Article

Motion Sickness Incidence Induced by Complex Periodic Waveforms

Authors:
  • McCauley Consulting
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Abstract

Independent groups of up to 32 young men exposed in a standard seated posture to one of five conditions of vertical (Z axis) motion for up to 2 h. Exposure was less in the event of vomiting or a volunteer's voluntary withdrawal from the experiment. A control condition, sinusoidal motion of 0.17 Hz and 0.13 G R.M.S., provided the basis for comparison with the remaining four conditions, each produced by the sum of two sinusoids, the fundamental at 0.17 Hz plus the second or third harmonic. The conditions differed in the phase relationship of the fundamental and second harmonic, or in the relative acceleration levels of the two harmonic components. The predicted motion sickness incidence (MSI) for each sinusoid alone was calculated from a previously derived mathematical model and compared with the obtained MSIs. Certain motion conditions provoked unexpectedly high MSIs compared with the control condition. It was found that R.M.S. acceleration is not reliable as the sole predictor of MSI in complex motion. Further data must be obtained before accurate prediction of MSI in broadband motion will be possible.

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... Two variations on the last approach were considered, one using weighting factors from the O'Hanlon/McCauley (single-frequency) experiments [109,126], and the other using weighting factors derived from the complex motion experiments being modeled [66]. Only the last approach using the complex-motion weightings is able to predict the "unexpectedly high MSIs" noted in the preceeding paragraph; however, since this method is essentially replicating data on which it is based, and since the amount of empirical data is limited, any conclusions must be tentative, at best. ...
... Laboratory: [4,35,66,80,105,109,127,126,166] At-sea: [5,24,72,83,95,96,98,99,134,173,172,174,180] 6 Habituation Glaser, 1966 [52]; Money, 1970 [120]; and, Wiker, Pepper and McCauley. 1980 [174] provide useful introductions to the processes of adaptation and habituation. ...
... It has been suggested that as the break frequency between tilt and oscillation perceptions of the otoliths is around 0.2 Hz, this frequency zone is prone to perceptual uncertainty, leading to the development of motion sickness (38). No simple relationship could be found between the predicted motion sickness incidence for a single-frequency motion (11,102,112) and the higher than theoretically predicted occurrence of seasickness at sea or under complex wave conditions in the laboratory (60). Later models that are based on the weighted addition of various motion parameters (acceleration magnitude, frequency, and duration) provide better prediction for the occurrence of seasickness and are employed in various international engineering standards for ship motion (92). ...
Article
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Motion sickness has a major influence on modern traveling activities and the rapidly spreading engagement in virtual reality immersion. Recent evidence emphasizes the role of the otoliths in the pathogenesis of motion sickness, and several new theories may help explain its occurrence beyond the traditional sensory conflict theory. A promising new direction is the recently reported association of genetic polymorphism of the alpha2-adrenergic receptor with increased autonomic response to stress and motion sickness. Various physiological measures for the evaluation and prediction of motion sickness have been tested. However, no single parameter has yet been found to be of high enough sensitivity and specificity for the diagnosis or prediction of individual motion sickness susceptibility. A number of pharmacological and non-pharmacological countermeasures are used for the prevention and treatment of motion sickness. The non-pharmacological options include all procedures that reduce conflicting sensory input, accelerate the process of multi-sensory adaptation, and promote psychological factors which enable the subject to cope with his/her condition. The most effective anti-motion sickness drugs are central acting anticholinergics and H1 antihistamines; however, adverse effects on psychomotor performance may limit their use in drivers, pilots, and naval crewmembers. Recent studies may be relevant to our understanding of the link between motion sickness, migraine, vertigo, and anxiety. Based on these findings and on recent neurochemical data, the development of new anti-motion sickness agents is a promising field of investigation.
... Studies have shown that frequency, acceleration, and duration of exposure to motion interact, and the combined motion dose can be used to predict the incidence of motion sickness (O'Hanlon and McCauley, Apr, 1974;Guignard and McCauley, 1982). However, these studies expose participants to accelerations an order of magnitude higher than occurs in tall buildings. ...
Article
This paper identifies seven areas where an increase in our fundamental understanding of the human response to building motion will facilitate the design of next-generation serviceability criteria for wind-induced building motion. These advances in knowledge address: (1) understanding the effects of wind-induced building motion on occupants, (2) metrics for building performance assessment, (3) understanding of habituation to building motion, (4) potential and real benefits of education, (5) motion characteristics to predict adverse occupant effects, (6) differentiation between residential and office serviceability criteria, and (7) multidisciplinary research methods and measures used in occupant comfort research. Each is discussed with reference to engineering literature and incorporates a multidisciplinary perspective including psychological and physiological research. Finally, methodological issues in the occupant comfort literature are discussed and recommendations for future research are offered to facilitate the design of next-generation serviceability criteria for wind-induced building motion.
... Several other factors can influence the experience of cybersickness, such as the speed of the perceived motion [13,44,45], its size [46,47], exposure time [48][49][50] and acceleration [51,52]. Similarly these same factors can also affect vection: speed [53][54][55][56], size [57][58][59][60] and exposure time [61], as well as acceleration [62]. ...
Article
Cybersickness is an unpleasant side effect of Virtual Reality and is often detrimental to a user’s experience. It shows a complex relationship to vection (illusory self-motion) as well as postural instability. Three experiments were conducted presenting both expanding and rotating colourful optimised Fraser Wilcox illusions as well as grey-scaled controlled versions of the illusions. Cybersickness and vection were reported and head movements in medio-lateral and anterior-posterior direction were recorded. The experiments found that perceived visual motion (illusory motion) is sufficient to elicit vection in the absence of any stimulated visual motion. The strength of motion perceived in the illusions was related to the experience of cybersickness and vection, with illusions that were perceived as moving more eliciting stronger experiences of both. Surprisingly, rotating illusions were continuously perceived as moving more compared to expanding motion illusions, which could be related to missing stereoscopic motion-in-depth cues. Head movements were unrelated to any stimuli properties, suggesting that the motion signal elicited by the illusions might not have been strong enough to cause postural instability. Finally, dizziness has been identified as the possible link between cybersickness, vection and head movements supporting sensory conflict as well postural instability theories of cybersickness.
... otted the data inFigure 2 along with the MILSTD 1472C data ofFigure 1. clearly, the major amount of energy is in a frequency where seasickness predominates, but it dIso appears to be below the point where 10% vomit over 8 hours. It is of more than passing interest that the data on which the military standard are based are the single frequency case. Guignard and McCauley (1982) showed greater sickness when complex waveforms were employed at the same frequency and acceleration. Simulation not only entails complex waveforms, but distributes the energy in gx and gy as well as gz. An additional complication of such a stimulus is that it may exhibit lower thresholds for nausea (Irwin, 1976) in gx and gY than for gz ...
Article
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Ground-based flight simulators train effectively and at a relatively low cost, but simulator sickness may compromise their utility. Within the U.S. Navy, simulator sickness is reported with increasing frequency. Instructors complain that such distress may interfere with simulator use and reduce the effectiveness of training. Operational effectiveness is compromised by flight restrictions subsequent to training in some simulators. Field studies conducted over the last two years at 10 flight simulator sites showed incidence rates ranged from 12%-60% for these simulators. A data base is being assembled to discover whether the incidence of symptoms is related to specific equipment features of syllabus demands that require a variety of motion characteristics (i.e., hover, air combat, jinking). Wide field of view, distortion, cue asynchrony, and very low frequency vibration also appear to be contributing factors. A cross-disciplinary biomedical engineering panel was convened to discuss the problem. The present paper describes the recommendations of this panel. Research literature related both to the findings the data base survey and to the recommendations has been integrated in this report.
... Moreover, the seasickness predictions are restricted to vertical motions, where vessel motions other than the heave can also be provocative [15]. Even for vertical motions only, accurate prediction of MSI in complex broadband motion has shown to be difficult [9]. On the other hand, we assume that all manifestations of motion sickness, including seasickness, and, for example, cross- coupled Coriolis effects, have one and the same underlying mech- anism. ...
Article
In an attempt to predict the amount of motion sickness given any kind of motion stimulus, we describe a model using explicit knowledge of the vestibular system. First, the generally accepted conflict theory is restated in terms of a conflict between a vertical as perceived by the sense organs like the vestibular system and the subjective vertical as determined on the basis of previous experience. Second, this concept is integrated with optimal estimation theory by the use of an internal model. If detailed for vertical motions only, the model does predict typical observed motion sickness characteristics, irrespective the parameter setting. By adjusting the nonvestibular parameters, the model can also quantitatively be adapted to seasickness data from the literature. With this concept, sickness severity hypothetically can also be predicted for other motions, irrespective of their origin and complexity.
... The theory is consistent with literature indicating resistance or immunity to motion sickness in individuals without vestibular function. The theory can be consistent with literature [15,16,36,37,40,47,60] on the relationship between motion sickness and stimulus frequency (GIF modulation) by assuming that cyclic vestibular signals from GIF modulation interfere with the natural frequency of necessary body functions such as cardiopulmonary rhythms [59]. We acknowledge that our conceptual model must be reconciled with literature indicating resistance to sickness in very young children [44,53]. ...
Article
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Adaptation to research paradigms such as rotating rooms and optical alteration of visual feedback during movement results in development of perceptual-motor programs that provide the reflexive assistance that is necessary to skilled control of movement and balance. The discomfort and stomach awareness that occur during the adaptation process has been attributed to conflicting sensory information about the state of motion. Vestibular signals depend on the kinematics of head movements irrespective of the presence or absence of signals from other senses. We propose that sensory conflict when vestibular signals are at least one component of the conflict are innately disturbing and unpleasant. This innate reaction is part of a continuum that operates early in life to prevent development of inefficient perceptual-motor programs. This reaction operates irrespective of and in addition to reward and punishment from parental guidance or goal attainment to yield efficient control of whole body movement in the operating environment of the individual. The same mechanism is involved in adapting the spatial orientation system to strange environments. This conceptual model "explains" why motion sickness is associated with adaptation to novel environments and is in general consistent with motion sickness literature.
... There exists a major difference between MSI observed in laboratory experiments versus real life data. This difference is attributed to the fact that laboratory research, generally, focuses on simple sinusoidal motion whereas in real-life moving platforms subjects face complex periodic waveforms and aperiodic motions (Guignard & McCauley, 1982). Studies on small marine craft have found an incidence of emesis ranging 11 to 70% of the crew depending on the sea state (Holling et al., 1944; Tyler & Bard, 1949; Llano, 1955). ...
Thesis
Full-text available
This thesis proposes a linear model based on human physiology for the explanation of the Motion Sickness Incidence (MSI) found in experiments reported by McCauley, Royal, Wylie, O’Hanlon, and Mackie (1976). The major human sensory systems taken into account are vestibular, visual, and the interaction between these two sensory systems. The proposed model combines the error produced in the aforementioned two major sensory systems to estimate the MSI: - The error produced in the estimation of gravity vector in the vestibular system, and - The error produced from the retinal slip in the visual system (residual optical flow). The model is validated against the Human Factors Research, Inc. (HFR) descriptive model and the corresponding experimental data (McCauley et al., 1976). The predicted MSI approximates the experimental data with adequate precision (less than ±5% error) in the frequency range between 0.07 Hz and 0.25 Hz. The difference between the proposed model and the HFR model is increased at the outer regions of the McCauley et al. (1976) experiments. The existing differences can be attributed to the constrained nature of this thesis (not all human systems known to be contributing to motion sickness are taken into account). The model is designed to predict seasickness in populations and may not accurately predict seasickness in a specific individual. Connection between a specific parameter and susceptibility to motion sickness has yet to be found (Bles, de Jong, & Oosterveld, 1984; Lentz, 1984).
... Vertical oscillation at about 0.2 Hz (O'Hanlon and McCauley, 1974;Lawther and Giffin, 1987;Griffin, 1990) is the most provocative component of ship motion. Horizontal linear oscillation is also a component of ship motion and car motion (Guignard and McCauley, 1982;Griffin and Newman, 2004), and it evokes less motion sickness than vertical oscillation under laboratory controlled conditions (Golding and Kerguelen, 1992;Mills and Griffin, 2000;Golding et al., 2001). ...
Article
Our goal was to determine how sleep deprivation, nauseogenic motion, and a combination of motion and sleep deprivation affect cognitive vigilance, visual-spatial perception, motor learning and retention, and balance. We exposed four groups of subjects to different combinations of normal 8 h sleep or 4 h sleep for two nights combined with testing under stationary conditions or during 0.28 Hz horizontal linear oscillation.On the two days following controlled sleep, all subjects underwent four test sessions per day that included evaluations of fatigue, motion sickness, vigilance, perceptual discrimination, perceptual learning, motor performance and learning, and balance.Sleep loss and exposure to linear oscillation had additive or multiplicative relationships to sleepiness, motion sickness severity, decreases in vigilance and in perceptual discrimination and learning.Sleep loss also decelerated the rate of adaptation to motion sickness over repeated sessions.Sleep loss degraded the capacity to compensate for novel robotically induced perturbations of reaching movements but did not adversely affect adaptive recovery of accurate reaching.Overall, tasks requiring substantial attention to cognitive and motor demands were degraded more than tasks that were more automatic.Our findings indicate that predicting performance needs to take into account in addition to sleep loss, the attentional demands and novelty of tasks, the motion environment in which individuals will be performing and their prior susceptibility to motion sickness during exposure to provocative motion stimulation.
... One important aspect of sickness symptoms is the time course of the symptoms. Previous studies indicate that the symptoms increase with longer usage time [25][26][27][28][29][30][31]. For example, Stanney et al. [30] conducted a large betweensubjects study in which they showed that sickness symptoms increase steadily between 15 and 60 minutes of usage time. ...
Article
Previous research has shown that head-mounted display users experience sickness symptoms. However, many studies have used contents with fast motion, which might mask more subtle effects caused by the head-mounted display properties, like optical design or head tracking. To investigate the symptoms caused by reasons other than fast motion in contents, we used 360-degree videos without fast motion components. In a between-subjects experiment, the participants viewed 360-degree videos for 5, 10, or 20 minutes with Samsung Gear head-mounted display. The Simulator Sickness Questionnaire (SSQ) results indicate that symptom levels started to rise between 10 and 20 minutes' viewing time. The symptom profiles showed that disorientation symptoms dominated, followed by oculomotor and nausea symptoms. Cluster analysis revealed the presence of a high symptom group and a low symptom group in participants. In the former, the symptom levels increased with viewing time, while in the latter the symptoms remained mild. Based on the results, we can conclude that viewing time between 10 and 20 minutes is critical for the development of sickness symptoms for sensitive users. c 2018 Society for Imaging Science and Technology.
... Furthermore, laboratory simulation of shipboard motion found that the amount of acceleration was not a reliable predictor of motion sickness. 10 Contrary to these reports, a well-designed study employing onboard accelerometers and interviews with 4,915 passengers on an English Channel ferry, found a very strong association between motion sickness and passenger location on the ship, as well as the amount of acceleration to which the passenger was exposed. 11 In view of these contradictory reports, this study was designed to examine the association between the location of the passenger cabin on a ship, and the likelihood of motion sickness reported by unadapted passengers. ...
Article
The prevalence of motion sickness approaches 100% on rough seas. Some previous studies have reported a strong association between location on a ship and the risk of motion sickness, whereas other studies found no association. This study was undertaken to determine if there is a statistical association between the location of the passenger cabin on a ship and the risk of motion sickness in unadapted passengers. Data were collected on 260 passengers on an expedition ship traversing the Drake Passage between South America and Antarctica, during rough sea conditions. A standard scale was employed to record motion sickness severity. The risk of motion sickness was found to be statistically associated with age and sex. However, no association was found with the location of the passenger cabin. Previous research reporting a strong association of motion sickness and passenger location on a ship, studied passengers in the seated position. Passengers who are able to lie in a supine position are at considerably reduced risk of motion sickness. Expedition or cruise ships that provide ready access to berths, allow passengers to avoid the most nauseogenic positions. The location of the passenger cabin does not appear to be related to the likelihood of seasickness.
... Hz. This is true for physical displacement (e.g., Guignard & McCauley, 1982;Lawther & Griffin, 1988), and for imposed oscillations of the illuminated environment (e.g., Bonnet, Faugloire, Riley, Bardy, & Stoffregen, 2006;Koslucher, Haaland, Malsch, Webeler, & Stoffregen, 2015;Stoffregen & Smart, 1998;Stoffregen, Yoshida, Villard, Scibora, & Bardy, 2010). ...
... Research has suggested that drivers rarely experience motion sickness (Guignard and McCauley 1982;Rolnick and Lubow 1991;Dong, Yoshida, and Stoffregen 2011); while passengers often do, particularly when performing visual tasks such as reading or using a screen (Kato and Kitazaki 2008;Isu et al. 2014;Diels and Bos 2016;Jones et al. 2018;Kuiper, Bos, and Diels 2018). As automation transforms drivers into passengers, the deployment of automated vehicle (AV) technology has the potential to greatly increase the incidence of motion sickness, and hence motion sickness may be an important barrier to widespread adoption of AVs. ...
Article
As automation transforms drivers into passengers, the deployment of automated vehicles has the potential to greatly increase the incidence of motion sickness. A study was conducted to quantify motion sickness response of front-seat passengers performing ecologically relevant passenger activities during conditions consistent with driving on public roadways. Fifty-two adults with a large range of self-reported levels of motion sickness susceptibility and age participated in data collection on a closed test track in a passenger sedan. Motion sickness ratings increased with task vs. no-task, and moderate vs. low acceleration test conditions. Increased motion sickness susceptibility was associated with higher motion sickness ratings. In comparison to older participants (age >60), younger participants (age <60) experienced increased motion sickness. This is the first in-vehicle study that systematically compared normative passenger activities and acceleration magnitudes typical of normative driving conditions on motion sickness response for a large, diverse sample of passengers, enabling the exploration of the effects of covariates. Practitioner Summary: The data demonstrate that a relatively large range of motion sickness response can be expected to result from passengers performing visual tasks in passenger vehicles. Measurement and modelling efforts should seek to elucidate relationships among the factors contributing to motion sickness for the purpose of informing and prioritizing future countermeasures for AVs. Key Aspect of Research (character limit): Motion sickness may be an important barrier to widespread adoption of automated vehicles ©UMTRI
... Nevertheless, it should be noted that a more erratic pattern of similarly intense motion could potentially be considerably more provocative. Guignard and McCauley (1982) observed that certain combinations of sinusoidal vertical motion lead to more motion sickness as would be expected by adding the individual effects of single sinusoidal motions. This might be explained by the fact that a simple sinusoidal pattern is repetitive and therefore more easily allows for anticipations of motion. ...
Article
Full-text available
Objective This study explores the role of anticipation in motion sickness. We compared three conditions varying in motion predictability and assessed the effect of anticipation on subsequent illness ratings using a within-subjects design. Background Anticipation is thought to play a role in motion sickness by reducing the discrepancy between sensed and expected sensory information. However, both the exact role and potential magnitude of anticipation on motion sickness are unknown. Method Participants ( N = 17) were exposed to three 15-min conditions consisting of repeated fore-aft motion on a sled on a 40-m rail (1) at constant intervals and consistent motion direction, (2) at constant intervals but varied motion direction, and (3) at varied intervals but consistent motion direction. Conditions were otherwise identical in motion intensity and displacement, as they were composed of the same repetitions of identical blocks of motion. Illness ratings were recorded at 1-min intervals using an 11-point motion sickness scale. Results Average illness ratings after exposure were significantly lower for the predictable condition, compared with both the directionally unpredictable condition and the temporally unpredictable condition. Conclusion Unpredictable motion is significantly more provocative compared with predictable motion. Findings suggest motion sickness results from a discrepancy between sensed and expected motion, rather than from unpreparedness to motion. Application This study underlines the importance of an individual’s anticipation to motion in motion sickness. Furthermore, this knowledge could be used in domains such as that of autonomous vehicles to reduce carsickness.
... Nevertheless, an additive effect of detrimental factors might be expected, as based on the literature (Guignard and McCauley, 1982;Feenstra et al., 2011). How such effects interact is not fully known, and necessitates future research. ...
Article
Being able to anticipate upcoming motion is known to potentially mitigate sickness resulting from provocative motion. We investigated whether auditory cues could increase anticipation and subsequently reduce motion sickness. Participants (N = 20) were exposed on a sled on a rail track to two 15-min conditions. Both were identical in terms of motion, being composed of the same repeated 9 m fore-aft displacements, with a semi-random timing of pauses and direction. The auditory cues were either 1) informative on the timing and direction of the upcoming motion, or 2) non-informative. Illness ratings were recorded at 1-min intervals using a 11-point scale. After exposure, average illness ratings were significantly lower for the condition that contained informative auditory cues, as compared to the condition without informative cues. This knowledge, i.e. that auditory signals can improve anticipation to motion, could be of importance in reducing carsickness in domains such as that of autonomous vehicles.
... Various publications have demonstrated that the simplicity or predictability of the motion stimulus affects the severity of motion sickness. For example, it has been suggested that the severity of the sickness differs depending on whether the motion stimulus is a simple sine wave or a combination of multiple sine waves (Guignard and McCauley, 1982). More recently, an experiment in which the participants rode in an experimental cart without an external view and moved in the horizontal direction demonstrated that the sickness was significantly less profound when the motion pattern was predictable compared with the case in which the motion direction and timing were random (Kuiper et al., 2019). ...
Preprint
The existing computational models used to estimate motion sickness are incapable of describing the fact that the predictability of motion patterns affects motion sickness. Therefore, the present study proposes a computational model to describe the effect of the predictability of dynamics or the pattern of motion stimuli on motion sickness. In the proposed model, a submodel, in which a recursive Gaussian process regression is used to represent human features of online learning and future prediction of motion dynamics, is combined with a conventional model of motion sickness based on an observer theory. A simulation experiment was conducted in which the proposed model predicted motion sickness caused by a 900 s horizontal movement. The movement was composed of a 9 m repetitive back-and-forth movement pattern with a pause. Regarding the motion condition, the direction and timing of the motion were varied as follows: a) Predictable motion (M_P): the direction of the motion and duration of the pause were set to 8 s; b) Motion with unpredicted direction (M_dU): the pause duration was fixed as in (P), but the motion direction was randomly determined; c) Motion with unpredicted timing (M_tU): the motion direction was fixed as in (M_P), but the pause duration was randomly selected from 4 to 12 s. The results obtained using the proposed model demonstrated that the predicted motion sickness incidence for (M_P) was smaller than those for (M_dU) and (M_tU). This tendency agrees with the sickness patterns observed in a previous experimental study in which the human participants were subject to motion conditions similar to those used in our simulations. Moreover, no significant differences were found in the predicted motion sickness incidences at different conditions when the conventional model was used.
... Various publications have demonstrated that the simplicity or predictability of the motion stimulus affects the severity of motion sickness. For example, it has been suggested that the severity of the sickness differs depending on whether the motion stimulus is a simple sine wave or a combination of multiple sine waves (Guignard and McCauley, 1982). More recently, an experiment in which the participants rode in an experimental cart without an external view and moved in the horizontal direction demonstrated that the sickness was significantly less profound when the motion pattern was predictable compared with the case in which the motion direction and timing were random (Kuiper et al., 2019). ...
Article
Full-text available
The existing computational models used to estimate motion sickness are incapable of describing the fact that the predictability of motion patterns affects motion sickness. Therefore, the present study proposes a computational model to describe the effect of the predictability of dynamics or the pattern of motion stimuli on motion sickness. In the proposed model, a submodel – in which a recursive Gaussian process regression is used to represent human features of online learning and future prediction of motion dynamics – is combined with a conventional model of motion sickness based on an observer theory. A simulation experiment was conducted in which the proposed model predicted motion sickness caused by a 900 s horizontal movement. The movement was composed of a 9 m repetitive back-and-forth movement pattern with a pause. Regarding the motion condition, the direction and timing of the motion were varied as follows: (a) Predictable motion (M_P): the direction of the motion and duration of the pause were set to 8 s; (b) Motion with unpredicted direction (M_dU): the pause duration was fixed as in (M_P), but the motion direction was randomly determined; (c) Motion with unpredicted timing (M_tU): the motion direction was fixed as in (M_P), but the pause duration was randomly selected from 4 to 12 s. The results obtained using the proposed model demonstrated that the predicted motion sickness incidence for (M_P) was smaller than those for (M_dU) and (M_tU) and no considerable difference was found between M_dU and M_tU. This tendency agrees with the sickness patterns observed in a previous experimental study in which the human participants were subject to motion conditions similar to those used in our simulations. Moreover, no significant differences were found in the predicted motion sickness incidences at different conditions when the conventional model was used.
... However, laboratory experiments may underestimate motion sickness incidence compared to real life data (for example, Goto & Kanda, 1977). Some researchers attributed this difference to the fact that laboratory research, generally, focuses on simple sinusoidal motion whereas in real-life moving platforms, individuals face complex periodic waveforms and aperiodic motions (Guignard & McCauley, 1982). Reason and Brand (1975) explain susceptibility to motion sickness by noting that the body continuously expects to receive signals from its sensory organs in a recognizable pattern. ...
Thesis
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This research investigated the effects of mild motion sickness and sopite syndrome on multitasking cognitive performance. Fifty-one healthy individuals (45 males, 6 females) were recruited in three data collection periods from the pool of Naval Postgraduate School (NPS) students, faculty, and staff. Participants from the 2010 and 2011 data collection periods were randomly assigned to one of two groups, M-NM (n=20, motion in the first session, no motion in the second) or NM-M (n=19, no motion in the first session, motion in the second). All participants (n=12) from the 2012 data collection were assigned to group “NM-NM” and did not experience motion in either session. On average, reported severity of motion sickness was mild. In this study, cognitive multitasking performance deteriorated with the development of mild motion sickness; however, this result was confounded by an order effect. Performance differences between Symptomatic and Asymptomatic participants in composite (9.43%), memory (31.7%), and arithmetic (14.7%) task scores were significant only in the second experimental session. Furthermore, results suggest that performance retention between sessions in a novel cognitive multitasking environment is not affected by mild motion sickness. We postulate that the differential effect of session on the association between symptomatology and multitasking performance may be related to the attentional resources allocated to performing the multi-task. Results suggest an inverse relationship between motion sickness effects on performance and the cognitive effort focused on performing a task. Lastly, a revised definition of sopite syndrome is proposed, addressing the limitations of earlier approaches.
Article
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In this article we present a critique of the sensory conflict theory of motion sickness. We discuss three forms of sensory conflict that are believed to exist: input conflict, output conflict, and expectancy violation. We argue that any concept of sensory conflict necessarily entails the violation of internal expectations and, hence, that the three forms of conflict are logically identical. In the motion sickness literature, it is implicit that the expected pattern is one in which the inputs of the visual, vestibular, and somatosensory systems are redundant. We argue that an expectation of redundancy cannot plausibly result from interaction with the environment. We review data indicating that nonredundant patterns of intermodal stimulation lead to adaptive changes in the control of behavior; this implies that the calculation of nauseogenic conflict must be unrelated to the control of behavior. Moreover, we argue that no single pattern of sensory stimulation, redundant or otherwise, can serve as a reliable standard or expecta- tion for the calculation of sensory conflict. We conclude that there is no principled basis on which the conflict theory can distinguish between nauseogenic and nonnauseogenic situations. It follows that the concept of sensory conflict cannot provide a theoretical explanation for the existence of motion sickness. We review data suggesting an important role for the control of behavior in the etiology of motion sickness. This suggests a new basis for understanding the phenomena of motion sickness.
Chapter
The previous chapter presented details of the fundamental characteristics of somatosensation. In this chapter, the focus will be on the practical uses and applications of these characteristics. Of what use is all of the information about basic somatosensory characteristics and how does it apply to real-life situations that humans are exposed to? Among the issues to be addressed are the uses of the cutaneous surface as a substitute channel of communication, the effects of multiple sensory stimulation and the effects of stimulation upon the health and well being of humans.
Article
Fall injuries to operators of heavy mobile equipment are more frequent during egress rather than while climbing onto the equipment. One possible contributing factor is a loss of postural stability during egress. Because many of these operators are exposed to prolonged periods of whole-body vibration (WBV) while controlling the equipment, a study was conducted to determine if postural stability is impaired by WBV exposure. Subjects were tested for a difference in standing postural sway before and after seated WBV exposure. The WBV consisted of 40 minutes of vertical vibration generated by a motion platform, which emulated actual vibration levels of an operating under-ground shuttle car. Two independent variables, each at two levels, consisted of vibration and vision. The measured dependent variables were postural sway amplitude and velocity of sway. No significant difference between the vibration and no vibration conditions were found. Based on the results of this study, it cannot be concluded that WBV at the exposed frequencies influences postural stability. The results suggest that other factors may be the primary contributors to fall injuries while exiting the vehicle, such as problems with foot placement accuracy or egress system design.
Article
Although simulator sickness is known to increase with protracted exposure and to diminish with repeated sessions, limited systematic research has been performed in these areas. This study reviewed the few studies with sufficient information available to determine the effect that exposure duration and repeated exposure have on motion sickness. This evaluation confirmed that longer exposures produce more symptoms and that total sickness subsides over repeated exposures. Additional evaluation was performed to investigate the precise form of this relationship and to determine whether the same form was generalizable across varied simulator environments. The results indicated that exposure duration and repeated exposures are significantly linearly related to sickness outcomes (duration being positively related and repetition negatively related to total sickness). This was true over diverse systems and large subject pools. This result verified the generalizability of the relationships among sickness, exposure duration, and repeated exposures. Additional research is indicated to determine the optimal length of a single exposure and the optimal intersession interval to facilitate adaptation.
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Measurements were made of the motion of a ship, and of the consequent seasickness experienced by passengers. Data are presented for 17 voyages of up to 6 hours duration, involving 4915 passengers. Vertical motion occurred up to 1·0 m s r.m.s. and vomiting incidence of up to nearly 40% was encountered.Both vomiting incidence and illness rating correlated well with root mean square vertical z-axis acceleration. The effect of exposure duration was also investigated, producing suggestions for a combined measure of acceleration and time. Multiple regression analysis with all six axes of motion revealed only a small increase in correlation when all directions of motion in addition to the z-axis were taken into account.
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Motion sickness (MS) is a well-known phenomenon in aviation and in virtual environments such as simulators or computer games. The severity of MS is thought to be due to the amount of sensory conflict, which should increase with the complexity of the simulated motion. The present study focused on the direction and complexity of simulated body rotations in the genesis and severity of visually induced MS. Three simulated rollercoaster rides including translational movement in the fore-aft axis and additional rotational motion either in pitch only, along the pitch and roll axes, or in pitch, roll, and yaw were generated. We presented video clips of 15 min on a large projection screen to a total number of 61 volunteers, who were randomly assigned to 1 of the 3 rotational motion groups. MS was measured using the Fast Motion Sickness Scale (20-point verbal rating scale) and the Simulator Sickness Questionnaire. Aftereffects were captured up to 5 h after the experiment was finished. Analyses indicated lowest MS scores in the pitch-only condition (1.95). Dual- (4.33) or triple-axis (5.30) combinations revealed significantly higher MS scores than the single-axis condition, but surprisingly did not differ from each other. MS started to subside rapidly after about 1 h past stimulus presentation. We conclude that the complexity of visual motion does not increase MS linearly. Instead, we propose that MS reached a plateau in the dual-axis condition and adding a third rotational axis did not further surpass the severity of MS reached.
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While driving simulators are a valuable tool for assessing multiple dimensions of driving performance under relatively safe conditions, researchers and practitioners must be prepared for participants that suffer from simulator sickness. This paper describes multiple theories of motion sickness and presents a method for assessing and reacting to simulator sickness symptoms. Results showed that this method identified individuals who were unable to complete a driving simulator study due to simulator sickness with greater than 90% accuracy and that older participants had a greater likelihood of simulator sickness than younger participants. Possible explanations for increased symptoms experienced by older participants are discussed as well as implications for research ethics and simulator sickness prevention.
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The purpose of this report is to identify the essential characteristics of goal-directed whole-body motion. The report is organized into three major sections (Sections 2, 3, and 4). Section 2 reviews general themes from ecological psychology and control-systems engineering that are relevant to the perception and control of whole-body motion. These themes provide an organizational framework for analyzing the complex and interrelated phenomena that are the defining characteristics of whole-body motion. Section 3 of this report applies the organization framework from the first section to the problem of perception and control of aircraft motion. This is a familiar problem in control-systems engineering and ecological psychology. Section 4 examines an essential but generally neglected aspect of vehicular control: coordination of postural control and vehicular control. To facilitate presentation of this new idea, postural control and its coordination with vehicular control are analyzed in terms of conceptual categories that are familiar in the analysis of vehicular control.
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In tilting trains, low-frequency lateral and roll oscillation combine and can cause motion sickness. During a journey, passengers are exposed to motions of varying magnitudes, but the effect of a change in magnitude on motion sickness is not known. It was hypothesized that the rate of increase in motion sickness would be greater during exposure to a high-magnitude motion than during exposure to a low-magnitude motion and that there would be no difference in sickness between motions when the 'motion sickness dose value' was the same. At intervals of at least 1 wk, 20 subjects were exposed to 4 conditions consisting of 0.1-Hz sinusoidal lateral oscillation with 50% roll compensation. Each condition had four successive 15-min periods of motion presented without a break (total duration 1 h). Each 15-min motion was either a high-magnitude motion (H) (+/- 1.26 ms(-2) lateral oscillation with +/- 3.66 degrees roll oscillation) or a low-magnitude motion (L) (+/- 0.63 ms(-2) lateral oscillation with +/-1.83 degrees roll oscillation). The four conditions involved four different combinations of magnitude: 1) LLLL, 2) HHHH, 3) LHHL, and 4) HLHL. Subjects were seated in a rigid closed cabin and gave ratings of sickness at 1-min intervals. Symptoms of motion sickness were experienced in 56 of the 80 sessions. The rate of increase in motion sickness was greater with the high-magnitude motion than with the low-magnitude motion. For the two variable conditions (i.e., LHHL and HLHL), there was no significant difference in accumulated illness ratings when the motion sickness dose values were the same (i.e., between 30 and 60 min of motion). Illness ratings decreased during periods of low-magnitude motion experienced after periods of high-magnitude motion and also after the cessation of all motion. Conclusions: With combined lateral and roll oscillation, the rate of increase in motion sickness is greater during periods of high-magnitude motion than during periods of low-magnitude motion. With motions having the same motion sickness dose value but different sequences of exposure, there were no significant differences in accumulated illness ratings at times when the motion sickness dose values were the same.
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Measurements of vessel motion and consequent seasickness amongst passengers have been made on six ships, two hovercraft and a hydrofoil. Data are presented for 20 029 passengers surveyed on 114 voyages involving 370 hours of motion recordings. Vomiting incidence and illness rating were found to be linearly related to the root-mean-square magnitude of the vertical z-axis acceleration. Sickness increased with increasing duration of exposure and a measure of motion ‘dose’ is examined as a convenient way of combining the variables of stimulus magnitude and duration. High frequency motion in hovercraft at about 0·6 Hz was found to be less provoking of sickness than similar magnitudes at lower frequencies. Motion in axes other than the vertical correlated less highly with sickness, although there was some intercorrelation between axes. The results presented enable predictions to be made of seasickness occurrence in marine vessels and other forms of transport where low frequency vertical oscillations are encountered.
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Motion-induced vomiting was studied in cats exposed to vertical sinusoidal oscillation on a spring-suspended platform. Two groups of five cats each, namely, motion-untested and motion sickness-susceptible, were subjected to chronic ablation of the area postrema. Motion sickness occurred postoperatively in all the previously untested cats, and in four of the five previously susceptible cats. Statistical comparison with normal cats indicated that the operated cats were significantly more susceptible to motion sickness. The manifest loss of susceptibility in one cat with a lesion is attributed to excessive peripostremal damage. It is concluded from these results that the area postrema is not an essential link in the reflex arc of motion-induced vomiting.
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Research concerning duration effects of whole-body vibration on comfort, performance and physiological and biomechanical reactions is reviewed. It is concluded that there is only weak evidence for the existence of an increasing effects as a function of exposure time. The measures providing some support for such a conclusion have been auditory evoked potentials, biomechanical transmission, EMG and subjective estimates. However, from the research evidence it seems as if the time dependency proposed in the international standard for whole-body vibration, ISO 2631, constitutes an overestimation of the importance of exposure time for the strength of the effects.
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This publication lists citations of all unclassified research reports, special reports, monographs, joint reports, journal articles, and proceedings that were published by the Naval Aerospace Medical Laboratory during calendar years 1975 through 1993. Qualified users may request reprints from the Defense Technical Information Center, Cameron Station, Alexandria, VA 22314 (commercial 202/274-7633 or DSN 284-7633). Reports are available to the public from the National Technical Information Service, Department of Commerce, 5285 Port Royal Road, Springfield, VA 22161 (telephone 703/487-4650). Laser, Radiofrequency, Motion sickness, Horizon, Absorption, Auditory, Magnetic field, Nonionizing radiation, Sensory, Rewarming, Performance battery, Fitness, G- tolerance, GLOC, SAR, ELF, Retention, Selection, Personality, Exercise, Aviator, Speech, Nystagmus, Vestibular, Acoustic, Primate, Noise, Model, Man model, Antimotion, LCAC.
Article
This publication lists citations of all unclassified research reports, special reports, monographs, joint reports, journal articles, and proceedings that were published by the Naval Aerospace Medical Laboratory during calendar years 1978 through 1990.
Chapter
A considerable amount of work has been performed in an attempt to identify the characteristics of motion that provoke motion sickness. As you will see, this has ranged from studies in the laboratory to others that have taken place in environments more akin to the real world. Apart from giving us a better understanding of the mechanism of motion sickness, these data provide valuable design criteria to reduce provocative vehicular responses; in addition, however, we must not forget the operator’s personality and cognition. This is an example of the value of recognising the need to design with the human operator or traveller in mind from day one.
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Seakeeping trials of a United States Coast Guard (USCG) cutter in March 1984 included a human factors engineering (HFE) evaluation having particular regard to problems of seasickness in certain work stations. Some motion sickness incidence and related data, and the derivation of human factors engineering principles from such data were reported by Bittner & Guignard in 1985: and some findings supporting the general utility of using magnitude estimation of motion sickness for operational comparisons were presented later (Bittner & Guignard, 1986). The present communication documents the previously unreported seasickness and related data from those trials; and the implications of the data for the planning of future seakeeping trials. It also reviews the general conclusions of the shipboard HFE evaluations. The subjects were 16 male USCG officers and enlisted personnel assigned to duties in mission-critical workspaces, to whom two questionnaires were administered systematically: namely, Motion Sickness Symptoms and Prewatch Status. The latter instrument evaluated intervening variables including sleep and use of medication. Analyses including correlation of questionnaire and ship motion data led to the following conclusions: (1) Contrary to traditional assumptions, seasickness is characterized by at least two functionally independent factors, identified as F1 (symptomatic General Motion Illness) and F2 (Retching-Vomiting). (2) Both factors showed declines across days as well as similar carry-over and location effects within days. However, F1 reflected persistent individual differences and was strongly associated with the vertical component of the ship's motion; while F2 was transitory and associated with large transverse relative to vertical components of motion. (3) The results support previously published human factors engineering principles for minimizing seasickness incidence (Bittner & Guignard, 1985) (4) Validity of future sea trials requires (a) multiple-score scaling of motion sickness (eg, using F1 and F2); (b) control of subject crew movements about the ship during periods of observation; and (c) avoidance of steaming patterns that induce extraneous carry-over effects.
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This paper considers the assessment of comfortability and the motion control of a cruise ship in waves. In the present study, MSDV (motion sickness dose value) is chosen as a primary index to evaluate the passenger comfortability. MSDV is obtained by using a timedomain ship motion program. Seasickness level is evaluated over a short period using the frequencyweighted RMS of vertical acceleration in a low frequency range, and then can be used for long-term prediction. The present study includes the application of the motion-stabilizing fin to cooperate with the evaluation of passenger comfort. The effective stabilization of roll and pitch motion is achieved by using active stabilizing fins controlled by adopting digital control algorithms such as PID and LQR. During this study, a computer program, called WISHCRUISE, has been developed.
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A vital part of the design of tall buildings is the prediction of wind-induced motion and the assessment of its effects on occupant comfort and well being. Investigations reported herein aim to shed light on the formulation of acceptability criteria using results from three motion simulator studies and from a preliminary investigation focusing on the analysis of information pertaining to individuals with previous experience with wind-induced building motion. From the motion simulator studies it was shown that subjects' semantic evaluation of motion is dependent upon the input waveform, with a near sinusoid producing the least incidence of nausea and task disruption. The duration of the stimulus was shown to be an important factor in the consideration of a motion's acceptability, and frequency dependence of the semantically evaluated task disruption factor was demonstrated. The importance of furthering the acquisition of data from individuals with previous experience with tall building motion in wind storms, for the purpose of developing a relationship between the severity and effects of motion on an individual's well being, was highlighted.
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This paper considers the assessment of comfortability and the motion control of cruise ship in waves. In the present study, MSDV (motion sickness does value) is chosen as a primary index to evaluate the passenger comfortability. MSDV is obtained by using a time-domain ship motion program, called WISH. Seasickness level is evaluated in a short period using the frequency-weighted RMS of vertical acceleration in a low frequency range, and then it can be used for long-term prediction. In addition, the present study includes the application of the roll stabilizing fin to cooperate with the evaluation of passenger comfort. Copyright © 2009 by The International Society of Offshore and Polar Engineers (ISOPE).
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Traffic calming measures, such as raised pedestrian crossings, chicanes, speed bumps, mini-roundabouts, etc. are contributing to the improvement of road safety in urban areas, but at the same time their diffusion can produce negative effects on the quality of local transport, affecting bus passengers’ on-board comfort. The present paper aims to propose and give an initial validation of a comfort scale, putting into relation a specific comfort index with the dynamic effects on standing bus passengers and with certain road characteristics, such as the presence of roundabouts. The results obtained are intended as an initial contribution to identifying general guidelines for drafting local road regulations able to point out the most comfortable bus itineraries.
The assessment of passenger comfort in modern cruise ships is considered from a hydrodynamic point of view, in addition to improvement using stabilizing fins. Passenger comfort is evaluated in this study based on the symptoms of motion sickness on ships provoked by low-frequency whole-body vibration. Motion sickness dose value is an index used to quantify seasickness and is chosen as a primary index to evaluate passenger comfort. To calculate motion sickness dose value in the time domain, a time series of vertical accelerations should be processed using frequency filters, which are defined in the international standards and guidelines provided by classification societies as forms of transfer functions in the frequency domain. Digital frequency band–limiting and weighting filters are formulated as a form of infinite impulse response filter and then applied to the present case. Two pairs of stabilizing fins are equipped to reduce the roll and pitch motions and to improve the passenger comfort on a model cruise ship. A linear optimal control algorithm, linear quadratic Gaussian, is considered to actuate each stabilizing fin. Numerical computations are carried out based on practical operating conditions for the cruise ship model using a time-domain ship motion program, which integrates the motion control algorithm and the passenger comfort analysis. The results of computations show that passenger comfort on a cruise ship can be evaluated appropriately by computing the index motion sickness dose value in the time domain. The motion stabilization by the stabilizing fins can be considered as a good method to reduce the motion of the present cruise ship model and eventually contribute to improve passenger comfort.
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Three sea going vessels steamed side-by-side through slight seas off the coast of Oahu, Hawaii. A four-hour octagon was transmitted twice each day for three consecutive days while motion sickness symptomatology was recorded from eighteen enlisted men who alternated among the vessels. Dramatic differences in illness severity were obtained whether comparisons were made using objective evidence of vomiting episodes or subjective reporting of symptoms on questionnaires. Reliability of this scoring method was excellent (r = .95). In addition to face and construct validity, evidence is presented of the predictive validity of the scoring method in a separate octogonal steaming experiment; using a 95 ft. Coast Guard Patrol Boat in an equivalent experimental paradigm. This study showed significant covariance between the magnitude of motion sickness symptomatology and the encounter direction of the vessel to the primary swell (p less than .01). Additional, significant correlations were found between sickness severity and test subject concentration, fatigue, urine production and urine specific gravity. The majority of these relationships would not have been disclosed had only the dichotomous criterion of vomit/nonvomit been employed in assessing motion sickness severity. Implications of these data as design criteria for marine vehicles are discussed.
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A system for reducing motion sickness on a moving platform such as a ship, aircraft or land vehicle is presented. The system is called MOCOVE for Motion Coupled Visual Environment. Human subject tests have shown that MOCOVE reduces motion sickness by a factor of five, to about a fifth of peak levels experienced without MOCOVE. For MOCOVE to be effective, users must look at an electronic display, and this creates system engineering challenges for incorporating MOCOVE into military platforms. This paper summarizes experimental results and discusses how naval engineers tasked with implementing MOCOVE aboard ships may address systems engineering issues.
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This paper reviews the various areas of concentration in which research on whole body vibration has so far been covered. The different effects of the whole-body vibration that has been reviewed in this paper include: comfort, interference with activities, health effects, and motion sickness including the effects of low-magnitude vibration. These effects are in turn dependent on various factors like the frequency, exposure time, vibration intensity and direction besides other physiological conditions. In this paper, the research concerning the effects of these factors on human subjects and the developments and changes to the IS0 standards are presented. It can be concluded from the review that the extensive research done so far and the pertinent changes to the standards are satisfactory, although the research work is neither complete nor exhaustive in some areas.
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The issue of ride comfort for vehicle operations has generated considerable interest recently especially in heavy vehicle systems since long distance drivers are more likely to experience high levels of vibration. This paper introduces the general concept of vibration‐related health problems, discusses ride comfort assessment criteria and methods, then focuses on the methodology of using computer simulation to analyse ride comfort. The computer‐based ride comfort model can be divided into three sub models: vehicle model, driver/seat model, and road profile input model. Time domain and frequency domain analysis is addressed for seven vehicle models, and detailed modelling techniques are introduced. Five driver/seat models are reviewed to examine the transmissibility and impedance of vibration data from the cab floor through the seat to the body of the operator; these characteristics are routinely neglected in vehicle simulation due to their complexity and uncertainty. Road profile data can be field‐measured data as well as the data generated based on the power spectral density method. While the former gives the more accurate result, the latter will allow more flexibility to apply various road conditions to the simulation program.
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In this article we present a new theory of motion sickness. In the sensory conflict theory, changes in stimulation of perceptual systems are believed to be responsible for motion sickness. We discuss the fact that these changes in stimulation are not independent of the animal-environment interaction, but are determined by corresponding changes in the constraints operating on the control of action. Thus, provocative situations may be characterized by novel demands on the control of action as well as by novel patterns of stimulation. Our hypothesis is that animals become sick in situations in which they do not possess (or have not yet learned) strategies that are effective for the maintenance of postural stability. We identify a broad range of situations over which the occurrence of motion sickness is related to factors that should influence postural stability. This allows us to establish a logical link between motion sickness and postural stability. Our analysis implies that an understanding of stability should be an important part of the agenda in research on perception and action in general. We suggest that postural instability could be related to the concept of dynamical disease which has been developed in the literature on nonlinear physiological control systems. We conclude with suggestions for research based on the new approach.
Article
This publication lists citations of all unclassified research reports, special reports, monographs, joint reports, journal articles, and proceedings that were published by the Naval Aerospace Medical Laboratory during calendar years 1977 through 1991.
Article
This report lists citations of all unclassified research reports, special reports, monographs, journal articles, and proceedings that were published by the Naval Aerospace Medial Research Laboratory during calendar years 1981 through 1987. Keywords: Bibliographics, Medical research, Naval research laboratories, Motion sickness, Scopolamine, Ephedrine, Electrocardiograph, Electrocardiogram, Exercise, Aviator, Speech, Phonological, Microwave, Nystagmic, Flight, Vestibular, Fibroplasia, Rhesus, Macaca mulatta, Acoustic, Primate, Monkey, Noise, Lung, Voice, Model, Operational environment, Vestibular, Vestibulo ocular, Gravitoinertial force, Horizon, Temperature, Insect, Dosimetric, Absorption, Electromagnetic, Auditory, Landing signal officer, Sounds, Mammal, Thermal, Motor activity, Circadian rhythm, Human, Man, Pressure, Rat, Electric fields, Magnetic fields, Electromagnetic fields, Age, Nonionizing radiation, Hazard, Sensory, Naval flight officer, Brain, Rewarming, Waveguide, Hypothermia, Hyperthermia, Cardiopulmonary, Fitness, Flight performance, Acceleration, Microwave irradiation, G-tolerance, Aviation selection, Operant behavior, Retention, Selection, Psychological tests. (sdw)
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Ship motions can induce seasickness. Especially the vertical movements with frequencies below 1 Hz are very provocative. This report gives a summary and a description of a computer-implementation of a model formulated by McCauley et al. C1976). and a model by Griffin (1990), to predict the percentage of sick people given a motion time history.
Article
In support of the ADVANCE TDP (Advanced Vehicle Architecture for a Net-Enabled Combat Environment Technology Demonstration Project), and at the request of Director Armoured Vehicles Program Management (DAVPM), we undertook to provide a Phase I assessment on the effects of motion disturbance on the performance of operators based on a theoretical and comprehensive literature review. A comprehensive review on the effects of motion disturbance on human behaviour and well-being in all forms of transportation was completed. Based on information collected, a summary of the motion frequency and amplitude on human response was presented graphically. The main findings can be summarized as follows: The majority of information is obtained from ship-simulator or ship motion where vertical (heave) motion is the primary stimulus. Vertical motion does not correlate with the rate of carsickness. Fore-and-aft and lateral motion in the frequency range of 0.1-0.5 Hz is provocative in inducing carsickness. Postures and type of back/head rest could influence susceptibility to motion sickness. Laboratory studies indicated that the ability of the active suspension to protect against or contribute to motion sickness is influenced by whether or not the compensation is under the active control of the rider. Vertical motion frequencies below 0.5 Hz are generally more nauseogenic. Whole body vibration at 2 Hz and above can cause discomfort or injury but will not provoke motion sickness. Based on limited data, frequencies below 0.1 Hz lessen the possibility of motion sickness. The effect of vibration along the horizontal (x and y) axes on performance is unknown.
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