8 kg, 174.9 ± 20.7 cm) completed pre-training (PRE) assessments of muscle thickness (MT), pennation angle (PA), cross-sectional area (CSA), and echo-intensity in the RF and VL at 30, 50, and 70% of each muscle’s length; fascicle length (FL) was estimated from respective measurements of MT and PA within each muscle and region. Participants then began a high intensity, low volume (4 x 3–5 repetitions, 3min rest) lower-body resistance training program, and repeated all PRE-assessments after 8 weeks (2 d ∙ wk⁻¹) of training (POST). Although three-way (muscle [RF, VL] x region [30, 50, 70%] x time [PRE, POST]) repeated measures analysis of variance did not reveal significant interactions for any assessment of morphology, significant simple (muscle x time) effects were observed for CSA (p = 0.002) and FL (p = 0.016). Specifically, average CSA changes favored the VL (2.96 ± 0.69 cm², p < 0.001) over the RF (0.59 ± 0.20 cm², p = 0.011), while significant decreases in average FL were noted for the RF (–1.03 ± 0.30 cm, p = 0.004) but not the VL (–0.05 ± 0.36 cm, p = 0.901). No other significant differences were observed. The findings of this study demonstrate the occurrence of non-homogenous adaptations in RF and VL muscle size and architecture following 8 weeks of high-intensity resistance training in resistance-trained men. However, training does not appear to influence region-specific adaptations in either muscle.
... Other terms often used to describe intensity are multiples of 1RM, such as 6RM, which indicates a load that can be lifted a maximum of six repetitions with proper technique. For those considered to be novice resistance trainers, light loads of approximately 45 to 50% of 1RM or less may increase muscular strength, as the initial adaptation to resistance training is characterized by improved motor learning and coordination (1,23). However, the ACSM recommends an intensity of approximately 50 to 70% of 1RM for the novice (2,3), but heavier loading (higher intensity) will be needed to increase maximal strength as the individual moves from novice to intermediate or advanced levels of training (8,12). ...
... Subsequently, the 1 repetition maximum test (1RM) (7) and a number of repetitions at 60% 1RM (rep. 60% 1RM) were performed, and the 60% load was adjusted at the end of training (2). At another moment, the subjects performed isokinetic and isometric tests in the upper and lower limbs, the EMG signal was measured, and MT was assessed. ...
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Ramis, TR, Muller, CHdL, Boeno, FP, Teixeira, BC, Rech, A, Pompermayer, MG, Medeiros, NdS, Oliveira, ÁRd, Pinto, RS, and Ribeiro, JL. Effects of traditional and vascular restricted strength training program with equalized volume on isometric and dynamic strength, muscle thickness, electromyographic activity, and endothelial function adaptations in young adults. J Strength Cond Res XX(X): 000-000, 2018-The purpose of the study was to evaluate and compare the acute and chronic effects of partial vascular occlusion training in young, physically active adults. Neuromuscular, morphological, and endothelial function responses were compared between high-intensity resistance training (HI-RT) and low-intensity resistance training with partial vascular occlusion (LI-BFR), despite the same training volume. The 28 subjects (age, 23.96 ± 2.67 years) were randomly assigned into 2 groups: LI-BFR (n = 15) and HI-RT (n = 13). Both groups performed unilateral exercise of elbow flexion (EF) and knee extension (KE) 3 times per week for 8 weeks. This study was approved by the ethics committee. Flow-mediated dilation showed a significant difference in baseline and post-training in the LI-BFR group (4.44 ± 0.51 vs. 6.35 ± 2.08 mm, respectively). For nitrite/nitrate concentrations only, there was a significant difference when comparing pre- and post-acute exercise in both groups. The torque and rep. Sixty percent 1 repetition maximum had improvements in both groups. There were differences between groups only in isometric delta EF and isokinetic delta KE (EF 3.42 ± 5.09 and 9.61 ± 7.52 N·m; KE 12.78 ± 25.61 and 42.69 ± 35.68 N·m; LI-BFR and HI-RT groups, respectively). There was a significant increase of muscle thickness in both groups. An increase of both isokinetic and isometric electromyography (EMG) of biceps of the HI-RT group was observed. The same was observed for the LI-BFR group regarding isokinetic and isometric EMG of vastus lateralis. Thus, in addition to strength and hypertrophy gains, this study also shows benefits related to vascular function. For practical applications, this study demonstrates a clinical importance of LI-BFR training as an alternative methodology.
... For example, while many researchers examined dynamic forms of RT, Hettinger and Muller reported strength gains following isometric training [36]. Later studies from Anderson and Kearney [152] demonstrated greater strength increases with heavy compared with moderate and light loading schemes and Stone and colleagues [153] showed the importance of RT periodization by demonstrating greater strength gains using the classic model of periodization. ...
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The history of resistance training research began with anecdotal ideas and a slow growth of research from the late 1890s through the 1970s. The mid-1970s were a nexus point when resistance training studies evolved from just strength assessments to importance in physiological systems, physical health, and physical performance capabilities for individuals interested in physical fitness through to those seeking elite athletic performances. The pursuit of understanding program design and what mediated successful programs continues today as new findings, replication of old concepts, and new visions with the latest technologies fuel both our understanding and interest in this modality. This brief review highlights some of the important scientific contributions to the evolution of our scientific study of resistance training and provides a literature base analysis for greater quantification of the origins and expanse of such investigations.
... Low-intensity training involving high repetitions is generally recommended to enhance muscular endurance [1]. Most previous studies explaining the rationale for low-intensity training involving high repetitions for muscular endurance used repetitions to the point of exhaustion [2,3]; therefore, increasing the number of repetitions performed to the point of exhaustion might be effective for improving muscular endurance. As a way to increase the number of repetitions until exhaustion, we focused on exercise performed under hyperoxic conditions. ...
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Low-intensity training involving high repetitions is recommended to enhance muscular endurance. Hyperoxic conditions could increase the number of repetitions until exhaustion and thereby improve the results of muscular endurance training. This study aimed to investigate the acute effects of hyperoxia on dynamic muscular endurance, and determine individual factors that may be related to these effects. A single-blinded, counterbalanced crossover design was used. Twenty-five young men performed repetitions of the one-arm preacher curl at 30% of their 1-repetition maximum until exhaustion under hyperoxic and normoxic conditions. The maximum number of repetitions was recorded as an index of muscular endurance. Electromyogram (EMG) and near-infrared spectroscopy parameters were measured in the biceps brachii. The maximum number of repetitions was greater (P < 0.001) under hyperoxic conditions (132 ± 59 repetitions) than under normoxic conditions (114 ± 40 repetitions). The root mean square amplitude of EMG and oxygenated hemoglobin concentration for the last five repetitions under normoxic conditions were greater than those under hyperoxic conditions (P = 0.015 and P = 0.003, respectively). The percent change in the maximum number of repetitions between hyperoxic and normoxic conditions had significant positive correlations with individual maximal oxygen uptake measured using an incremental cycle ergometer test (r = 0.562, 95% confidence intervals [CI] = 0.213–0.783, P = 0.003), but not with muscle strength (τ = −0.124, 95% CI = −0.424–0.170, P = 0.387). The 95% CI for the correlation coefficient between the percent change in the maximum number of repetitions and muscular endurance included 0 (τ = 0.284, 95% CI = −0.003–0.565, P = 0.047); this indicated no significant correlation between the two parameters. The results suggest that hyperoxia can acutely enhance dynamic muscular endurance, with delayed elevation of EMG amplitude due to fatigue, and the effects are associated with individual whole-body endurance capacity.
... However, the percentage change in both groups was similar (VL10%: 74.8%; VL30%: 73.2%; Table 2). In line with our results, other studies comparing RT protocols with different numbers of repetitions per set also showed no significant differences between groups in muscle endurance gains (Anderson and Kearney 1982;Izquierdo et al. 2006). Therefore, in contrast with previous reviews (Bird et al. 2005;Ratamess et al. 2009), it appears that changes in muscle endurance capacity do not directly depend on the volume of exercise performed during RT. ...
Article
This study aimed to compare the effects of 2 resistance training (RT) programs with different velocity losses (VLs) allowed in each set: 10% (VL10%) versus 30% (VL30%) on neuromuscular performance and hormonal response. Twenty-five young healthy males were randomly assigned into 2 groups: VL10% (n = 12) or VL30% (n = 13). Subjects followed a velocity-based RT program for 8 weeks (2 sessions per week) using only the full-squat (SQ) exercise at 70%–85% 1-repetition maximum (1RM). Repetition velocity was recorded in all training sessions. A 20-m running sprint, countermovement jump (CMJ), 1RM, muscle endurance, and electromyogram (EMG) during SQ exercise and resting hormonal concentrations were assessed before and after the RT program. Both groups showed similar improvements in muscle strength and endurance variables (VL10%: 7.0%–74.8%; VL30%: 4.2%–73.2%). The VL10% resulted in greater percentage increments in CMJ (9.2% vs. 5.4%) and sprint performance (–1.5% vs. 0.4%) than VL30%, despite VL10% performing less than half of the repetitions than VL30% during RT. In addition, only VL10% showed slight increments in EMG variables, whereas no significant changes in resting hormonal concentrations were observed. Therefore, our results suggest that velocity losses in the set as low as 10% are enough to achieve significant improvements in neuromuscular performance, which means greater efficiency during RT. Novelty The VL10% group showed similar or even greater percentage of changes in physical performance compared with VL30%. No significant changes in resting hormonal concentrations were observed for any training group. Curvilinear relationships between percentage VL in the set and changes in strength and CMJ performance were observed.
... sets x %load x repetitions) and performed until volitional fatigue, low-load resistance exercise can induce similar gains in muscle mass as high-load resistance exercise (Van Roie et al., 2013;Alegre et al., 2015;Bemben et al., 2000). The only clear and consistent performance-related benefit of high-load over lowload resistance exercise seems to be the higher gains in 1-RM of the trained movement (Campos et al., 2002;Mitchell et al., 2012;Anderson and Kearney, 1982;Holm et al., 2008;Schoenfeld et al., 2014). These results suggest that practice with a sufficiently high mechanical stimulus (i.e. ...
... Training adaptations occur in response to a series of workouts constituting loads that stimulate the translation of the specific proteins underlying the desired adaptation(s). Planned variation and rest are required to modulate fatigue to optimize adaptation and reduce the risk of illness, injury, or overtraining, which are functionally equivalent to the stage of exhaustion [55,56,[109][110][111][112][113][114][115][116][117][118][119][120][121][122][123][124]. The logical staging of fitness phases promotes a time-dependent integration of discrete physical characteristics (i.e. ...
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Recent reviews have attempted to refute the efficacy of applying Selye’s general adaptation syndrome (GAS) as a conceptual framework for the training process. Furthermore, the criticisms involved are regularly used as the basis for arguments against the periodization of training. However, these perspectives fail to consider the entirety of Selye’s work, the evolution of his model, and the broad applications he proposed. While it is reasonable to critically evaluate any paradigm, critics of the GAS have yet to dismantle the link between stress and adaptation. Disturbance to the state of an organism is the driving force for biological adaptation, which is the central thesis of the GAS model and the primary basis for its application to the athlete’s training process. Despite its imprecisions, the GAS has proven to be an instructive framework for understanding the mechanistic process of providing a training stimulus to induce specific adaptations that result in functional enhancements. Pioneers of modern periodization have used the GAS as a framework for the management of stress and fatigue to direct adaptation during sports training. Updates to the periodization concept have retained its founding constructs while explicitly calling for scientifically based, evidence-driven practice suited to the individual. Thus, the purpose of this review is to provide greater clarity on how the GAS serves as an appropriate mechanistic model to conceptualize the periodization of training.
... (Aján, T., & Baroga, L.,1988; The record achievement in both lifts will develop efficiently when the athlete's physical fitness integrated and primed together. Moreover, physical fitness has the biggest share in making champions (Garhammer, J., & Takano, B., 1992;Ebada, K. H., 2013) Muscular endurance can define as the ability to perform strength oriented action and repetition (Bompa, T. O., & Buzzichelli, C., 2018) .Similarly, it also define as the capacity of a muscle or muscles group to engage in a motor movement for a long time without the appearance of fatigue (Anderson, T., & Kearney, J. T., 1982) For weightlifting, muscle endurance (ME) considered as an essential element in training to provide the weightlifters with the ability to train continuously without fatigue. Eventually, the more you train, the more you improve your physical fitness and performance technique. ...
... If high load was superior to low load in at least one of the exercises, then the study was placed in the high load is superior to low load category with a note indicating this (table 1). There were 15 studies that did not report performing multiple strength tests; of those, 12 studies found high load is superior to low load (Anderson and Kearney 1982, Aagaard et al 1996, Campos et al 2002, Rana et al 2008, Yasuda et al 2011, Laurentino et al 2012, Mitchell et al 2012, Schuenke et al 2012, Martín-Hernández et al 2013, Schoenfeld et al 2015, Jessee et al 2018, Buckner et al 2019 and three studies found no difference (Stone and Coulter 1994, Kerr et al 1996, Léger et al 2006. There were 24 studies that performed multiple strength tests; of those, 17 studies found high load is superior to low load at increasing strength (Bemben et al 2000, Seynnes et al 2004, De Vos et al 2005 If two or more studies were found to include the same data, we included only one of them in figure 1 with a symbol (@) to denote this. ...
Article
Maximal strength testing is often performed to assess the efficacy of training programs or as a way to prescribe exercise load. Generally, it is believed that high load exercise is superior to low load exercise at increasing absolute strength, however this is not always the case (i.e. strength increases similarly between groups). We hypothesized that some of the discrepancy in the literature may be related to performing the strength test itself. To investigate this further we reviewed the literature looking for studies comparing high load and low load exercise. The included studies were separated into 'no extra practice' and 'practice'. No extra practice means the strength test was only performed at pre and post whereas practice refers to additional strength tests performed throughout the training intervention. Our results indicated that the differences between high load and low load exercise can be reduced when the group training with a low load is allowed additional exposure to the maximal strength test. This suggests that repeated exposure to strength tests may augment low load training adaptations and influence the outcomes. We discuss potential moderators of this relationship (e.g. how low is the low load, complexity of the skill) and offer considerations for future research. Based on this it would be recommended that when investigating the effects of low load training strength tests should be limited to pre and post intervention or if a control group is utilized then the control group should receive the same number of exposures to the strength test.
... [56][57][58][59] Tolerance in this group is likely to be facilitated by adequate warm-up to downgrade the pain response and therefore should form an important component of any resistance training intervention in OA groups. Gains in dynamic muscular strength may be made in the initial stages of a strength training intervention using suboptimal loads in those with no background of resistance training 12,60 ; however, heavy loads are required thereafter to increase maximal strength. Neural adaptations account for early increases in strength, whereby improvements in motor unit recruitment, firing rate, and synchronization take place 61 ; however, following this adaptation, light training loads (eg, resistance approximating 12e15 RM [12 RMZ70% 1 RM] or lighter) rarely increase maximal strength, but are effective for increasing absolute local muscular endurance. ...
Article
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Objective: To evaluate the methodological quality of resistance training interventions for the management of knee osteoarthritis. Data sources: A search of the literature for studies published up to 10(th) August 2015 was performed on Medline (OVID platform), PubMed, EMBase and PEDRo databases. Search terms associated with 'osteoarthritis'; 'knee' and 'muscle resistance exercise' were used.. Study selection: Studies were included in the review if they were published in the English language and met the following criteria : 1) muscle resistance training was the primary intervention; 2) RCT design; 3) treatment arms included at least a muscle conditioning intervention and a non-exercise control group; 4) participants had osteoarthritis of the knee; . Studies employing pre-operative (joint replacement) interventions with only post-operative outcomes were excluded. The search yielded 1574 results. The inclusion criteria were met by 34 studies. Data extraction: Two reviewers independently screened the papers for eligibility. Critical appraisal of the methodology was assessed according to the principles of resistance training (PoRT) and, separately for the reporting of adherence using a specially designed scoring system. A rating for each was assigned. Data synthesis: 34studies described a strength training focus of the intervention, however, the PoRT were inconsistently applied and inadequately reported across all. Methods for adherence monitoring were incorporated in to the design of 28 of the studies but only 13 reported sufficient detail to estimate average dose of exercise. Conclusions: These findings impact the interpretation of the efficacy of muscle resistance exercise in the management of knee osteoarthritis. Clinicians and health-care professionals cannot be confident whether non-significant findings are due to lack of efficacy of muscle resistance interventions, or occur through limitations in treatment prescription and patient adherence. Future research that seeks to evaluate the effects of muscle strength training interventions on symptoms of OA should be properly designed and adherence diligently reported.
... These data are included in a systematic review where MVIC for GM and gluteus maximus are collated for 19 and 20 different exercises, respectively [7]. The MVIC levels required to effectively stimulate muscle strength gains have been investigated, concluding that 40%-60% maximal neuromuscular activation is required to generate improvement [8]. ...
Article
Exercise therapy is a key component in rehabilitation in both human and equine physiotherapy, however in relation to the equine athlete only limited evidence is available for the use of exercises in rehabilitation. The aim of this review is to analyse studies that have evaluated trunk and hindlimb muscle activation and therefore provide an evidence base for the selection of exercises. Isolating activity to specific muscle groups or positioning to preferentially activate specific muscles is challenging for physiotherapists in horses, however surface electromyography (EMG) data of muscular activity during locomotion could be applied to support selection of rehabilitation exercises employed for this goal. The literature consistently reports the positive effect of increasing speed and slope on activity of longissimus dorsi, gluteus medius, tensor fascia latae, biceps femoris, vastus lateralis and the abdominal muscles. However, there is still a lack of investigation into muscular activity during movements used for rehabilitation, despite exercises using training aids, poles and stretches being reported as therapeutic and strengthening. The use of EMG within the current studies does suggest relative patterns of muscle activity may be useful in comparing activity of one exercise to another and are worthy of further investigation in relation to rehabilitation exercise.
... Strength gains can be observed across many loading intensities, as long as a minimum intensity is achieved, thought to be around 40-60% voluntary activation [89]. Greater gains in strength, likely due to superior neural adaptation's occur with higher intensities [90], with a dose-response relationship between intensity and strength gains [91][92][93]. Heavy resistances also appear to be essential for promoting adaptions in RFD and maximal eccentric strength [94][95][96][97]. Lighter resistances to fatigue (e.g., sustained efforts/high repetitions, with minimal recovery between sets) are effective for training muscle endurance/work capacity. ...
Article
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It is important to optimise the functional recovery process to enhance patient outcomes after major injury such as anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction (ACLR). This requires in part more high-quality original research, but also an approach to translate existing research into practice to overcome the research to implementation barriers. This includes research on ACLR athletes, but also research on other pathologies, which with some modification can be valuable to the ACLR patient. One important consideration after ACLR is the recovery of hamstring muscle function, particularly when using ipsilateral hamstring autograft. Deficits in knee flexor function after ACLR are associated with increased risk of knee osteoarthritis, altered gait and sport-type movement quality, and elevated risk of re-injury upon return to sport. After ACLR and the early post-operative period, there are often considerable deficits in hamstring function which need to be overcome as part of the functional recovery process. To achieve this requires consideration of many factors including the types of strength to recover (e.g., maximal and explosive, multiplanar not just uniplanar), specific programming principles (e.g., periodised resistance programme) and exercise selection. There is a need to know how to train the hamstrings, but also apply this to the ACLR athlete. In this paper, the authors discuss the deficits in hamstring function after ACLR, the considerations on how to restore these deficits and align this information to the ACLR functional recovery process, providing recommendation on how to recover hamstring function after ACLR.
... Thus, our results disagree with previous reviews 6,46 which indicated that performing a greater number of repetitions per set during RT maximizes gains in local muscular endurance. In this line, previous studies comparing RT programs with different numbers of repetitions 16,47 or VL within the set 17,18 also showed no significant differences between groups in local muscular endurance. Taken together, results of these studies suggest that the increments observed in the number of repetitions completed against a given absolute load do not directly depend on the number of repetitions performed in each training set, which agrees with the low and non-significant correlations found in the present study between the individual relative changes in the fatigue test and the total number of repetitions completed during the training program (r = −0.158) ...
Article
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This study aimed to compare the effects of three resistance training (RT) programs differing in the magnitude of velocity loss (VL) allowed in each exercise set: 10%, 30% or 45% on changes in strength, vertical jump, sprint performance and EMG variables. Thirty‐three young men were randomly assigned into three experimental groups (VL10%, VL30% and VL45%; n=11 each) that performed a velocity‐based RT program for 8 weeks using only the full‐squat exercise (SQ). Training load (55‐70% 1RM), frequency (2 sessions/week), number of sets (3) and inter‐set recovery (4 min) were identical for all groups. Running sprint (20 m), countermovement jump (CMJ), 1RM, muscle endurance and EMG during SQ were assessed pre‐ and post‐training. All groups showed significantly (VL10%: 6.4‐58.6%; VL30%: 4.5‐66.2%; VL45%: 1.8‐52.1%; p<0.05‐0.001) improvements in muscle strength and muscle endurance. However, a significant group×time interaction (p<0.05) was observed in CMJ, with VL10% showing greater increments (11.9%) than VL30% and VL45%. In addition, VL10% resulted in greater percent change in sprint performance than the other two groups (VL10%: ‐2.4%; VL30%: ‐1.8%; VL45%: ‐0.5%). No significant changes in EMG variables were observed for any group. RT with loads of 55‐70% 1RM characterized by a low velocity loss (VL10%) provides a very effective and efficient training stimulus since it yields similar strength gains and greater improvements in sports‐related neuromuscular performance (jump and sprint) compared to training with higher velocity losses (VL30%, VL45%). These findings indicate that the magnitude of VL reached in each exercise set considerably influences the observed training adaptations.
... We conducted the local muscular endurance test at preintervention and postintervention keeping the relative load constant (i.e., 70% 1RM) to assess local muscular endurance capacity (i.e., resistance to fatigue). This removes the confounding variable of muscular strength that is observed in absolute muscular endurance assessments (3). For example, if 70% of the pretraining 1RM was kept constant into posttesting in the current study, as with absolute muscular endurance testing protocols, subjects would have used 57.65-68.37% ...
Article
Davies, TB, Halaki, M, Orr, R, Mitchell, L, Helms, ER, Clarke, J, and Hackett, DA. Effect of set structure on upper-body muscular hypertrophy and performance in recreationally trained men and women. J Strength Cond Res XX(X): 000-000, 2021-This study explored the effect of volume-equated traditional-set and cluster-set structures on muscular hypertrophy and performance after high-load resistance training manipulating the bench press exercise. Twenty-one recreationally trained subjects (12 men and 9 women) performed a 3-week familiarization phase and were then randomized into one of two 8-week upper-body and lower-body split programs occurring over 3 and then progressing to 4 sessions per week. Subjects performed 4 sets of 5 repetitions at 85% one repetition maximum (1RM) using a traditional-set structure (TRAD, n = 10), which involved 5 minutes of interset rest only, or a cluster-set structure, which included 30-second inter-repetition rest and 3 minutes of interset rest (CLUS, n = 11). A 1RM bench press, repetitions to failure at 70% 1RM, regional muscle thickness, and dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry were used to estimate changes in muscular strength, local muscular endurance, regional muscular hypertrophy, and body composition, respectively. Velocity loss was assessed using a linear position transducer at the intervention midpoint. TRAD demonstrated a significantly greater velocity loss magnitude (g = 1.50) and muscle thickness of the proximal pectoralis major (g = -0.34) compared with CLUS. There were no significant differences between groups for the remaining outcomes, although a small effect size favoring TRAD was observed for the middle region of the pectoralis major (g = -0.25). It seems that the greater velocity losses during sets observed in traditional-set compared with cluster-set structures may promote superior muscular hypertrophy within specific regions of the pectoralis major in recreationally trained subjects.
... The rectified and smoothed EMG signal was positively related to the amount of force produced by the muscle; hence, it could provide a general guideline as to the difficulty of the exercise [45]. Loads of 45-50% of one repetition at maximum effort (1RM) have been shown to increase strength in previously untrained individuals [46][47][48]. The addition of the suspension training system could effectively increase the anterior and posterior core muscle activation from low level to very high level, thereby improving core training exercises in a similar body position for strengthening purposes. ...
Article
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This study aimed to compare the neuromuscular activation of selected core musculature in supine and prone bridge exercises under stable versus suspended conditions. Forty-three healthy male participants were recruited to measure the electromyographic activities of the rectus abdominis (RA), lumbar multifidus (LM), thoracic erector spinae (TES), rectus femoris (RF), gluteus maximus (GM), and biceps femoris (BF) during supine and prone bridge exercises under six conditions: control, both arms and feet on the floor (Pronecon and Supinecon); arms on the floor and feet on the suspension system (Prone-Feetsuspension and Supine-Feetsuspension); and arms on the suspension system and feet on the floor (Prone-Armsuspension and Supine-Armsuspension). Prone-Armsuspension yielded significantly higher activities in the RA, RF, TES, and LM than Prone-Feetsuspension (p < 0.01) and Pronecon (p < 0.001). Moreover, Supine-Feetsuspension elicited significantly higher activities in the RA, RF, TES, LM, and BF than Supine-Armsuspension (p < 0.01) and Supinecon (p < 0.001). Furthermore, Supine-Feetsuspension elicited significantly higher activities in the RF, TES, and BF than Supinecon (p < 0.01). Therefore, if the RA and/or RF were the target training muscles, then Prone-Armsuspension was recommended. However, if the TES, LM, and/or BF were the target training muscles, then Supine-Feetsuspension was recommended.
... However, our exercise did not increase muscle mass. This result may be due to the fact that no resistance was applied to the muscle group during the exercise; resistance exercise is known to facilitate muscle growth factors release, leading to muscle regeneration [14][15][16][17][18]. The study period of 12 weeks of exercise may also have been an inadequate duration to build up muscle mass [19]. ...
Article
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Background: Alzheimer's disease (AD) is known to accelerate muscle loss in the elderly due to reduced physical performance, increasing the prevalence and severity of sarcopenia. This study was undertaken to determine whether simple bedside exercise training may facilitate muscle growth and strengthening in moderate-degree AD patients. Methods: This study was conducted on 26 prospectively recruited women admitted to a nursing hospital, who had moderate AD and sarcopenia. They were randomly and evenly divided into the control and exercise groups. For five sessions per week, those in the exercise group underwent 30 min of therapist-supervised exercise by simply kicking a balloon connected to the ceiling by a piece of string while lying on a bed. Additional exercise was encouraged, and isometric maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) and skeletal muscle mass index (SMI) were measured and calculated after 12 weeks. Results: Through simple exercise training for 12 weeks, MVCs for hip flexion and knee extension significantly increased in the exercise group. However, no significant differences in SMI were found between the two groups. Conclusions: We believe that our simple exercise method can be applied to patients with AD for maintaining and enhancing the strength of the muscles of the lower extremities.
... Despite their low number, the results from their research seem to be very interesting. Their findings do not reject the commonly accepted approach but they add and upgreade with valuable knowledge: both low repetitions and high weight and high repetitions and lighter weight can increase the strength in men, women and children (Anderson & Kearney, 1982) (Stone & Coulter, 1994) (Faigenbaum, Westcott, Loud, & Long, 1999). ...
Article
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The purpose of this paper was to conduct a systematic review of the current body of literature and a meta-analysis to compare changes in strength and hypertrophy between low- versus high-load resistance training protocols. Searches of PubMed/MEDLINE, Cochrane Library and Scopus were conducted for studies that met the following criteria: 1) an experimental trial involving both low- (≤60% 1 RM) and high- (>60% 1 RM) load training; 2) with all sets in the training protocols being performed to momentary muscular failure; 3) at least one method of estimating changes in muscle mass and/or dynamic, isometric or isokinetic strength was used; 4) the training protocol lasted for a minimum of 6 weeks; 5) the study involved participants with no known medical conditions or injuries impairing training capacity. A total of 21 studies were ultimately included for analysis. Gains in 1RM strength were significantly greater in favor of high- versus low-load training, while no significant differences were found for isometric strength between conditions. Changes in measures of muscle hypertrophy were similar between conditions. The findings indicate that maximal strength benefits are obtained from the use of heavy loads while muscle hypertrophy can be equally achieved across a spectrum of loading ranges.
Chapter
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İçindekiler Giriş Kriz Yönetimi, Karar Verme ve Özgüven Kavramları.............91 2.1. Kriz Yönetimi.......................................................................91 2.1.1. Yönetim, Spor Yönetimi, Kriz ve Sporda Kriz Yönetimi Kavramları............................................................91 2.1.2. Krizin Evreleri.............................................................92 2.2. Karar Verme...................................................................94 2.2.1. Sporda Karar Verme...................................................95 2.2.2. Karar Verme Süreci Dönemleri................................96 2.3. Özgüven................................................................................97 2.3.1. Sporda Özgüven..........................................................98 3. Yöntem.........................................................................................100 3.1. Araştırma Modeli..............................................................100 3.2. Araştırmanın Evreni ve Örneklemi................................100 3.3. Veri Toplama Araçları.......................................................101 3.3.1. Kriz Yönetimi Ölçeği................................................102 3.3.2. Melbourne Karar Verme Ölçeği..............................103 3.3.3. Öz-güven Ölçeği.......................................................104 3.4. Verilerin Toplanması.........................................................105 3.5. Verilerin Analizi................................................................105 3.6. Bulgular...............................................................................105 4. Sonuç, Tartışma ve Öneriler.....................................................118
Preprint
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Resistance training may differentially affect morphological adaptations along the length of uni-articular and bi-articular muscles. The purpose of this study was to compare changes in muscle morphology along the length of the rectus femoris (RF) and vastus lateralis (VL) in response to resistance training. Following a 2-wk preparatory phase, 15 resistance-trained men (24.0 ± 3.0 y, 90.0 ± 13.8 kg, 174.9 ± 20.7 cm) completed pre-training (PRE) assessments of muscle thickness (MT), pennation angle (PA), cross-sectional area (CSA), and echo-intensity in the RF and VL at 30, 50, and 70% of each muscle's length; fascicle length (FL) was estimated from respective measurements of MT and PA within each muscle and region. Participants then began a high intensity, low volume (4 x 3 - 5 repetitions, 3min rest) lower-body resistance training program, and repeated all PRE-assessments after 8 weeks (2 d ? wk-1) of training (POST). Although three-way (muscle [RF, VL] x region [30, 50, 70%] x time [PRE, POST]) repeated measures analysis of variance did not reveal significant interactions for any assessment of morphology, significant simple (muscle x time) effects were observed for CSA (p = 0.002) and FL (p = 0.016). Specifically, average CSA changes favored the VL (2.96 ± 0.69 cm2, p
Thesis
Maximal strength is a physical quality imperative to success in strength sports and can also play a role in enhancing performance within many other sports. Tapering is a reduction in training load frequently undertaken prior to competitions in order to minimise training related fatigue and thus improve athletic performance. There is currently limited research for athletes and coaches to utilise when planning tapering to maximise strength at key events. This thesis investigated how strength-trained men can best structure the taper period to improve strength performance and attempted to identify the mechanisms underlying any performance improvements. Two literature reviews (Chapters Two and Three) were performed to provide background information regarding training for maximal strength and summarise current knowledge on tapering for maximal strength. The literature revealed that maximal strength training should involve high intensity training (>80% one repetition maximum (1RM)), for multiple sets, with at least two sessions per week for each major muscle group. The current literature indicated that reductions in training volume (by 30-70%) with maintained, or slight increases, in intensity were most effective for improving maximal strength. However, optimal magnitudes of change during the taper were unclear. Short periods of training cessation (less than a week) were also found to be effective at enhancing, or maintaining, maximal strength. The first study (Chapter Four) used a qualitative approach to determine strategies currently utilised by 11 elite New Zealand powerlifters (age = 28.4 ± 7.0 years, best Wilks score = 431.9 ± 43.9 points). Athletes reduced training volume by 58.9 ± 8.4%, while maintaining (or slightly reducing) training intensity. The taper lasted 2.4 ± 0.9 weeks, with the final resistance training session 3.7 ± 1.6 days out from competition. Tapering was performed to achieve maximal recovery, and practices were largely informed through trial and error, with changes based upon ‘feel’. Athletes usually removed accessory exercises and focused primarily upon the competition lifts during the taper. The first training study (Chapter Five) involved a cross-over design to determine the effects of two durations, 3.5 or 5.5 days, of training cessation on performance following four-weeks of training. Eight resistance trained males (age = 23.8 ± 5.4 years, bodyweight (BW) = 79.6 ± 10.2 kg, relative deadlift 1RM = 1.90 ± 0.30 times BW) completed the study. Combined data showed significant performance improvements, compared to pre-training, for both countermovement jump (CMJ) height (P = 0.022) and isometric bench press (IBP) relative peak force (P = 0.011) following short term training cessation (both small effect size (ES) = 0.30). This significant improvement was not present on the final training day, showing that training cessation was an effective means of enhancing strength and power. No significant differences were observed between 3.5 and 5.5 days of training cessation for any measure. These results suggest that a short period of strength training cessation can have positive effects on maximal strength expression, perhaps due to decreased neuromuscular fatigue. The second training study (Chapter Six) also had a cross-over design to determine the effects of two variations in intensity (+5% or -10%) during a one week strength taper with volume reductions (-70%), following four-weeks of training. Eleven strength-trained males (age = 21.3 ± 3.3 years, BW = 92.3 ± 17.6 kg, relative 1RM deadlift = 1.90 ± 0.20 times BW) completed the study. Combined data for both groups showed significant improvements in CMJ height over time (P < 0.001), with significant improvements across all time points (pre- to post-training P = 0.010, ES = 0.23; pre-training to post-taper P = 0.001, ES = 0.37; and, post-training to post-taper P = 0.002, ES = 0.14). Combined data for CMJ flight time: contraction time also showed significant improvements over time (P = 0.004), with significant improvements from pre- to post-training (P = 0.012, ES = 0.27). Combined data for isometric mid-thigh pull (MTP) relative peak force showed significant improvements over time (P = 0.033), with significant increases found from pre- to post-training (P = 0.013, ES = 0.25). The higher intensity taper produced small ES improvements following the taper for CMJ height (ES = 0.43), CMJ flight time: contraction time (ES = 0.42) and MTP relative peak force (ES = 0.37). In contrast, the lower intensity taper only produced a small ES improvement for CMJ height (ES = 0.30). However, differences between groups were not significant. These results indicate that a strength taper with volume reductions can have positive effects on maximal strength and power performance, with a tendency for higher intensity tapering to be more effective. This thesis has documented current tapering practices of strength athletes and demonstrated both short term training cessation and volume reduced strength tapers as effective methods of improving maximal strength following training. When tapering, athletes should make substantial training volume reductions with little changes to training intensity. During a taper, training should focus on competition specific strength exercises, and strength training should cease a few days prior to important events.
Presentation
DİRENÇ ANTRENMANLARININ TEMELİ, EGZERSİZ REÇETELENDİRİLMESİ ve SÜRECİ
Research
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The main purpose of the present study was to find out the effect of low resistance and high resistance training on selected physiological parameters of soccer players. For this study, total sixty (60) male Soccer players are selected as subject from Manipur University who participated in the national level competition. The age of the subject were ranged between 18-24 years. They were divided into three groups consisting of twenty(20) subjects in each group and randomly assigned as experimental group (A) underwent Low Resistance Training , Experimental group (B) underwent High Resistance Training and assigned as control group (C). Pre-test and post-test data were collected before and after completion of Resistance training on selected physiological parameters i.e cardiovascular Endurance and Resting pulse rate. After the initial tests, the low Resistance Training and high Resistance training were administered to the two experimental groups, where no special training was administered to the control group. The training program was administered for the period of six (6) weeks, four (4) days in a week in progressive manner. The requirements of the experimental procedures, testing as well as exercise schedules were explained to them so as to avoid any ambiguity of the effort required on their part and prior to the administration of the study, the investigators got the individual consent from each subject. To find out the significance of mean difference among pre-test, post-test and adjusted means and analysis of co variance techniques were employed. The level of significant was set at 0.05 levels. On the basis of statistical technique it was concluded there was significant improvement on selected physiological parameters.
Article
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The purpose of this investigation was to examine the effect of a 6-8 week training program with three speed pattern squats on various physical performance. Twelve male and six male athletes with varying levels of resistance training experience performed sessions of squats with either Strength type (5RM*5set, 6 male) or Slow type (8-15RM*6set, 6 male) or Speed type (15reps*5set, 8 athletes). Anatomical cross sectional area (ACSA) of Quadriceps, Hamstrings, Adductor muscles, and Gluteus maximus, and some body composition were measured, and a 30 m sprint, Counter movement jump, Rebound drop jump, Muscle power at Cybex were performed before and after training. There were significant increases in ACSA of Quadriceps and Hamstrings for the Slow type training group only. In contrast, the Strength and Speed type training groups significantly increased 30 m sprint and Drop jump performance. And the Strength type training groups also significantly increased in the hip extensor muscles power. This investigation indicates that resistance training with slow movement results cause muscle hypertrophy, but appear to have no significant effect about jumping and running performances. On the other hand, the resistance training with high volume and high speed results in increased movement velocity capabilities and that velocity specific changes were caused by effective use of stretch shortening cycle.
Article
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Five men were studied before and after 7 wk of isokinetic strength training to determine its effects on muscle enzyme activities and fiber composition. One of the subject's legs was trained using 10 repeated 6-s maximal work bouts, while the other leg performed repeated 30-s maximal knee extension exercise. The total work accomplished by each leg was constant. Training 4 times/wk achieved similar gains in peak torque for both legs at the training velocity (3.14 rad/s) and at slower speeds. Fatigability of the knee extensor muscles, as measured by a 60-s exercise test, was similar in both legs after training. Biopsy specimens showed significant changes in the % of the muscle area composed of type I and IIa fibers as a result of both strength training programs. In terms of muscle enzymes, only the 30 s exercise program resulted in elevated glycolytic, ATP-CP and mitochondrial activities. Despite these changes, none of the parameters measured were found to be related to the gains in either muscle strength or fatigability during maximal isokinetic contractions.
Article
The number of repetitions subjects could perform when resistive weight for knee flexion exercise was equal to 40, 45, 50, and 55 percent of the strength of the flexor muscles of the knee joint was determined. A resistance load of 55 percent was found satisfactory for obtaining the desired ten repetitions maximum. When compared with available data for knee extension exercise, it was found that while both repetition decrement curves appeared linear, more repetitions were performed for knee flexion exercise at the lighter loads. In addition, more variability and greater strength increases during the exercise program were obtained for knee flexion exercise.
Article
In these days of interest in physical activity, isometric exercise, and fitness geared to the improvement of the human soma, if not the psyche, it is reasonable to expect certain basic cause-andeffect answers about these preoccupations. Yet it is uncertain, though plausible, that exercise is hygienic; and, if it is, it is even more uncertain how it works. Another fundamental question is the mechanism of the ergogenic effects of exercise. Obvious as it is at the gross level, many details remain obscure. Though maintenance of health through activity is important, it is this ergogenic aspect of exercise, the enhancement of work performance, that we wish to discuss. The idea that strength and hypertrophy together invariably result from strenuous exercise is firmly rooted in popular and medical thought. Physiologically, this dual effect is included in the general term, work-hypertrophy. Second, the assumption of interdependence of strength and hypertrophy also implies that
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L'ipertrofia compensatoria dei muscoli soleo e plantare di ratto in seguito a tenotomia del sinergista gastrocnemio non appare mediata dall'innervazione, ma verosimilmente legata a un effetto diretto della accresciuta tensione meccanica sui muscoli interessati.
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Gegenber nichtgedehnten Muskeln weisen gedehnte Skelettmuskeln in vitro eine betrchtlich erhhte Rate von Aminsureninkorporation in das Muskelprotein auf.
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Nine different weight training programs were compared to determine which were more effective in improving strength. The experiment was conducted with the bench press lift for a period of 12 weeks with approximately 20 subjects in each weight training program. Subjects were tested for the 1 RM on the bench press lift at the beginning of training and at three-week intervals. Training took place three times weekly with the variations in programs involving one, two, and three sets, and two, six, and ten repetitions per set. The results showed that three sets and six repetitions per set were best for improving strength.
Article
Sprint type strength training was performed 3-4 times a week for 8 weeks by 4 healthy male students (16-18 yrs). The training was carried out on a treadmill at high speed and with high inclination. Muscle biopsies were obtained from vastus lateralis before and after the training period for histochemical classification of slow and fast twitch muscle fibres and for biochemical determination of metabolites and enzyme activities. Muscle fibre type distribution was unchanged, whereas fibre area indicated an increase for both fibre types in 3 subjects after training. The muscle enzyme activities of Mg2+ stimulated ATPase, myokinase and creatine phosphokinase increased 30, 20, and 36 percent, respectively. Muscle concentration of ATP and creatine phosphate (CP) did not change with training. Sargent's jump increased with on average 4 cm (from 47 to 51 cm), maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) with 19 kp (from 165 to 184 kp), and endurance at 50 percent of MVC with 9 s (from 47 to 56 s), respectively. After training all subjects showed a gain in body weight (mean 1.4 kg) and in thigh circumference (mean 1.5 cm) indicating a larger leg muscle volume and consequently also an increase in total ATP and CP.
Article
Progressive strength training was performed 3 times a week for 8 weeks by 14 male students (19-31 yrs.). The training program consisted mainly of dynamic exercises for the leg extensors with maximal or close to maximal loads. The training caused significant improvements in dynamic and isometric strength. One repetition maximum in squats increased with 67%, Sargent jump with 22%, and maximal voluntary isometric contraction (MVC) with 13%, respectively. Body weight and leg muscle circumferences remained unchanged after training, whereas total body potassium, lean body mass and calculated total muscle mass increased, suggesting a change in body composition with training. Muscle biopsies were obtained from vastus lateralis for fibre analyses and determination of enzyme activities. There were no changes in muscle fibre composition or fibre area with training. The activities of Mg2+ stimulated ATPase, creatine phosphokinase and phosphofructokinase remained unchanged, whereas myokinase activity was increased after training from (1.41 to 1.52 moles x 10(-4) x g-1 x min-1, p less than 0.05). After training significant correlations (p less than 0.01) were demonstrated between Mg2+ stimulated ATPase activity and % fast twitch fibres (% FT) (r = 0.67), as well as between myokinase activity and % FT (r = 0.86).
Article
Nine healthy subjects were studied under control conditions and following 5 mo of heavy resistance training and 5 wk of immobilization in elbow casts. Needle biopsies were taken from triceps brachii and analyzed for adenosine triphosphate (ATP), adenosine diphosphate (ADP), creatine (C), creatine phosphate (CP, and glycogen concentrations. Training resulted in an 11% increase in arm circumference and a 28% increase in maximal elbow extension strength. Immobilization resulted in decreases in arm circumference and elbow extension strength of 5% and 35%, respectively. Training also resulted in significant increases in resting concentrations of muscle creatine (by 39%), CP (by 22%), ATP (by 18%), and glycogen (by 66%). Conversely, immobilization significantly reduced CP concentration by 25% and glycogen concentration by 40%. It was concluded that heavy-resistance training results in increases in muscle energy reserves which may be reversed by a period of immobilization-induced disuse.
Article
1. The contractile properties of human motor units from the first dorsal interosseus muscle of the hand were studied during voluntary isometric contractions using recently developed techniques.2. The twitch tensions produced by motor units varied widely from about 0.1-10 g. The twitch tension of a motor unit varied nearly linearly as a function of the level of voluntary force at which it was recruited over the entire range of forces studied (0-2 kg).3. The number of additional motor units recruited during a given increment in force declined sharply at high levels of voluntary force. This suggests that even though the high threshold units generate more tension, the contribution of recruitment to increases in voluntary force declines at higher force levels.4. Contraction times for these motor units varied from 30 to 100 msec. Over 80% had contraction times less than 70 msec, and might be classed as fast twitch motor units. The larger motor units, which were recruited at higher threshold forces, tended to have shorter contraction times than the smaller units.
Article
Weight-lifters, endurance events athletes and untrained controls (8 in each group) were studied by means of muscle biopsy, and determination of maximal aerobic capacity and maximal voluntary isometric muscle strength. By histochemical methods applied to the biopsy specimens, muscle fibres were separated in two main groups: red fibres (with low activity of myofibrillar ATPase) and white fibres (with high activity of myofibrillar ATPase). The weight lifters with high isometric muscular strength had significantly larger white fibres than the others. The endurance events athletes with high aerobic capacity but ordinary isometric muscle strength had white fibres of the same size as the control group. The size of the red fibres was the same for all three groups. It was concluded that a high isometric muscular strength is well correlated with large cross-sectional area of white fibres. The size of red fibres seems to be unrelated to isometric muscular strength as well as aerobic capacity.
Article
1. Human subjects generated approximately linearly increasing or decreasing voluntary, isometric contractions using the first dorsal interosseus muscle of the hand.2. Single motor units began firing at 8.4+/-1.3 impulses/sec (mean +/- S.D. of an observation) and increased their firing rate 1.4+/-0.6 impulses/sec for each change of 100 g in voluntary force. These values were independent of the threshold force for recruiting motor units.3. At intermediate rates of increasing and decreasing voluntary force (one complete cycle every 10 sec) the firing rate of single motor units varied linearly with force over the entire range of forces studied. However, during slow increases in voluntary force, the firing rate tended to reach a plateau, while during rapid increases an initial train of impulses at a roughly constant rate was observed.4. The relative importance of recruitment and increased firing rate, as mechanisms for increasing the force of voluntary contraction, was determined. Only at low levels of force is recuitment the major mechanism. Increased firing rate becomes the more important mechanism at intermediate force levels and contributes the large majority of force if the entire physiological range is considered.
Article
Skeletal muscle tissue was obtained from the vastus lateralis of six normal college male students. Two biopsies were obtained prior to, and one following the training period. Two subjects performed isotonic leg extensions, two performed isometric leg extensions, and two ran up and down stadium bleachers. All training periods lasted 8 weeks. Muscle tissue was processed immediately for electron microscope examination. The following parameters were measured from micrographs of longitudinal sections: sarcomere length, sarcomere width, A band length, I band length, intracellular fat globule quantity and diameter, mitochondria length, mitochondria quantity, and Z band width. The following parameters were measured from micrographs of cross sections: myosin fiber concentration, distance between myosin filaments, myosin filament diameter, and actin filament diameters. Observations were also made on the geometric arrangement of the filaments, glycogen, and gross myofibrillar structure. Major findings were: there are between 7 and 11 actin fibers in “orbit” around each myosin fiber, increased glycogen and intracellular fats, greater mitochondria length, decreased myosin density, and an increase in myosin fiber diameter.
Article
Twenty-four male university students participated in a 7-week training program with sessions held three times weekly. Each session consisted of one all-out bout of elbow flexion on an arm lever ergometer at a work rate of 40 repetitions per min. against a resistance of 11.03 lb. Pre- and post-testing consisted of a 5-min. period during which the subject contracted the elbow flexors maximally once every 2 sec. for a total of 150 contractions. Results revealed that training elicited significant increases in the parameters of initial strength, final strength, and total work, but no alteration occurred in fatigable work. The pre- and post-training fatigue curves were quite similar except that (a) the post-training curve was consistently higher, and (b) a fast-acting negative component present during the early stages of exercise was more pronounced following training. It was concluded that the primary effect of low resistance endurance training was the enhancement of muscular strength.
Article
Male university students (N=20) participated in a 6-week training program with sessions held three times weekly. During each training session, every subject performed three sets (10 repetitions per set) of preferred arm curls against resistances of one-half 10-repetition maximum (10-RM), three-quarters 10-RM, and 10-RM, respectively. Pre- and post-testing consisted of a series of 150 maximum contractions performed every other second over a 5-min. period. Results indicated that significant gains occurred in the parameters of initial strength, final strength, and total work, but no change was observed in fatigable work. An exponential analysis of the fatigue curves revealed no appreciable alteration as a result of the training. It was concluded that the principal effects caused by high-resistance, low-repetition training seem to be increased levels of strength and absolute endurance.
Article
Skeletal muscle was obtained from the vastus lateralis of three normal college male students. Two biopsies were obtained prior to a training period and one after the training period. Subjects participated in an intense weight training program involving isometric and isotonic exercises. The subjects participated in the exercise regimen five days in each week for a period of 10 weeks. Muscle tissue was processed immediately for electron microscope examination. The following parameters were measured from micrographs of longitudinal sections: sarcomere length, sarcomere width, intracellular fat, mitochondria number and mitochondria length. The following parameters were measured from micrographs of cross sections: myosin filament concentration, distance between myosin filaments, myosin filament diameter, the number of actin filaments in orbit around a myosin filament, and gross cell size. Major findings included significant changes in myosin filament concentration, distance between myosin filaments, and the number of actin filaments in orbit around a myosin filament.
Article
Summary The training effect on the human arm flexor was studied by subjecting 5 healthy males. The training was made by isometric maximum contraction, 3 times (10 seconds/bout) a day, every day except Sunday for 100 days. Ultrasonic photography was employed to estimate the cross-sectional area of the muscle.1. The muscle training of 100 days increased the maximum strength by 91.7% and the cross-sectional area of muscle by 23.0%. 2. The average values of strength per unit cross-sectional area of muscle increased from 6.3 to 10.0 kg/cm2 after 100th day of training at extended position of arm, from 4.7 to 7.5 kg/cm2 at flexed position of arm. 3. The increase of maximum strength was associated with the increase in cross-sectional area and the increase in strength per unit cross-sectional area.
Article
Thesis (M.S.)--University of Washington. Bibliography: L. 24-25.
Ultrastructural changes in human
  • Penman
  • Kenneth
Penman, Kenneth A. Ultrastructural changes in human