ArticlePDF Available

A Satiety Index of common foods



The aim of this study was to produce a validated satiety index of common foods. Isoenergetic 1000 kJ (240 kcal) servings of 38 foods separated into six food categories (fruits, bakery products, snack foods, carbohydrate-rich foods, protein-rich foods, breakfast cereals) were fed to groups of 11-13 subjects. Satiety ratings were obtained every 15 min over 120 min after which subjects were free to eat ad libitum from a standard range of foods and drinks. A satiety index (SI) score was calculated by dividing the area under the satiety response curve (AUC) for the test food by the group mean satiety AUC for white bread and multiplying by 100. Thus, white bread had an SI score of 100% and the SI scores of the other foods were expressed as a percentage of white bread. There were significant differences in satiety both within and between the six food categories. The highest SI score was produced by boiled potatoes (323 +/- 51%) which was seven-fold higher than the lowest SI score of the croissant (47 +/- 17%). Most foods (76%) had an SI score greater than or equal to white bread. The amount of energy eaten immediately after 120 min correlated negatively with the mean satiety AUC responses (r = -0.37, P < 0.05, n = 43) thereby supporting the subjective satiety ratings. SI scores correlated positively with the serving weight of the foods (r = 0.66, P < 0.001, n = 38) and negatively with palatability ratings (r = -0.64, P < 0.001, n = 38). Protein, fibre, and water contents of the test foods correlated positively with SI scores (r = 0.37, P < 0.05, n = 38; r = 0.46, P < 0.01; and r = 0.64, P < 0.001; respectively) whereas fat content was negatively associated (r = -0.43, P < 0.01). The results show that isoenergetic servings of different foods differ greatly in their satiating capacities. This is relevant to the treatment and prevention of overweight and obesity.
... The data was recorded by taking the appetite ratings before and after 120 min of food ingestion. The satiety response curves of the test foods were compared with the reference food (white bread) (27). The satiety rating of the bread was assigned a score of 100, while the satiating potential of all other foods was determined based on ranking against reference bread as illustrated below (Equation 1). ...
... Likewise, fruits and vegetables provide soluble and insoluble dietary fiber. Apart, satiety index scores for a variety of isocaloric foods have also been developed (27). Among all food groups, fruits and vegetables received the highest satiety scores, and refined cereal products gained the lowest satiety scores. ...
Full-text available
Food intake and body weight regulation are of special interest for meeting today’s lifestyle essential requirements. Since balanced energy intake and expenditure are crucial for healthy living, high levels of energy intake are associated with obesity. Hence, regulation of energy intake occurs through shortand longterm signals as complex central and peripheral physiological signals control food intake. This work aims to explore and compile the main factors influencing satiating eciency of foods by updating recent knowledge to point out new perspectives on the potential drivers of satiety interfering with food intake regulation. Human internal factors such as genetics, gender, age, nutritional status, gastrointestinal satiety signals, gut enzymes, gastric emptying rate, gut microbiota, individual behavioral response to foods, sleep andcircadian rhythmsarelikely tobeimportantindeterminingsatiety. Besides, theexternal factors (environmentalandbehavioral)impactingsatietyeciency are highlighted. Based on mechanisms related to food consumption and dietary patternsseveralphysical,physiological,andpsychologicalfactorsaect satiety or satiation. A complex network of endocrine and neuroendocrine mechanisms controls the satiety pathways. In response to food intake and other behavioral cues, gut signals enable endocrine systems to target the brain. Intestinal and gastric signals interact with neural pathways in the central nervous system to halt eating or induce satiety. Moreover, complex food composition and structures result in considerable variation in satiety responses for dierent food groups. A better understanding of foods and factors impacting the eciency of satiety could be helpful in making smart food choices and dietary recommendations for a healthy lifestyle based on updated scientific evidence.
... The applied side of our proposed concept is in line with the state-of-the-art understanding of fish (animal) nutrition and in line with the PEG principles to tackle eutrophication in shallow lake ecosystems, e.g., clear water phase or zooplankton dominance (Lepori, 2019;Scheffer and van Nes, 2007;Sommer et al., 2012). Cereals in addition to offering lowered PPR (D'Alessandro et al., 2015) and protein sparing potential , might contribute to carp's feeling of satiety too (Holt, 1995). Energy and carbohydrate dense food items are known to have quite high satiety index i.e., feeling of fullness (Holt, 1995). ...
... Cereals in addition to offering lowered PPR (D'Alessandro et al., 2015) and protein sparing potential , might contribute to carp's feeling of satiety too (Holt, 1995). Energy and carbohydrate dense food items are known to have quite high satiety index i.e., feeling of fullness (Holt, 1995). Carp stocks mostly start hungry from the feed-deprived, ~3 months long overwintering phase (Bauer and Schlott, 2004), severely depleting their body energy reserves (Zhao et al., 2021). ...
... The meal content and amount were free-choice, and nutrient content was determined by a dietician prior to consumption. In addition, participants rated their feeling of satiety directly before every meal on a scale ranging from − 3 (= extremely hungry) to + 3 (= extremely satis ed) based on the visual analogue scale by Holt et al. (22). In the evening of the intervention days, participants left the study site and were asked to refrain from any further carbohydrate consumption or strenuous physical activities. ...
Full-text available
Background Continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) systems have initially been developed for diabetes patients but are also increasingly used by healthy people in order to monitor individual eating behaviors and the glucose responses to different foods, e.g. to support weight loss. The aim of the study was to assess the suitability of this technology to detect effects of meal sequences and nutritional content of meals on postprandial glycemic responses. In addition, the effect of meal sequences on the subsequent eating behavior was evaluated. Subjects/Methods On two consecutive days, 36 participants without diabetes received standardized test meals (TM) for breakfast and lunch, as well as a free-choice dinner. Both TM contained equal amounts of carbohydrates with different absorption characteristics and differing fat and protein content. Participants consumed TM “fast” for breakfast and “slow” for lunch on one day, and in reverse order on the other day. Dinner was selected from a buffet; meal content and amount were free-choice. Participants rated their feeling of satiety directly before dinner intake. Glucose profiles were assessed with a CGM device. Results CGM was able to distinguish postprandial glucose responses according to the nutritional content of the TM. When TM were consumed for lunch, median glucose increase was higher than when consumed for breakfast (TM “fast”: 72.7 mg/dL vs. 56.5 mg/dL; TM “slow”: 38.3 mg/dL; vs. 22.1 mg/dL). Satiety before dinner was lower and energy intake for dinner was higher after TM “fast” for lunch than after TM “slow” for lunch (5 058.3 ± 1 787.8 kJ vs. 4 429.8 ± 1 205.4 kJ). Conclusions Data collected in this evaluation with the use of CGM firstly supports its use under everyday life conditions in people without diabetes and secondly could contribute to identify beneficial dietary patterns that may be considered in the management and prevention of metabolic disorders.
... In this regard, some evidence show that the high protein content of eggs may contribute to greater satiety than, for example, white bread or ready-to-eat breakfast cereals. 6 There is also evidence that eggs could help promote weight loss in overweight and obese subjects to increasing feelings of satiety and reducing short-term energy intake. 7 Furthermore, eggs are important in fat digestion which is mediated by bile since eggs aid in the synthesis of steroids, for example vitamin D-a precursor in bile production. ...
Full-text available
Background Rather erroneously, eggs consumption is linked to increase in plasma cholesterol content and incidents of cardiovascular diseases, cancer, stroke, or diabetes. This misconception which is more pervasive particularly in sub-Saharan Africa, has led to very low patronage of eggs intake. In this study, egg consumption patterns, desired egg characteristics, and the extent to which the perception of eggs consumption as a health risk is entrenched among consumers in the Volta Region of Ghana, were examined. Methods The study used primary data for the analysis and the 2-stage sampling technique was employed. First, 5 districts (Keta, Ho, Krachi East, Nkwanta South and North Tongu) were selected and afterward, a sample was randomly selected from each of the district. A well designed and pretested questionnaires were administered to the respondents. Results It was found that cheaper price and deep yellow yolk were the most persuasive parameters that motivate consumer purchase. The relationship between educational level and awareness on cholesterol types was significant. More than half of the respondents held the view that egg intake results in an increase in serum cholesterol and leads to the incidence of serious health problems. Recommendation This study proves the urgent need for a concerted national public education effort to raise awareness about the nutritional and health benefits of eggs intake. Success in such awareness creation will go a long way to greatly minimize acute malnutrition in the Ghana.
... High-protein foods that have been identified to decrease appetite become important in our current society, where the annual cost associated with obesity will increase to $900 billion by the year 2030 [105]. For example, foods characterized by a high satiety index (SI) have been shown to reduce energy intake in the following meal [106]. In addition, foods that suppress ghrelin, the hormone associated with appetite stimulation [107], may be another important way to control obesity by inducing a possible decrease in hunger. ...
Full-text available
Once the general public accepts that dietary cholesterol is not a concern for cardiovascular disease risk, foods that have been labeled as high-cholesterol sources, including eggs, may be appreciated for their various other dietary components. One of the nutrients in eggs that deserves further discussion is egg protein. Egg protein has been recognized to be highly digestible and an excellent source of essential amino acids, with the highest attainable protein digestibility-corrected amino acid score. Egg protein has been shown to decrease malnutrition in underdeveloped countries, possibly increase height in children, and protect against kwashiorkor. Egg protein has been demonstrated to be important to skeletal muscle health and protective against sarcopenia. Egg protein also can decrease appetite, resulting in a reduction in the caloric intake from the next meal and weight reduction. Other protective effects of egg protein addressed in this review include protection against infection as well as hypotensive and anti-cancer effects.
... Supplying carbohydrate sources in beginning of vegetative season may also contribute to carp's stomach fulness as carbohydrates usually increases the feed volume . A protein and energy rich food intake (e.g., natural food + pre-treated cereals) is also known to trigger satiety feelings (Holt et al., 1995). Presently no supplementary feeding is done at the beginning of season due to an over-abundance of natural food in fishponds. ...
Full-text available
The present work aimed to understand nutrient enrichment and resultant eutrophication caused by carp farming in semi-intensively managed, temperate shallow-lake ecosystems like central European fishponds – combining animal nutrition and plankton ecology group model principles. In the traditional yet predominant pond farming in central Europe, carp stocks start the vegetative season on a ketogenic diet (high in natural food), have a balanced diet shortly in mid-season (cereals introduced as supplementary feed), and end on a starchy diet (high in cereals). Under beginning-season diets, the fish (carp) stock exhibit high but non-bioeconomic N and P retentions. With a surplus of ‘digestible’ N (protein, amino acids) relative to insufficient carbohydrate energy, much of the digested N is pumped back to the environment in algae-reactive forms (NH4–N). A surplus of digestible P per unit of digestible N also triggers renal clearance of digested P; pumped back to environment as PO4³⁻. By the end-of-season, N, P retentions deteriorate significantly due to high metabolic N losses caused by missing digestible amino acids (lysine, isoleucine) and decreased P digestibility, respectively. Little digested P is unutilized and even discarded in tandem with poor N deposition. End-of-season feeding in fishponds is perhaps most polluting and triggers de-novo lipogenesis, instead of protein (biomass) accretion. However, the ratio of reactive losses (to suspended losses) of N, P, which could instantly trigger algal assimilation, is equally high (bad) at the beginning- and end-of-season. We show aggravated N, P loading by carp may occur both under high and low zooplankton-zoobenthos availability, contradictory to prevailing notions. Environmental nutrient loading by carps is most suppressed, including lowest reactive N, P losses, when diet is balanced. Carp farming in regional fishponds could benefit by adopting scientifically sound ‘pond feeds’ and managing carps' satiety to graze (or spare) zooplankton-zoobenthos for prolonging clear-water phase.
... Satiety refers to the processes that inhibit hunger between eating events (Brunstrom, 2011). The concept of GI and satiety index (SI) was first introduced in 1981 (Jenkins et al., 1981) and 1995 (Holt et al., 1995), respectively. ...
Background and objectives: The impact of food structure on postprandial physiological responses has received sustained attention in recent years. Changes in the glycemic response and satiety score to commonly consumed starchy foods may have a positive impact on health. However, no data on Ethiopian staple foods has been reported. This study aimed at investigating the effects of structural changes in injera (stale and fresh with similar macronutrient content) on glycemic and satiety responses in ten healthy subjects during two hours in a randomized cross-over design. Findings: With increasing hardness, stale injera had a marked higher satiety index (iAUC = 407 ±14; p = 0.001) than fresh injera (iAUC = 333 ± 18). Besides, stale injera had a slightly, but not significant, lower glycemic index (GI) than fresh injera (stale, 35.9 ± 3.6; fresh, 40.2 ±3.0). Conclusions: Injera staling increased satiety but not glycemic response, and may provide a simple means for improving its health potential. Significance and Novelty: The effect of injera staling on satiety/glycemic responses has never been studied before. Injera is a staple food in Ethiopia, eaten several times a day. Therefore, stale injera may help reducing food intake of subsequent unhealthy foods through increased satiety.
... Les résultats des études concernant l'IG et la satiété sont cependant assez variables et il est difficile d'avoir un consensus clair. En effet, certaines études rapportent des indices de satiété élevé et une suppression de l'apport alimentaire à court terme plus efficace pour des aliments à IG haut par rapport à des aliments à IG [330][331][332][333][334]. D'autres études ont à l'inverse démontré une augmentation de la satiété ou une diminution de la prise alimentaire, suite à la consommation de produits à faible IG [335][336][337]. ...
L’hyperglycémie chronique est impliquée dans le développement de complications associées au DT2 et la variabilité glycémique (VG) apparait comme une composante à part entière de l'homéostasie du glucose. Les mesures hygiéno-diététiques, en première ligne dans la prise en charge du DT2, passent entre autres par une modification de l’alimentation, dans laquelle les glucides occupent une place prépondérante. Au-delà de la quantité, la qualité des glucides a été mise en avant comme ayant un impact déterminant sur les excursions glycémiques. Notamment, la digestibilité des produits à base d’amidon pourrait alors avoir un impact sur le contrôle glycémique chez les patients atteints de DT2. Mais il y a aujourd’hui un réel besoin d’apporter une caractérisation des produits plus complète sur cet aspect et de mener des études de faisabilité et d’efficacité de tels régimes modulant la digestibilité de l’amidon. Mes travaux de thèse montrent qu’il est possible de concevoir un régime riche en amidon lentement digestible (SDS), grâce à des choix de produits amylacés disponibles dans le commerce, des conseils de cuisson et des recommandations adaptées. Pour la première fois, nous avons montré que le contrôle de la digestibilité de l'amidon de produits amylacés avec des instructions de cuisson appropriées dans une population atteinte de DT2 augmentait la consommation de contenu en SDS dans un contexte de vie réelle et que ce type de régime était bien accepté dans telle population. De plus, nous avons montré que l’augmentation du rapport SDS/glucides était associée à une amélioration du contrôle glycémique postprandial et qu’il existait une corrélation linéaire inverse entre les paramètres de VG et la teneur en SDS. La mise en œuvre d’un régime riche en amidon lentement digestible dans une population atteinte de DT2, a montré une différence significative sur le profil de variabilité glycémique, mais également sur les excursions glycémiques postprandiales, évalués par le CGMS, en comparaison avec un régime pauvre en amidon lentement digestible. Ce type de régime a également permis aux patients d’atteindre des cibles glycémiques postprandiales plus appropriées. Grâce à un travail de revue de la littérature, nous avons mis en évidence que la déviation standard (SD), le coefficient de variation (CV), l’amplitude moyenne des excursions glycémiques (MAGE) et la moyenne glycémique (MBG) étaient les paramètres de VG les plus étudiés en termes de relation avec les paramètres de diagnostic du DT2 et les complications liées au DT2 et qu’ils montraient des relations fortes, en particulier avec l’HbA1c. Dans les études interventionnelles, nous avons pu voir que la SD, le MAGE et le temps dans la cible (TIR) étaient les paramètres les plus utilisés comme critères d’évaluation, montrant des améliorations significatives suite aux interventions pharmacologiques ou nutritionnelles, souvent en lien avec des paramètres de contrôle glycémique comme l’HbA1c, la glycémie à jeun ou en postprandial. La VG apparaît donc comme une composante clé de la dysglycémie du DT2. Au-delà de son utilisation par le patient comme support du contrôle glycémique, le CGMS apparait comme un outil pertinent en recherche clinique pour évaluer l’efficacité des interventions même si à ce jour, il reste encore très peu utilisé pour les interventions nutritionnelles. Des études plus approfondies seront cependant nécessaires pour confirmer l'impact bénéfique de telles interventions alimentaires à long terme. Nous avons conçu une étude à plus grande échelle pour étudier l'impact à long terme d’un régime riche en SDS sur la variabilité et le contrôle glycémiques (CGMS) et les complications et comorbidités associées chez le patient atteint de DT2. La modulation de la digestibilité de l'amidon dans l'alimentation pourrait alors être utilisée comme un outil nutritionnel simple et approprié pour améliorer l'homéostasie glucidique au quotidien dans le DT2.
The present study investigated the effects of structure and physical chemistry and of resistant starch on short-term satiety in mice using three types of resistant starch (RS): high-amylose maize starch (HMS, RS2), retrograded HMS (RS3), and octenyl succinic anhydride (OSA)-modified HMS (RS4). RS3 resulted in the greatest satiety, as indicated by the lowest food intake over 4 h, followed by RS4 and RS2. RS3 also yielded the lowest postprandial blood glucose peak, blood glucose fluctuation, and gastric emptying rate, which was conducive to the continuation of satiety. Structural and physicochemical analysis revealed that the three resistant starches differed significantly in terms of particle size, chain-length distribution, and swelling power, which were all significantly associated with short-term satiety (Pearson correlation analysis). These findings could provide a theoretical basis for designing raw materials for high-satiety-inducing foods for patients with type 2 diabetes and obesity.
Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs), particularly ischemic heart disease and stroke, which account for over 72% of all CVDs, remain among the major causes of disability and death worldwide. In developed countries, rates increased for most of these diseases from the end of the Industrial Revolution until a couple of decades after World War II, after which they fell for many decades. Research conducted over this time has identified diet, especially Western-style diets that are calorie-dense and nutrient-sparse and strongly proinflammatory, as being the primary cause of CVD. We begin with a description of the history of CVD, which coincides with our general knowledge about inflammation and places current knowledge in an understandable context. This also introduces the concept of vulnerable populations that may be particularly susceptible to the effect of diet in relation to CVD. We discuss specific dietary factors (i.e., foods and nutrients) and, more importantly, patterns of intake that are strongly associated with both the incidence and mortality of CVD. In this regard, we focus especially on the Mediterranean diet, the DASH diet, and the vegetarian diet, as dietary patterns rich in fruits and vegetables, containing sufficient dietary fiber, but being low in saturated fat and refined carbohydrates. These diets have been promoted to offer protection against CVD. We further discuss and present specific inflammation-related mechanisms of action that are unique to the foods contained in these diets. Prominent among characteristics of these foods, including secondary plant compounds that influence cellular signaling cascades that, in mechanistic studies, have been shown to exert antiinflammatory and antioxidant effects. Though we discuss all CVDs, we emphasized ischemic heart disease and stroke (both ischemic and hemorrhagic), which account for most of the incidence, disability, and mortality from CVD worldwide.
ResearchGate has not been able to resolve any references for this publication.