Article

An assessment of long-term reaction o rape

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Abstract

Examined reactions to rape by interviewing 27 female rape victims at least 1 yr after the assault and assessing their current functioning through such measures as the Beck Depression Inventory and Profile of Mood States. Victims were significantly more depressed and reported less pleasure in daily activities than 26 matched nonvictim controls. Ss who had been victims of sudden violent attacks by complete strangers showed the most severe reactions, being even more depressed, fatigued, and fearful and getting less satisfaction from activities than victims of other types of assaults. (14 ref)

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... For instance, Acierno et al. (1999) found that, controlling for factors such as demographic characteristics and substance use, depression is unrelated to increased risk of rape. Thus, no matter how risk factors may play into vulnerability, the important thing is that psychological manifestations born of sexual victimization, including depression Ellis et al., 1981;Frank & Stewart, 1984;Frank et al., 1979;Gidycz et al., 1993;Kilpatrick et al., 1988;Steketee & Foa, 1987), fear and anxiety Ellis et al., 1981;Gidycz et al., 1993;Kilpatrick et al., 1988;Kilpatrick et al., 1981, Kilpatrick et al., 1979Steketee & Foa, 1987), anger (Kilpatrick et al., 1981), disrupted social and sexual functioning and satisfaction (Becker et al., 1986;Ellis et al., 1981;Feldman-Sumners et al., 1979;Kilpatrick et al., 1981;Norris & Feldman-Summers, 1981;Steketee & Foa, 1987) and PTSD (Kessler et al., 1995;Kilpatrick et al., 1989;Kilpatrick et al., 1987;Rothbaum et al., 1992), cannot be denied. ...
... For instance, Acierno et al. (1999) found that, controlling for factors such as demographic characteristics and substance use, depression is unrelated to increased risk of rape. Thus, no matter how risk factors may play into vulnerability, the important thing is that psychological manifestations born of sexual victimization, including depression Ellis et al., 1981;Frank & Stewart, 1984;Frank et al., 1979;Gidycz et al., 1993;Kilpatrick et al., 1988;Steketee & Foa, 1987), fear and anxiety Ellis et al., 1981;Gidycz et al., 1993;Kilpatrick et al., 1988;Kilpatrick et al., 1981, Kilpatrick et al., 1979Steketee & Foa, 1987), anger (Kilpatrick et al., 1981), disrupted social and sexual functioning and satisfaction (Becker et al., 1986;Ellis et al., 1981;Feldman-Sumners et al., 1979;Kilpatrick et al., 1981;Norris & Feldman-Summers, 1981;Steketee & Foa, 1987) and PTSD (Kessler et al., 1995;Kilpatrick et al., 1989;Kilpatrick et al., 1987;Rothbaum et al., 1992), cannot be denied. ...
... For instance, Acierno et al. (1999) found that, controlling for factors such as demographic characteristics and substance use, depression is unrelated to increased risk of rape. Thus, no matter how risk factors may play into vulnerability, the important thing is that psychological manifestations born of sexual victimization, including depression Ellis et al., 1981;Frank & Stewart, 1984;Frank et al., 1979;Gidycz et al., 1993;Kilpatrick et al., 1988;Steketee & Foa, 1987), fear and anxiety Ellis et al., 1981;Gidycz et al., 1993;Kilpatrick et al., 1988;Kilpatrick et al., 1981, Kilpatrick et al., 1979Steketee & Foa, 1987), anger (Kilpatrick et al., 1981), disrupted social and sexual functioning and satisfaction (Becker et al., 1986;Ellis et al., 1981;Feldman-Sumners et al., 1979;Kilpatrick et al., 1981;Norris & Feldman-Summers, 1981;Steketee & Foa, 1987) and PTSD (Kessler et al., 1995;Kilpatrick et al., 1989;Kilpatrick et al., 1987;Rothbaum et al., 1992), cannot be denied. ...
... Research has found that women who have experienced multiple episodes of violence are at greater risk of experiencing negative psychosocial outcomes such as PTSD symptoms, poorer adjustment, lifestyle instability, sexual dysfunction, depression, and suicide attempts (Arata, 1999;Banyard, Wiliams & Siegel, 2001;Ellis, Atkeson & Calhoun, 1981;Maker, Kemmelmeier & Peterson, 2001;Miller, Moeller, Kaufman, Divasto, Pathak & Christy, 1978;Miner, Flitter & Robinson, 2006;Nishith, Mechanic & Resick, 2000). There is less research on male victims however. ...
... This is consistent with the findings of Kira and colleagues who argue that we should consider a "trauma profile", rather than a single traumatic event in isolation (Kira, Aboumediene, Ashby, Odenat, Mohanesh & Alamia, 2013). This is consistent with research on women that has found women who experienced multiple episodes of violence were at greater risk of experiencing negative psychosocial outcomes such as PTSD symptoms, poorer adjustment, lifestyle instability, sexual dysfunction, depression, and suicide attempts (Arata, 1999;Banyard et al., 2001;Ellis et al., 1981;Maker et al., 2001;Miller et al., 1978;Miner, et al., 2006;Nishith et al., 2000). ...
Article
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This study explores the contribution that traumatic experiences and psychological post-traumatic stress symptoms make to predicting subsequent revictimisation in a sample of violent crime victims. In addition, the timing of first trauma exposure was also explored. Fifty-four adult victims (27 male and 27 female) of police recorded violent crime were interviewed and their traumatic exposure history, trauma symptomology, age at first trauma exposure as well as psychological and psychosocial functioning were assessed. These victims were followed longitudinally and subsequent revictimisation between six and twelve months post index victimisation measured. A greater number of types of trauma exposure was related lower emotional stability, higher trauma symptomology and revictimisation. Those victims with childhood traumatic exposure reported more trauma symptomology exposure than those without prior exposure. The implications for law enforcement and victim services are discussed.
... In addition to crime characteristics, sexual aggression's effect on the victim also depends on the victim-offender relationship. Though research has yet to determine dissimilarity in the victim's emotional reaction, the victim-offender relationship is known to differentially influence several other important factors of the victim's experience (Ellis, Atkeson & Calhoun 1981;Frank, Turner & Steward 1980;Kilpatrick, Veronen & Best 1985;Ruch & Chandler 1983). ...
... This correlation has been empirically established through victimization surveys as well as medical examinations. For example, data on victim's self-reports indicate those assaulted by strangers are described as "more violent, of longer duration and involving more sex acts" than those attacked by acquaintances (Ellis et al. 1981). But such sexual aggression is mirrored in marital rapes with victims accounting high violence and more forced oral and anal sex than more distant acquaintance victims (Stuntz 1975;Peacock 1995). ...
... c) Le fonctionnement quotidien de l'individu subit des perturbations, dans le domaine socio-professionnel, durant les premiers mois seulement qui suivent l'agression, essentiellement à type d'inadaptation et de sentiment d'insatisfaction (Nadelson et ai, 1982;Resick et al., 1981). Dans le domaine familial, le retentissement est ressenti de façon beaucoup plus prolongée, puisque identifiable après trois ans (Atkeson et al., 1982;Ellis et al, 1981;Franck et al., 1981). Il en est même, au niveau du comportement sexuel, avec le développement de sentiment d'insatisfaction sexuelle (Franck et Dufly Stewart, 1983;Miller et al., 1978;Norris et Feldman-Summers, 1981;Peters et al., 1976). ...
... Cette perception d'une profonde perturbation de la vie sexuelle, semble conforme à celles rapportées par la littérature, où la baisse de la libido est retrouvée invalidante, entre une fois sur deux et deux fois sur trois par Burgess et Holmstrom (1978), Franck et al (1980), Nadelson et al. (1982). Cette souffrance semble d'autant plus préoccupante, que les travaux menés à long terme, par Ellis et al (1981), Gorcey et al (1986), Miller et al. (1978), et Orlando et al. (1983) la voient prédominante, rapportée dans un tiers des cas, et considérée comme facteur de risque à la «récidive» du viol. De plus, elle a été évoquée dans la pathogénie de conduites de prostitution, par Brière (Brière, 1984). ...
Article
Die Entwicklung von 23 Opfern sexueller Gewalttaten, die ausgehend von den Daten einer spezialisierten Notfalleinheit rekrutiert wurden, wurde 5 bis 16 Monate nach der Agression, also zu einem Zeitpunkt, zu dem vielen Autoren zufolge Spatfolgen auftreten, ausgewertet. Dabei wurde den Veranderungen im sozialen Leben, die als Folge des Angriffs aufgetreten sind, besondere Aufmerk- samkeit geschenkt. Die neue funktionelle Organisation des Einzelnen ubersetzt sich in ein Gefiihl der Spannung, welches zugleich mit dem Erscheinen von Misstrauen, Ungeduld und sozialer Irritierbarkeit die Qualitat seiner Beziehun- gen wesentlich verandert. Parallel zu der Entwicklung von Verhaltensweisen der Vemeidung und der Verarmung des Geisteslebens stellt sich eine Reihe von psychosexuellen Storungen, so die Verminderung des Libido, ein. Ein Drittel bis zu einem Viertel der beobachteten Personen hat chronische Angstzustande und Phobien entwickelt, verbunden mit zwanghaften Verhaltensweisen und/oder grosseren depressiven Zustanden. Zwei Falle werden berichtet, bei welchen perzeptorische Storungen, verbunden mit dissoziativen Erscheinungen, festgestellt wurden.
... Victimization can also cause substantial stress for family, friends, and significant others of the victim. For example, Ellis, Atkeson, and Calhoun (1981) found that families of rape victims reported more family problems than families with no victims. There may also be negative spillover to the work domain. ...
Chapter
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This chapter considers the effects of nonwork crises on the work–family interface. Drawing from Crisis Theory(Caplan, 1961, 1964), we develop a framework to understand how crisis events may affect work and family life over time. In so doing, we examine the short- and long-term work–family outcomes of crisis, and consider potential moderators of the associations between the experience of a crisis event and these outcomes. Next, we apply the framework to a number of exemplar nonwork crises internal and external to the individual and family, including addiction, relationship loss, natural disasters, and military deployment. We conclude by identifying research priorities related to understanding work and family in times of crisis.
... l., 1985 ;Kramer & Green, 1991 ;Mackey et al., 1992 ;Ullman & Filipas, 2001), certaines montrent une différence en terme de PTSD complet (Bownes et al., 1991et Ullman, Filipas, Townsend & Starzynski, 2006, avec des prévalences plus fortes en cas de viol par un étranger, ce qui pourrait s'expliquer par des agressions généralement plus violentes (E. M. Ellis, Atkeson & Calhoun, 1981), mais également un danger pour la vie perçu comme plus important que dans les agressions par une connaissance. ...
Thesis
Notre problématique s'articule sur deux approches théoriques, à savoir la psychologie interculturelle francophone et la psychologie clinique interculturelle du trauma. En effet, nous étudions l'édification d'une métabolisation structurelle au profit d'une métabolisation expérientielle chez le sujet. Pour cela, nous interrogeons spécifiquement dans ce travail le lien entre l'interculturation positive et le dépassement d'un trauma. En effet, ces deux concepts nous semblent a minima reliés par la notion de "mise en sens" nécessaire face à l'effraction d'une altérité radicale, qu'elle vienne d'un agresseur, ou d'une rencontre avec une culture radicalement Autre. Nous questionnons la corrélation entre l'interculturation positive et dépassement du traumatisme à la lumière de nombreuses variables : contexte personnel, dispositions et processus psychiques, facteurs environnementaux…Une étude préliminaire (N = 10) et une première série d'entretiens qualitatifs (N = 13) nous ont permis d'élaborer un questionnaire quantitatif. Nos résultats (N = 191) démontrent un lien entre l'interculturation positive et le dépassement du traumatisme (rhô=.217, p=.003), lien modulé principalement par l'estime de soi et l'aptitude aux relations. Nous proposons des recommandations cliniques pour l'élaboration d'un Tiers-espace thérapeutique créatif et interculturalisé venant soutenir la recherche de sens de ceux confrontés à l'effraction de l'altérité radicale de la mort, faisant de l'approche interculturelle un engagement socio-géopolitique bienveillant au service d'une clinique victimaire engagée, réflexive et consciente
... Unfortunately, no systematic research has been conducted to identify the prevalence of sexual victimization among deaf individuals, the coping strategies that deaf individuals use to deal with victimization, nor the impact of the coping strategies used on their overall psychological health. However, the persistent emotional, social and sexual difficulties that hearing survivors of sexual victimization struggle with is welldocumented (Calhoun, Atkeson, & Resick, 1982;Cochran, Frazier, & Olson, 1997;Ellis, Atkeson, & Calhoun, 1981;Frazier, 2003;Frazier & Burnett, 1994;Frazier, Steward, & Mortensen, 2004;Frazier, Tashiro, Berman, Steger, & Long, 2004;Frazier, Berman & Steward, 2002;Frazier, Conlon, & Glaser, 2001;Kilpatrick, Resick, & Veronen, 1981;Resick, 1993;Veronen & Kilpatrick, 1980). Professionals working with deaf individuals who have been sexually victimized at any point in their life have a dearth of literature and research available to them to assist in providing quality services to deaf victims in order to improve their psychological health post-victimization. ...
... There is little research on the perpetrator-victim relationship and psychological sequelae of RT, and what does exist does not delineate the nature and extent of the problem (Ellis, Atkeson, & Calhoun, 1981). One study that examined psychosocial correlates of violence found that the perpetrator-victim relationship was not a significant correlate of PTSD; however, the authors noted that important PTSD correlates, such as trauma history of any kind and incidence of child sexual abuse, were omitted from the study . ...
... Furthermore, contrary to stereotypes that date rape is 'rapette', women raped by acquaintances are at least as affected as those raped by strangers (Katz, 1991). There has been a uniform failure to find differences in psychometrically assessed symptom severity between the two classes of victims ( (Ellis, Atkeson & Calhoun, 1981;Stewart, 1982). Some evidence suggests that acquaintance rape is associated with different cognitive impacts than stranger rape. ...
Article
For over three decades in this country, public disquiet has been intermit-tently but vehemently expressed about rape 1 and the way it is handled by the criminal justice system. The principal areas of concern, which will be those considered in this chapter, are the experience of rape victims and their treat-ment by police and courts, the low reporting and conviction rates for rape, and the lenient treatment of rapists. It is felt that too many rapists are being permitted by the police and the courts to evade justice and that those who are convicted receive inadequate sentences. Rape does indeed pose a series of problems for the criminal justice system but the emphasis upon some of them is occasionally misplaced. The cry for harsher penalties, for example, can sometimes eclipse analysis and discussion of the very real plight of the victim. Th e Vi c t i m ' s E x p e r i e n c e (a) The Experience of Rape Individual accounts by victims of the physical and mental suffering which they have endured as a result of rape have formed a vital ingredient of the discourse on the subject. 2 Their reports are borne out by studies which confirm the existence of a rape trauma syndrome. According to Burgess and Holmstrom: 'This syndrome has two phases: the immediate or acute phase, in which the victim's lifestyle is completely disrupted by the rape crisis, and the long-term process, in which the victim must reorganise this disrupted 1 In the footnotes to this book, titles which appear in the Select Bibliography are in Harvard style; others appear in full. On rape generally and why it is committed, see e.g.
... There seems to be little distinction in the literature between the experience of acquaintance rape trauma and stranger rape trauma regarding the degree of post-rape symptomatology (Ellis, Atkeson & Calhoun, 1981;Frank, Turner, & Stewart, 1980;Kilpatrick, Resick & Veronen, 1981;Ruch & Chandler, 1983). Moreover, there seemed to be no consistently differentiating factor (Amir, 1971;Bart & O'Brien, 1981;Bart & O'Brien, 1985, Katz & Burt, 1986) including manner of disclosure or extent of psychological preparation (Bart & O'Brien, 1981;Bart & O'Brien, 1985) such as having a suspicion that the acquaintance might attempt inappropriate sexual advances. ...
Article
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This study explores the lived‐experience of two South African women who have been raped, not by a stranger, but by an acquaintance. Through a phenomenological research approach, the descriptions of the experience given by the two participants during in‐depth interviews were thoroughly explored. Certain aspects of the rape experience emerged from the data and were considered in relation to existing, predominantly Western society literature regarding acquaintance rape and the experience of the victim. In particular, issues such as knowing the perpetrator, the reactions of others to the rape, possible HIV infection and the support received from others were seen to have a significant impact on the nature of the lived‐experience of each of the participants regarding their rape ordeal. Although the results of this study are not generalizable, they are able to give practitioners dealing with victims a deeper understanding of the possible aspects that could be a part of the experience of being raped by someone known, and the implications for recovery.
... By contrast, ASA survivors exhibit very different sexual behavior patterns. Following a rape or sexual assault, it is common for ASA survivors to experience disturbances in sexual functioning that include fear of sex, arousal dysfunction, and decreased libido (Becker et al., 1986;Burgess & Holstrom, 1985;Ellis, Atkeson, & Calhoun, 1981). Thus, research has indicated that ASA survivors commonly experience a reduction in sexual activity levels, whereas CSA survivors appear to participate in high levels of sexual behavior following their abuse, consistent with theories of impulsivity and restriction. ...
Article
This research investigated gender differences in and behavioral sequelae of adult vs. childhood sexual victimization among a group of undergraduates in a midwestern city. We administered a survey about sexual experiences, eating habits, and weight to individuals who were first victimized in childhood ( age 18); or had not been sexually victimized. We predicted that those victimized as children would have higher body weight and display more sexual activity than would those victimized as adults. We demonstrated that participants victimized in childhood had significantly higher body mass and weight than did nonvictims or those victimized in adulthood. Men sexually abused as children displayed more promiscuity than did men victimized in adulthood.
... The National Institute of Justice found that rape had the highest cost of any crime in terms of total victim cost at over $85,000 per victim [3]. Individuals who are sexually victimized as adolescents experience a negative impact on educational attainment, adult job performance, and ability to work [3][4][5][6]. ...
Article
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Sexual offending is a significant public health problem in the USA due to its prevalence and the substantial impact it has on victims, victims’ families, and the legal and mental health systems. The assessment of sexual offender recidivism risk is an important aspect of developing effective management strategies for sexual offenders in terms of placement, treatment, and other interventions. Researchers have developed numerous tools to aid in the assessment of sexual violence recidivism risk, including actuarial measures, structured professional judgment methods, and psychophysiologic assessment of sexual interests. The Static-99R and Sexual Violence Risk-20 are two instruments that have received substantial research attention for their ability to accurately compare offenders’ risk of recidivism to normative group data. Penile plethysmography and visual reaction time are used to evaluate subjects’ responses to sexual stimuli in an effort to characterize offenders’ sexual arousal and interest, respectively. Though current research has focused on risk assessment tools’ predictive utility, future research will need to examine the impact that actuarial and structured professional judgment tools have on reducing recidivism if they are to have relevance in the management of sexual offenders.
... I n the United States, 12%-20% of college women have an experience that meets the legal definition of rape (Brener, McMahon, Warren, & Douglas, 1999;Fisher, Cullen, & Turner, 2000;Kilpatrick, Resnick, Ruggiero, Conoscenti, & McCauley, 2007), and 53% of college women reported at least one experience of unwanted sexual contact. The prevalence of the sexual victimization of college women, in conjunction with additional factors including a range of psychological consequences associated with sexual victimization (Abdullah, Salleh, Mahmud, Ahmad, & Ghani, 2011;Campbell & Adams, 2009;Ellis, Atkeson, & Calhoun, 1981;Kilpatrick, Veronen, & Resnick, 1982;Koss, 1990Koss, , 1993Resnick, Kilpatrick, Dansky, Saunders, & Best,1993) and a strong connection between victimization and rising health care costs (Koss, Koss, & Woodruff, 1991) has led to legislative actions by Congress. Included in these actions are mandates that federally funded institutes of higher learning must provide some type of sexual assault prevention programming (Karjane, Fisher, & Cullen, 2005). ...
Article
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Several characteristics of sexual assault awareness programs for women are associated with meeting the goals of risk reduction. To date, the literature lacks an exploration of how single-sex programs affect women, particularly when they take a bystander intervention focus using women's risk recognition and avoidance as outcome measures. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of The Women's Program (Foubert, 2011), a sexual assault awareness program geared toward women. Participants consisted of 103 undergraduate women attending a large, public university in the Midwest United States. Women in the treatment group viewed a presentation of The Women's Program, whereas the control group received no intervention. Consistent with hypotheses, program participants reported a greater ability to recognize risk cues, a greater willingness to engage in self-protective behaviors, and a greater level of perceived self-efficacy in handling threatening dating situations compared to the control group.
... I n the United States, 12%-20% of college women have an experience that meets the legal definition of rape (Brener, McMahon, Warren, & Douglas, 1999;Fisher, Cullen, & Turner, 2000;Kilpatrick, Resnick, Ruggiero, Conoscenti, & McCauley, 2007), and 53% of college women reported at least one experience of unwanted sexual contact. The prevalence of the sexual victimization of college women, in conjunction with additional factors including a range of psychological consequences associated with sexual victimization (Abdullah, Salleh, Mahmud, Ahmad, & Ghani, 2011;Campbell & Adams, 2009;Ellis, Atkeson, & Calhoun, 1981;Kilpatrick, Veronen, & Resnick, 1982;Koss, 1990Koss, , 1993Resnick, Kilpatrick, Dansky, Saunders, & Best,1993) and a strong connection between victimization and rising health care costs (Koss, Koss, & Woodruff, 1991) has led to legislative actions by Congress. Included in these actions are mandates that federally funded institutes of higher learning must provide some type of sexual assault prevention programming (Karjane, Fisher, & Cullen, 2005). ...
Article
Full-text available
Several characteristics of sexual assault awareness programs for women are associated with meeting the goals of risk reduction. To date, the literature lacks an exploration of how single-sex programs affect women, particularly when they take a bystander intervention focus using women's risk recognition and avoidance as outcome measures. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of The Women's Program (Foubert, 2011), a sexual assault awareness program geared toward women. Participants consisted of 103 undergraduate women attending a large, public university in the Midwest United States. Women in the treatment group viewed a presentation of The Women's Program, whereas the control group received no intervention. Consistent with hypotheses, program participants reported a greater ability to recognize risk cues, a greater willingness to engage in self-protective behaviors, and a greater level of perceived self-efficacy in handling threatening dating situations compared to the control group.
... Without access to adequate economic resources, these girls are forced to live on the streets or 'sofa surf ' where they are more vulnerable to rape, sexual exploitation and 'survival sex'. In their study, Ellis et al (1981) found 50 per cent of sexual assault victims lost their jobs or were forced to quit after being raped. ...
... Globalement la plupart des é tudes ne rapportent pas de pré valence supé rieure en termes de symptomatologie post-viol par un agresseur é tranger ou connu [14,34,61], même si certaines montrent une diffé rence en termes de ESPT (É tat de Stress Post-Traumatique) complet. Ainsi de maniè re contradictoire, Bownes et al. [8] et Ullman et al. [60] parlent des pré valences plus fortes en cas de viol par un é tranger, ce qui pourrait s'expliquer par des agressions gé né ralement plus violentes [22] mais é galement par un danger vital perçu comme plus important que dans les agressions par une connaissance. À l'inverse, Lawyer et al. [35] trouvent des symptomatologies plus marqué es aprè s un viol dont l'agresseur est une connaissance. ...
Article
Résumé Cet article interroge les notions de viols prototypiques et non prototypiques¹, en replaçant dans une perspective de psychologie interculturelle (historique, sociale et culturelle) la question des violences sexuelles sur les femmes. Les recherches sur cette question sont rares, voire inexistantes dans le contexte francophone interrogeant généralement la perception d’un observateur extérieur sur un scénario prototypique ou non et questionnant ainsi la perception sociale de l’agression. D’autres questionnent l’adhésion aux mythes concernant le viol par les agresseurs, venant poser la question des « viols non intentionnels », mais très peu nombreuses sont celles s’intéressant à l’impact de la non-prototypicité d’un viol sur les victimes, le développement d’un syndrome psychotraumatique. L’objectif ici est de faire un état des lieux de la question et de montrer en quoi celle-ci peut intéresser la recherche dans le domaine de la psychologie psychotraumatique afin d’améliorer les prises en charge, mais aussi de mettre en avant l’importance de la prévention dans la psychologie de la santé et de l’éducation.
... Sur le moment, la victime peut ressentir des peurs intenses, un choc, être en état de sidération, de confusion ou de détresse extrême qui pourra évoluer en trouble de stress posttraumatique au plus long terme (Kilpatrick et al., 1985;Ellis et al., 1981). Le trouble de stress posttraumatique se retrouve chez de nombreuses victimes de violences sexuelles sous des formes plus ou moins graves (Thomas, 2015;Perilloux et al., 2012). ...
Thesis
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L'affirmation de soi est une capacité essentielle au bon développement et à l'épanouissement de chacun. Qu'elle en soit cause ou conséquence, les femmes victimes de violences sexuelles font preuve d'une très faible capacité à s'affirmer. Or, ceci est directement lié à un risque plus élevé de subir de nouvelles agressions sexuelles, plus fréquentes et plus graves. Ainsi, les violences sexuelles enferment leurs victimes dans un cercle vicieux de victimisations répétées, engendrant et aggravant de multiples troubles psychologiques et physiques pouvant aller jusqu'à la mort par suicide ou par meurtre. Bien que le sujet des violences sexuelles envers les femmes soit un problème mondial et fasse l'objet de recherches depuis 50 ans, très peu de programmes préventifs ou thérapeutiques spécifiques à la prise en charge des victimes ont été mis en place à grande échelle, et très peu de professionnels en France y sont actuellement formés. Ici, nous explorons les perspectives thérapeutiques et préventives de la participation de femmes victimes de violences sexuelles à un groupe d'affirmation de soi spécifique à leur situation, en complément à leur psychothérapie individuelle. A travers l'étude de 4 cas cliniques, nous observons comment le développement de la capacité à s'affirmer permet l'adoption d'un nouvel état d'esprit et permet de faire avancer la thérapie en facilitant le processus de rétablissement.
... In most cases of child sexual abuse, the offender is recognized by the victim [32]. In some of the studies performed, it has been reported that the aggressor's being a foreigner does not cause any difference in terms of rape-related mental findings, and in others increases in the frequency of PTSD and depression [21,[33][34][35][36]. ...
Article
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In the study; it is aimed to examine the personal, environmental, and incident factors that may affect the mental health of the victims of sexual abuse and to discuss the data in the light of the literature. Total 449 (8.7%) cases that were sent with a history of sexual abuse in 5157 cases, which were reported between 2005 and 2012 in the Department of Forensic Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Duzce University, were examined. Among these cases, 68 (15.1%) cases, which were judged to have committed sexual abuse, were included in the study. Of the cases, 44 (64.7%) were female and 24 (35.3%) were male. In their second mental examination, which was made six months after the date of the incident; there were no psychiatric pictures in 43 (63.2%) cases, Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) in 14 (20.6%) cases, depression in three (4.4%) cases, PTSD in three (4.4%) cases, and depression, anxiety disorder in one (1.5%) case, depression, and anxiety disorder in one (1.5%) case. Three (4.4%) cases were referred to another center without a diagnosis. The risk of being affected of mental health in the late period was found increased by 11.32 times in the cases which have psychiatric findings during the first examination, by 12.52 times if the action took place in the form of anal penetration, by 6.9 times if deprived of liberty and by 15.88 times if the attacker was a foreigner. Long-term follow-up of victims of sexual abuse by the psychiatry clinic is important in terms of continuing their normal social life as healthy individuals. [Med-Science 2020; 9(3.000): 766-73]
... Analysis reveals that the effect of workplace violence in the study area did not save any baseline variable, such as ages, ethnicity, religious, educational level, marital status, types of occupation, level of income, and years of experiences. NSVRC (2015) and Ellis et al. (1981) supported the current finding on the ground that workplace violence happens to people of all ages, races, genders, sexual orientations, religions, professions, incomes, and ethnicities. Note. ...
Article
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Workplace violence is a serious public problem affecting millions of women employees each year throughout the world. Researchers have established the prevalence, nature, and the degree of this violence; however, less is known about the effect of workplace violence on women's psycho social functioning. This research addresses this knowledge gap by examining (a) the relationship between demographics variables and workplace violence, (b) the association between sociodemographic variable and emotional labor, and (c) the effects of workplace violence on emotional demand and social relation. This research draws on a sample of women (n = 201) from Dabat district's civil service sectors, derived using systematic and proportionally stratified simple random sampling techniques. Data were analyzed using univariate analysis, post hoc Dunnett test, and binary logistic regression. Results show that workplace violence affected women employees without the discrimination of baseline variables. However, single women (16.43 [±2.91]) who have bachelor degree and above (16.88 [±2.19]) experienced more workplace violence by managers and colleagues when compared to other sociodemographic variables. Workplace violence mostly made women employees show their emotions to customers match with what they truly feel. From respondents, unmarried women and above degree holders had more likely to show their emotions to the customers directly (unadjusted odds ratio [UOR] = 5.44, 95% confidence interval [CI] = [5.29, 6.25]; adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 4.88, 95% CI = [4.67, 5.23]), arguably engaging in less emotional dissonance and high emotional labor. Sixty-one percent of respondents were also forced to accept others' points: ideas, concern, and feeling without believing in those views. From these findings, we argue that the workplace violence that women employees experience enables a wave of visible conflict and tension as they had reflected their internal feelings to the clients, coworkers, and managers, and if the women workers have had miscommunication with managers at workplace, it will endanger the institutions to accomplish day-today activities.
... In a study, 50% of rape victims lost their jobs or were forced to quit their jobs within a year following the incident of rape. 33 Other significant consequences reported following SHA include weight loss/gain, 34 bed wetting, 35 increase in fatigue/ decreased energy, and acting out behaviors causing physical harm. 36,37 Apart from these symptoms, problems with interpersonal relationships including ambivalence toward family members and fear of men 38 were observed. ...
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Introduction: The volcanic eruption of the #MeToo movement shows that the problem was there for long and was simmering on. The movement was initiated with the aim of knowing the magnitude of the problem and has now spread worldwide. The cases of the Me Too sexual wave are recent and have not yet attracted much scientific attention, though literature on sexual harassment is widely available and the psychological mechanisms implicated in this movement can be understood and examined through it. Objectives: This article aims to attract attention of the medical fraternity to update themselves of this issue which is essential for better understanding of the movement which has potentially good, bad, and ugly undercurrents. We will call attention to these aspects perusing the literature both at national and international levels. This would also be subjected to an analysis of the established concepts and principles of human psychology and behavior. Conclusion: It is amply clear that the time for sweeping things under the carpet is over and the catharsis that flooded the social media, print media, and TV just show how important it is to make the future workplace fair to both genders.
... For example, sexual violence that results in self-blame attributions ASSAULT AND BOUNDED RATIONALITY 22 has been linked to post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and depressive symptomatology (Campbell et al., 2009). Moreover, although results indicated that self-blame was more likely after reading about an acquaintance perpetrating a sexually violent act, some evidence suggests that PTSD, depressive, and trauma symptoms are especially prominent after sexual violence perpetrated by a stranger (Ellis, Atkeson, & Calhoun, 1981;Ruch & Chandler, 1983;Ullman, Filipas, Townsend, & Starzynski, 2006;see Campbell et al., 2009 for a review). ...
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Individuals often tend to irrationally blame victims for their plight. This research incorporated a bounded rationality framework to examine first-person perspectives (rather than third-person) of both victims’ and nonvictims’ perceptions and judgments of acquaintance and stranger sexual violence. Upon completing individual difference measures, including a just-world belief assessment, participants (N = 296) were randomly assigned to read a scenario in which the vignette victim was either acquainted with or had no prior relationship with the perpetrator. Then, taking the perspective of the vignette victim, participants offered four judgments: the likelihood of reporting the crime, self-blame, perceived control, and sympathy expected from others. Results showed that instances of acquaintance sexual violence were judged more negatively than instances of stranger sexual violence. Moreover, participants who had previously experienced sexual violence reported more negative judgments than nonvictims (except for sympathy expected from others). An exploratory path analysis indicated that as nonvictims’, but not victims’, just-world beliefs became stronger, they indicated a higher willingness to report the crime, perceived more control over the situation, and expected more sympathy from others. We end with a discussion of how the present research can advance our understanding of sexual violence by using a bounded rationality framework and discuss the practical implications that the observed effects have for professionals in the legal system, outside observers, and victims themselves.
... , Atkeson , Calhoun , Resick , & Ellis , 1982 ; Ellis , Atkeson , & Calhoun , 1981 ; Kilpatrick et al , 1979 ; J . Norris & Feldman - Summers , 1981 ; Resick , Calhoun , Atkeson , & Ellis , 1981 ) support the validity of RTS . However , these studies are general investigations of reactions following sexual assault , not direct replications of the Burgess and Holmstrom ( 1974 ) study or extensions of the RTS literature . ...
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Rape trauma syndrome (RTS) was first described by Burgess and Holmstrom (197415. Burgess, A.W., & Holmstrom, L.L. (1974). Rape trauma syndrome. American Journal of Psychiatry, 131, 980–986.View all references) who argued that there was little information that described the physical and psychological effects of rape, associated therapy and provisions for protection of the victim from further psychological harm. Since then, there have been several critiques of RTS and empirical evidence exists that RTS is not generally accepted by the relevant scientific community. Despite this, RTS is still used in courts. As such, in this article, we comprehensively evaluated RTS and determined that it is vague and imprecise, its evidential status is questionable, it is inconsistent with the most common sequelae of trauma, it ignores important mediating variables and it may not be culturally sensitive. In light of these critiques, we recommend no further use of this model in courts or in clinical practice.
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The aim of the present study was to compare psychological functioning in male rape survivors who had been raped either by strangers or acquaintances, and to test differences between the functioning of gay versus heterosexual survivors. Thirty-eight male rape survivors completed a range of measures relating to their perceptions about the nature of the effects of their assault, their general health, self-esteem and world assumptions. Results revealed that survivors of stranger rapes had lower psychological functioning overall than survivors of acquaintance rapes. Gay survivors were more likely to have crises about their sexual identity than heterosexual survivors. Suggestions for future work are proposed.
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It is common to think that a high percentage of rape victims develop Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD). However, the literature shows that PTSD symptoms typically increase in severity over the first three weeks after the sexual assault subsequently, they tend to decline progressively over the following months. Women who do not meet the PTSD criteria can still struggle with emotional, relational, and sexual issues that can lead to a continuous alarm status, which, day-by-day, can reduce their ability to protect themselves physically and psychologically. A few virtual environments have been developed to treat PTSD, and the results seem very promising. In thispaper, we describe the positive psychology's perspective on the psychological growth in the aftermath of a trauma, such as a sexual assault, focusing on the concept of resilience. Moreover, we will present the innovative psychological use of virtual reality (VR). Finally, moving beyond a treatment-centric approach to the Positive Psychology perspective, we propose two main positive psychology uses of virtual environments (Ves): prevention of sexual assault of women and adolescents who have never been sexually assaulted and prevention of psychiatric disease in women who are sexual assault victims.
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Chapter
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The purpose of this study was to identify the relationship of prior history of abuse and severity of abuse to the incidence of Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) among battered Hispanic women. Chi-Square analyses identified no significant relationship between prior history of abuse or severity of abuse and the incidence of PTSD. Implications of the relationship between battered women and PTSD are discussed.
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Fear of Rape in Women in India.
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This study describes psychological symptomatology including post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in 19 women attending a specialist sexual assault service within a genitourinary medicine (GUM) clinic. Women were interviewed within one year post-rape (mean=12 weeks) using standardized questionnaires for PTSD and other psychological symptomatology. Seventeen (89.5%) of 19 women met full criteria for a diagnosis of PTSD. Anxiety predominated amongst other psychological symptomatology. Suicidal ideation was reported by 8 women and one made a suicide attempt following the rape. Although it is acknowledged this is a small, select sample, the high level of psychological trauma found suggests that genitourinary medicine clinics providing for sexual assault require access to mental health professionals.
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Although stressful life events can trigger adverse mental health outcomes, many people will not develop symptoms of depression or Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD), leading researchers to seek out factors that influence the relationship between life events and emotional responses. PTSD appears to be more likely following interpersonal traumas compared to non-interpersonal traumas, but the reasons for this relationship are unclear. The current study examines whether event significance mediates the relationship between event type (interpersonal or non-interpersonal) and PTSD and depressive symptoms in a sample of 314 college students. Perceived importance was higher for interpersonal events, and we found support for a mediational role of event importance in the relationship between event type and mental health symptoms. Findings suggest that the importance of an event to one's identity might underlie the relationship between event characteristics and mental health outcomes and be a salient target for prevention and treatment efforts.
Chapter
Public policy-making, as it is reflected in legislation and laws, represents a reactive process, a formalization with the force of law, of the values, norms, attitudes, and beliefs of society which are prevalent at a given period of time. The women’s movement has focused our attention on this process. Discrimination against women in many areas of their social functioning has existed and we feel that it is now time to examine how this bias operates against women who are victims of crime and violence. The aftermath of such experiences often leads to the development of traumatic stress syndromes.
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Causal modeling procedures were used to test current theories that emphasize the mediating role of beliefs in explaining the emotional reactions of crime victims. The sample was composed of representative subsamples of violent crime victims (79 women, 64 men), property crime victims (170 women, 125 men), and nonvictims (139 women, 102 men). Violent crime was found to have both a direct effect on psychological distress and an indirect effect through its impact on beliefs about safety, esteem, and trust. Property crime had only indirect effects on distress as mediated by safety-related beliefs. Although effects of violent crime on psychological distress were somewhat stronger among women, overall the belief mediational model explained the data of both women and men. Thus the findings illustrate the potential of crimes of many types to affect fundamental beliefs about the self, others, and the world.
Chapter
Rape is a traumatic event often followed by emotional reactions that can severely disrupt daily functioning. The responses following rape have been labeled posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), a relatively new diagnostic entity that was introduced in the DSM-III as an anxiety disorder (American Psychiatric Association, 1980). In the revised manual (DSM-III-R; American Psychiatric Association, 1987), the characteristic symptoms of the disorder were divided into three classes: (a) reexperiencing of the traumatic event (e.g., nightmares, flashbacks, intense emotional distress when exposed to reminders of the trauma); (b) avoidance and numbing (e.g., avoidance of thoughts and reminders of the trauma, psychogenic amnesia, detachment); and (c) increased arousal (e.g., sleep disturbance, trouble concentrating, hypervigilance, exaggerated startle response, physiologic reactivity upon exposure to events that resemble the traumatic event).
Chapter
Twenty-one years have passed since the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) was first described by Beck et al. [16]. Over the years, two important reviews about the psychometric properties of the BDI have been written by Beck and Beamesderfer [15] and Mayer [123]. The former review stressed aspects of reliability and validity, whereas the latter review also compared the BDI with other self-report measures of depression.
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Sexual assault of women is a common worldwide problem, with such violence being perpetrated by women's intimate partners as well as other types of persons (acquaintances, friends, family members other than partners, strangers). Not only does sexual assault pose physical health risks to women, but it also has been associated with many types of mental health problems, including substance use disorders, post-traumatic stress disorder and other anxiety disorders, depression, and suicidal ideation and attempts. While most female sexual assault survivors experience negative mental health sequelae immediately following the assault, there is significant variability in the severity and duration of these symptoms. Factors influencing this variability include the survivor's prior history of violence, the severity of the assault, and whether the survivor receives negative social reactions to her disclosure concerning the assault. Several brief cognitive behavior therapies (including Cognitive Processing Therapy, Prolonged Exposure, and Stress Inoculation Training) and Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing have been shown to improve the mental health of many adult female sexual assault survivors.
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In this existential-phenomenological investigation seven women were interviewed about their experiences of recovering from rape trauma. The purpose of the study was to discover the meaning of recovery from the perception of the victim, how recovery is experienced, and what contributed to the growth and recovery of the woman who has been raped. Transcribed interviews were analyzed using a hermeneutic process. The thematic structure of a woman's recovery from rape comprises three main themes: reaching out, reframing the rape, and redefining the self. These findings are important to professionals working with women who have been raped because it is the raped woman, rather than the clinician, who is able to define what constitutes recovery.
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This article has discussed the most common sequelae of victimization with regard to incest, rape, and battering. Although legislators and law-enforcement officials have traditionally been viewed as having primary responsibility for the prevention and control of violence, it is now known that physicians must also act in this regard. Their action is especially required with regard to victim assessment and treatment. Physicians serve as the entry points not only to the health care system, but also to other resources for victims of violence. By identifying their victimized patients and by understanding the antecedents of their patients’ symptoms, physicians can go much further in meeting their patients’ needs for physical, mental, and social well-being. Given the scope and impact of violence, physicians have a moral and ethical obligation to inquire about the possibility of current violence, past violence, or both in their patients’ lives.
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In general, most people display stronger beliefs in ‘aggravated rape‘ or ‘real rape‘; including victims of such rape cases who often identify themselves as ‘rape victims’ than the victims of ‘simple rape’, where none of the aggravating circumstances are present. Despite myths to the contrary these ‘simple rape’ cases in fact make up the majority of cases. This article considers the implications of ‘real rape‘ and demonstrates how notions about what a ‘typical rape‘ should be, in the form of rape myths, directly impact on societal attitudes towards rape victims and how the media continue to reinforce and perpetuate the notion of real rape through their selective reporting of ‘serial rape’, ‘stranger rape’ or especially ‘violent rapes’.
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The current study examines the relationships among world assumptions, history of adult sexual assault, depressive symptoms, and fearful attitudes toward relationships. Three hundred and sixty-one female college students completed the Assumptive World Scales and a set of questionnaires to assess their sexual assault history subsequent to age 15, levels of depressive symptoms, sexual aversion, paranoia/self-consciousness, and fear of intimacy. Factor analysis of the Assumptive World Scales items revealed five dimensions that had clear relationships with factors proposed in the initial study. These five Assumptive Worlds dimensions accounted for significant variance in depression. These dimensions also accounted for significant variance in sexual aversion, paranoia/self-consciousness, and fear of intimacy, even when controlling for levels of depressive symptoms and sexual assault severity. The implications of these findings for research on sexual assault, cognitive schema, and interpersonal functioning are discussed.
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