Recent Experience in the Epidemiology of Disease Caused by Atypical Mycobacteria

Reviews of infectious diseases 09/1981; 3(5):990-6. DOI: 10.1093/clinids/3.5.990
Source: PubMed


To obtain information on the epidemiology of mycobacteriosis, water and air samples collected along the East Coast of the
United States were examined for mycobacteria. Mycobacterium avium-intracellulare-scrofulaceum (MAIS) were isolated from 25% of the water, samples, mostly those from South Carolina, Georgia, and the Gulf states. Mycobacterium kansasii and Mycobacterium marinum were not found, probably because of the detrimental effects of the NaOH used to decontaminate the samples. MAIS strains were
found more often in estuaries than in fresh or ocean waters. The frequency of Mycobacterium intracel/ulare was relatively
uniform along the entire coast, while Mycobacterium scrofulaceum predominated in the South. Only M. intracellulare was found in aerosol specimens, although both M. intracellulare and M. scrofulaceum were found in waters collected at the same sites.

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    • "Not all countries have B.C.G. vaccination mandatory, which may play a role in protecting against NTM infection (Romanus et al. 1995). Environmental conditions could also be relevant, as mycobacteria have been shown to be isolated from areas where water temperatures are high (Gruft et al. 1981). More importantly , different clinical microbiology methods used for isolation and detection may be important in the differences observed. "
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    ABSTRACT: While patients with cystic fibrosis (CF) have had dramatic improvement in their survival rates, this has been accompanied by the emergence of more virulent pathogens such as Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Burkholderia cepacia complex organisms. In addition, there has been emergence of organisms of increasing clinical significance such as the nontuberculous mycobacterial (NTM). Although TB infection in patients with CF is extremely uncommon, there is growing concern with regard to atypical Mycobacterium spp, in particular Mycobacterium abscessus. Many methods of decontamination of sputum, which have been adapted from TB methodologies, are ineffective; as shown by the overgrowth of P. aeruginosa, it is essential that decontamination methods are optimized to overcome this. Establishing optimal methods of isolation and determining accurate levels of prevalence is of importance as, although NTM may be isolated relatively infrequently in CF populations, their clinical status in pulmonary disease is now beginning to emerge.
    Full-text · Article · Jun 2007 · Letters in Applied Microbiology
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    ABSTRACT: Atypische Mykobakterien sind ubiquitär vorkommende Bakterien, die vornehmlich in natürlichen und künstlichen Wasserquellen, wie zum Beispiel Leitungswasser, gefunden werden. Sie werden immer häufiger als Ursache unterschiedlicher Krankheitsbilder, insbesondere bei immunsupprimierten Patienten, gesehen. Um zu klären, ob Leitungswasser als Kontaminations- oder Infektionsquelle von Bedeutung ist, wurde es auf ubiquitäre Mykobakterien mittels quantitativer LightCycler Real-time PCR und Kultur untersucht. Dabei wurde sowohl eine Mycobacterium-gattungsspezifische PCR als auch eine M. xenopi-spezifische PCR eingesetzt.
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of the major nontuberculous mycobacterium (NTM) species and the outcome of their treatment in southern Taiwan (a high-prevalence area for mycobacterium tuberculosis [MTB]). The study was a retrospective review of patients with NTM pulmonary disease at the Kaohsiung Chang Gung Memorial Hospital from 2004 to 2005. The variables recorded and analyzed included demographics, particularly age and gender; primary clinical presentations; chest radiographic findings; risk factors; medication and outcome of treatment. The study included 67 patients with NTM pulmonary disease. The average age was 66.6+/-14.5 years and they were predominantly male (70.1%). Of these patients, 88.1% had pre-existing lung disease, with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (61.2%) and TB (58.2%) as the main underlying lung diseases. Rapid-growth species (M. abscessus, 44.8% and M. fortuitum, 23.9%)were the most commonly isolated species. Of the forty patients that were treated and followed up for at least one year, 31 had a favorable outcome (mean duration of therapy, 8.46+/-2.96 months). The predominant species in southern Taiwan differ from those in other countries as well as in northern Taiwan, with rapid-growth species predominating in southern Taiwan.
    Preview · Article · Sep 2009 · Chang Gung medical journal
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