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A Satiety Index of common foods

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Abstract

The aim of this study was to produce a validated satiety index of common foods. Isoenergetic 1000 kJ (240 kcal) servings of 38 foods separated into six food categories (fruits, bakery products, snack foods, carbohydrate-rich foods, protein-rich foods, breakfast cereals) were fed to groups of 11-13 subjects. Satiety ratings were obtained every 15 min over 120 min after which subjects were free to eat ad libitum from a standard range of foods and drinks. A satiety index (SI) score was calculated by dividing the area under the satiety response curve (AUC) for the test food by the group mean satiety AUC for white bread and multiplying by 100. Thus, white bread had an SI score of 100% and the SI scores of the other foods were expressed as a percentage of white bread. There were significant differences in satiety both within and between the six food categories. The highest SI score was produced by boiled potatoes (323 +/- 51%) which was seven-fold higher than the lowest SI score of the croissant (47 +/- 17%). Most foods (76%) had an SI score greater than or equal to white bread. The amount of energy eaten immediately after 120 min correlated negatively with the mean satiety AUC responses (r = -0.37, P < 0.05, n = 43) thereby supporting the subjective satiety ratings. SI scores correlated positively with the serving weight of the foods (r = 0.66, P < 0.001, n = 38) and negatively with palatability ratings (r = -0.64, P < 0.001, n = 38). Protein, fibre, and water contents of the test foods correlated positively with SI scores (r = 0.37, P < 0.05, n = 38; r = 0.46, P < 0.01; and r = 0.64, P < 0.001; respectively) whereas fat content was negatively associated (r = -0.43, P < 0.01). The results show that isoenergetic servings of different foods differ greatly in their satiating capacities. This is relevant to the treatment and prevention of overweight and obesity.
... A satiety questionnaire with scoring points was used to assess satiety after 60 min of ingestion of either GA-AS or the placebo intervention. The questionnaires were administered at both baseline and at the end of the study (adapted from [24,25]). In the satiety questionnaire, participants answered the following questions: How did the meal (with the study treatment or placebo) you just ate make you feel? ...
... Did it satisfy your hunger, or did you feel like you needed to snack later? Then they rated their feelings of satiety for 60 min using a score of 100 [24,25]. ...
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Gum Arabic (GA) is a widely-used additive in food processing, but is also historically used in a number of traditional therapies. It has been shown to have a broad range of health benefits, particularly in improving important cardiovascular risk indicators. Metabolic syndrome and its associated cardiac outcomes are a significant burden on modern healthcare systems, and complementary interventions to aid in its management are required. We aimed to examine the effect of GA on those with, or at risk of, metabolic syndrome to identify an effect on improving important disease parameters related to cardiovascular outcomes. A single-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial was conducted to identify the effects of daily GA supplementation on metabolic and cardiovascular risk factors. A total of 80 participants were randomized to receive 20 g of GA daily (n = 40) or placebo (1 g pectin, n = 40) for 12 weeks. Key endpoints included body-anthropometric indices, diet and physical activity assessment, and blood chemistry (HbA1c, fasting glucose, and blood lipids). Of the 80 enrolled, 61 completed the study (intervention: 31, control: 30) with 19 dropping out due to poor treatment compliance. After 12 weeks, the participants receiving the GA showed significant decreases in systolic and diastolic blood pressure, fat-free body mass, energy and carbohydrate consumption, and fasting plasma glucose, as well as increased intake of dietary fiber. They also reported improvements in self-perceived bloating and quality of bowel movements, as well as a decreased appetite score following GA consumption. These results suggest that GA could be a safe and beneficial adjunct to other treatments for those with, or at risk of, metabolic syndrome.
... Food processing often leads to increased nutrient bioavailability, either for beneficial (lycopene from tomato) or deleterious effect, such as the increase in the proportion of sugars [8,9]. Processed and UPF are generally less satiating than fresh foods [10,11]. ...
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Ultra-processed food (UPF) can be harmful to the population’s health. To establish associations between UPF and health outcomes, food consumption can be assessed using availability data, such as purchase lists or household budget surveys. The aim of this systematic review was to search studies that related UPF availability with noncommunicable diseases or their risk factors. PRISMA guidelines were used. Searches were performed in PubMed, EBSCO, Scopus and Web of Science in February 2021. The search strategy included terms related to exposure (UPF) and outcomes (noncommunicable diseases and their risk factors). Studies that assessed only food consumption at an individual level and did not present health outcomes were excluded. Two reviewers conducted the selection process, and a third helped when disagreement occurred. The Newcastle–Ottawa Scale was used to assess the studies’ quality; 998 records were analyzed. All 11 eligible studies were ecological and assessed overweight and obesity as a health outcome, only one showed no positive association with UPF availability. Two studies included the prevalence of diabetes as an outcome, however no significant association was found with UPF availability. Studies relating UPF availability and health outcomes are focused on overweight and obesity. It is necessary to further explore the relationship between other health outcomes and UPF availability using purchase or sales data.
... Dense foods such as chocolate and cakes were less satiety than lowdensity foods such as boiled potatoes and fish. 90 Another study examined the relationship between ED, satiety and food pleasantness. ...
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Objectives: There is a growing body of evidence linking dietary energy density (DED) with metabolic disorders like obesity, type 2 diabetes (T2D) and metabolic syndrome (MetS). However, according to our knowledge, there has been no systematic review and mate-analysis on T2D and MetS with DED. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the association between DED with the risk of obesity, T2D and MetS in a systematic review and meta-analysis of observational studies. Methods: We searched all published studies according to the defined keywords up to march 2020 in the PubMed/Medline and Scopus databases. We excluded those that did not calculate DED for total intake, no observed association between obesity, T2D, MetS as the primary or one of the outcomes with DED, no reported odds ratio (OR), relative risk (RR) or hazard ratio (HR) estimates with 95% confidence intervals (CIs), studies in children under two years old, patients with cancer and pregnant women. Results: From 2282, after deleting the duplicates and irrelevant studies, we entered 58 articles ( 47 systematic reviews and 11 meta-analyze). We indicated an increased risk of T2D in relation to DED (OR: 1.25, 95% CI: 1.18-1.33, P< 0.001). But studies reviewed were inconsistent. All studies which examined the relationship between DED and MetS, showed a positive relationship with an increased significant risk (OR: 1.59, 95% CI: 1.22-2.07, P<0.001). Most articles reported a direct association between DED and obesity but the relationship between DED and risk of obesity was not significant (OR: 1.04, 95% CI: 0.92-1.17, P= 0.543). Conclusion: In this systematic review and meta-analysis of observational studies, we found that the DED increased the risk of T2D and MetS, but was not significant with the risk of obesity.
... It means that people get more satisfied (or filled up) compared to the equal number of calories from other food. Holt et al. (1995) found that among 38 of the most common foods in Australia, boiled potatoes has the highest satiety score. The satiety of potatoes was confirmed by Erdmann et al. (2007) who compared potatoes with rice and pasta. ...
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This paper analyses the frequency of the consumption of table potatoes in Norway. The analysis shows that the frequency of potato consumption is higher in older cohorts than in younger, and it declines over the life cycle. This indicates that the total consumption will continue to decrease as older potato eating cohorts are replaced with younger cohorts who eat potatoes less frequently. This is bad for food security, it is bad for nutritional health and it is bad for the environment. It is argued that nutritional and environmental organizations should work together to increase the status of the potato.
... Evidence from epidemiological studies reports higher-fiber intakes to be associated with improved body mass control, higher satiety, and overall lower-food intake (47, 128,197). High-fiber foods generally possess a High satiety index (95). Possible explanatory mechanisms to this relation might reside in longer chewing periods to consume high-fiber foods as well as its low-energy density (86,209). ...
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Martínez-Gómez, MG and Roberts, BM. Metabolic adaptations to weight loss: A brief review. J Strength Cond Res XX(X): 000-000, 2021-As the scientific literature has continuously shown, body mass loss attempts do not always follow a linear fashion nor always go as expected even when the intervention is calculated with precise tools. One of the main reasons why this tends to happen relies on our body's biological drive to regain the body mass we lose to survive. This phenomenon has been referred to as "metabolic adaptation" many times in the literature and plays a very relevant role in the management of obesity and human weight loss. This review will provide insights into some of the theoretical models for the etiology of metabolic adaptation as well as a quick look into the physiological and endocrine mechanisms that underlie it. Nutritional strategies and dietetic tools are thus necessary to confront these so-called adaptations to body mass loss. Among some of these strategies, we can highlight increasing protein needs, opting for high-fiber foods or programming-controlled diet refeeds, and diet breaks over a large body mass loss phase. Outside the nutritional aspects, it might be wise to increase the physical activity and thus the energy flux of an individual when possible to maintain diet-induced body mass loss in the long term. This review will examine these protocols and their viability in the context of adherence and sustainability for the individual toward successful body mass loss.
... This 7-point visual analog scale has equally spaced options that include extremely hungry, hungry, semi-hungry, no particular feeling, semi-satisfied, satisfied, and extremely satisfied. The Holt Satiety Scale was previously used to determine the satiety index of common foods and used in this study to measure satiety to the cracker conditions (18). The International Physical Activity Questionnaire-Short Form (IPAQ-SF) was used to assess physical activity levels for each participant. ...
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Background To investigate the effect of RS on acute glycemic or insulinemic responses, the FDA indicates that control and RS-enriched foods must contain equivalent amounts of digestible carbohydrate. However, RS-containing foods typically contain less digestible carbohydrate per serving than control foods. Thus, controlling for digestible carbohydrate may yield different responses as compared with controlling for serving size. Objective To compare the postprandial metabolic responses to native wheat starch (NWS) versus resistant starch type 4 (RS4) using digestible carbohydrate-matched portions compared to weight-matched portions. Methods A single-blinded randomized-controlled crossover trial examined glycemic and insulinemic responses over two hours following consumption of four cracker conditions and a dextrose beverage in apparently healthy participants (n = 14). Crackers provided 50g of digestible carbohydrate (CHO) using the FDA's meal-intervention protocol, or 35g of CHO by weight for the marketplace substitution method. Crackers differed only by the type of starch additive: NWS (MidsolTM 50) or RS4 (Fibersym® RW). Glucose levels were assessed at baseline, 15, 30, 45, 60, 90, and 120 minutes; insulin levels were measured at baseline, 30, 60, and 120 minutes. Results There were no significant differences between 50g digestible CHO cracker conditions for glucose or insulin iAUC. The 35g CHO by weight conditions were not different for glucose iAUC (Mean (95% CI); 35g NWS: 1317 (677, 2169), 35g RS4: 701 (262, 1351), p > 0.05). However, insulin iAUC was lower following 35g RS4 compared to 35g NWS (35RS4: 92 (10, 259), 35NWS: 697 (397, 1080), p < 0.01). Conclusion In healthy adults, consumption of RS4 crackers decreased postprandial insulin responses compared with NWS crackers when using the marketplace substitution method compared to the FDA standard testing method, with similar postprandial glucose responses. Comparisons of the FDA standard testing method and the marketplace substitution method should be investigated further to elucidate differential physiological impacts on consumers.
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Food intake and energy expenditure are key regulators of body weight. To regulate food intake, the brain must integrate physiological signals and hedonic cues. The brain plays an essential role in modulating the appropriate responses to the continuous update of the body energy-status by the peripheral signals and the neuronal pathways that generate the gut-brain axis. This regulation encompasses various steps involved in food consumption, include satiation, satiety, and hunger. It is important to have a comprehensive understanding of the mechanisms that regulate food consumption as well as to standardize the vocabulary for the steps involved. This review discusses the current knowledge of the regulation and the contribution peripheral and central signals at each step of the cycle to control appetite. We also highlight how food intake has been measured. The increasingly complex understanding of regulation and action mechanisms intervening in the gut-brain axis offers ambitious targets for new strategies to control appetite.
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The aim of this meta-analysis was to review the impact of a Paleolithic diet (PD) on selected health indicators (body composition, lipid profile, blood pressure, and carbohydrate metabolism) in the short and long term of nutrition intervention in healthy and unhealthy adults. A systematic review of randomized controlled trials of 21 full-text original human studies was conducted. Both the PD and a variety of healthy diets (control diets (CDs)) caused reduction in anthropometric parameters, both in the short and long term. For many indicators, such as weight (body mass (BM)), body mass index (BMI), and waist circumference (WC), impact was stronger and especially found in the short term. All diets caused a decrease in total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), and triglycerides (TG), albeit the impact of PD was stronger. Among long-term studies, only PD cased a decline in TC and LDL-C. Impact on blood pressure was observed mainly in the short term. PD caused a decrease in fasting plasma (fP) glucose, fP insulin, and homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) and glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) in the short run, contrary to CD. In the long term, only PD caused a decrease in fP glucose and fP insulin. Lower positive impact of PD on performance was observed in the group without exercise. Positive effects of the PD on health and the lack of experiments among professional athletes require longer-term interventions to determine the effect of the Paleo diet on athletic performance.
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Background: The dual crises of climate change and chronic, or non-communicable, disease (NCD) have emerged worldwide as the global economy has industrialized over the past two centuries. Aims: In this synthesis I examine humans' dependence on external (non-metabolic) energy expenditure (e.g., fire, fossil fuels) as a common, root cause in these modern crises. Materials and methods: Using fossil, archeological, and historical evidence I show that the human lineage has been dependent on external energy sources since the control of fire in the Paleolithic. This reliance has grown with the development of agriculture, the use of wind- and water-power, and the most recently with industrialization and the transition to fossil fuels. To place industrialization in context I develop a Rule of 50, whereby individuals in industrialized economies consume roughly 50-times more external energy and manufacture roughly 50-times more material than do hunter-gatherers. Results: Industrialization and mechanization, powered by fossil fuels, have promoted centralization and processing in food production, reduced physical activity, and increased air pollution (including greenhouse gas emissions). These developments have led in turn to NCD and climate change. Discussion and conclusion: Climate change and NCD are connected both to one another and to our species' deep evolutionary dependence on external energy. Transitioning to carbon-free energy is essential to reduce the existential risks of climate change, but will likely have only modest effects on NCD. With the impending exhaustion of oil, coal, and natural gas reserves, developing replacements for fossil fuels is also critical to maintaining our species' external energy portfolio.
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