Smokeless tobacco use: How it affects the performance of major league baseball players

ArticleinJournal of the American Dental Association (1939) 126(8):1115-21; discussion 1121-4 · September 1995with 225 Reads
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Abstract
The authors examined the effect of smokeless tobacco use on the athletic performance of major league baseball players during the 1988 season. They evaluated performance records of 158 players on seven major league teams who played or pitched at least 10 games or innings during the 1988 season. ST use, they concluded, is not related to player performance in major league baseball but does place players at significantly increased risk for mucosal lesions and other oral pathology.

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  • Article
    Full-text available
    Anti-spit tobacco information is replete with fear appeals, including firsthand accounts of death and debilitation, to make users aware of the health risks and dangers. Those dangers, however, are well known by baseball players whose association with spit tobacco is historic. A survey of 217 Iowa and Nebraska college players showed that despite their awareness of spit tobacco's dangers, the players use spit tobacco to relax and focus on the field. This study supports other research showing that fear appeals may not be the most appropriate approach for anti-tobacco advertising campaigns. The study suggests that campaigns should promote relaxation and stress reduction techniques as alternatives to spit tobacco.
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  • Surveillance of and knowledge about cancer associated with smokeless tobacco use Smokeless tobacco or health. An international perspective
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    Winn DM. Surveillance of and knowledge about cancer associated with smokeless tobacco use. In: Shopland DR, Stotts RC, Schroeder KL, Burns DM, eds. Smokeless tobacco or health. An international perspective. Bethesda, Md.: National Institutes of Health; 1992; NIH publication no. 92-3461;11-18.
  • Oral mucosal lesions: clinical findings in relation to smokeless tobacco use among U.S. baseball players Smokeless tobacco or health. an international perspective. Bethes-da
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    Greene JC, Ernster VL, Grady DG, Robertson PB, Walsh MM, Stillman LA. Oral mucosal lesions: clinical findings in relation to smokeless tobacco use among U.S. baseball players. In: Shopland DR, Stotts RC, Schroeder KL, Burns DM, eds. Smokeless tobacco or health. an international perspective. Bethes-da, Md.: National Institutes of Health; 1992; NIH publication no. 92-3461:41-50.
  • Periodontal ef-fects associated with the use of smokeless to-bacco: Results after one year Smokeless tobacco or health: an international perspective
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    Robertson PB, Ernster V, Greene J, Walsh M, Grady D, Hauck W. Periodontal ef-fects associated with the use of smokeless to-bacco: Results after one year. In: Shopland DR, Stotts RC, Schroeder KL, Burns DM, eds. Smokeless tobacco or health: an international perspective. Bethesda, Md.: National Institutes of Health; 1992; NIH publication no. 92-1120 JADA, Vol. 126, August 1995 on July 15, 2011 jada.ada.org Downloaded from COVER STORY-3461;78-86.
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  • Surveillance of and knowledge about cancer associated with smokeless tobacco use Smokeless tobacco or health. An international perspective Smokeless tobacco addiction: a threat to the oral and systemic health of the child and adolescent
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  • The smokeless tobacco problem: risk groups in North America
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    Glover ED, Glover PN. The smokeless tobacco problem: risk groups in North America.
  • Smokeless tobacco or health. an international perspective NIH publication no. 92-3461:3-10. 9 Use of smokeless tobacco among adults-United States Smokeless tobacco use and health effects among baseball players
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  • Effects of varying doses of smokeless tobacco at rest and during brief high-intensity exercise Van Duser BL, Raven PB. The effects of oral smokeless tobacco on the cardiorespiratory response to exercise Smokeless tobacco abstinence effects and nicotine gum dose
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    In brief: To determine the acute effects of smokeless tobacco on heart rate and neuromuscular performance, heart rate was monitored in college men as they performed perceptual-motor tasks. Two studies were conducted using 25 subjects (both athletes and nonathletes) who were either regular smokeless tobacco users or nonusers. Significant differences in favor of athletes over nonathletes were noted for reaction time. Tobacco-using subjects (but not the nonuser controls) showed significant increases in heart rate. The results indicate that smokeless tobacco use can increase heart rate but does not affect reaction time, movement time, or total response time among athletes or nonathletes.
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    Consumption of moist snuff and other smokeless tobacco products in the United States almost tripled from 1972 through 1991 (1). Long-term use of smokeless tobacco is associated with nicotine addiction and increased risk of oral cancer (2)--the incidence of which could increase if young persons who currently use smokeless tobacco continue to use these products frequently (1). To monitor trends in the prevalence of use of smokeless tobacco products, CDC's 1991 National Health Interview Survey-Health Promotion and Disease Prevention supplement (NHIS-HPDP) collected information on snuff and chewing tobacco use and smoking from a representative sample of the U.S. civilian, noninstitutionalized population aged > or = 18 years. This report summarizes findings from this survey.
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    A study of 25 male college students (both athletes and nonathletes) who where either regular smokeless tobacco users or nonusers as they performed perceptual-motor tasks revealed significant differences in favor of athletes over nonathletes in terms of reaction time. Tobacco-using subjects showed significant increases in heart rate. (Author/CB)
  • Article
    The effects of smokeless tobacco (ST) on psychophysiological response and performance were examined in two studies. Study 1 compared heavy and moderate ST users on psychomotor tasks (simple reaction time/anticipation time and choice reaction time/movement time) in ST (2 g amount) and no smokeless tobacco (NST) conditions. Moderate users performed significantly better than heavy users; there were no significant psychomotor performance differences comparing ST/NST conditions. Heart rate and blood pressure were elevated equally for both groups with the use of ST. Heavy users reported significantly less state anxiety in both ST and NST conditions than moderate users. Study 2 replicated the psychomotor performance results of study 1 when comparing nonusers and ST users who were given four dose amounts of ST (NST, 1/3 mean dose, mean dose, and 5/3 mean) over 4 d. For the math and Stroop tasks, ST use resulted in 12.1% and 10.4% better performance than the NST condition. Physiological measures showed significant elevations during the ST conditions. No differences between dose amounts of ST were apparent for any of the measures. These studies demonstrate that ST users perform better than nonusers when having to react to cognitively challenging task situations. (C)1992The American College of Sports Medicine
  • The smokeless tobacco problem: risk groups in North America Smokeless tobacco or health. an international perspective
    • Ed Glover
    • Glover
    • Dr Shopland
    • Rc Stotts
    • Kl Schroeder
    • Burns
    Glover ED, Glover PN. The smokeless tobacco problem: risk groups in North America. In: Shopland DR, Stotts RC, Schroeder KL, Burns DM, eds. Smokeless tobacco or health. an international perspective. Bethesda, Md.: National Institutes of Health; 1992; NIH publication no. 92-3461:3-10.
  • Article
    Full-text available
    Use of oral snuff has risen sharply among baseball players following a tobacco industry marketing campaign that linked smokeless tobacco with athletic performance and virility. Millions of adolescents have copied these professional role models and, today, are at risk of developing oral cancer and other mouth disorders. New policies and programs are needed to break the powerful grip that the tobacco industry has on professional sport. Health agencies, including the National Cancer Institute and the National Institute for Dental Research, have teamed up with major league baseball to help players quit and reduce public use of oral tobacco. If these efforts are successful, our national pastime will once again become America's classroom for teaching health and fitness, not nicotine addiction.
  • Article
    The purpose of this investigation was to determine the effects of oral smokeless tobacco (OST) usage on oxygen uptake (VO2), cardiac output (Qc), stroke volume (SV), heart rate (HR), and plasma lactate concentration (Lc) during rest and exercise. Fifteen asymptomatic subjects were recruited from 18 to 33-yr-old male users of OST. Comparisons of the responses of VO2, Qc, SV, HR, and Lc were made between 2.5-g OST and placebo experimental conditions during rest and at 60% and 85% maximal VO2 treadmill exercise. Plasma nicotine concentrations (Nc) were determined by radioimmunoassay. There were significant increases in HR and Lc and a decrease in SV during rest and at 60% and 85% maximal exercise (P less than 0.05). Furthermore, there were no significant differences in maximal HR, Lc, and VO2 (P greater than 0.05). In conclusion, these data indicate that the increased Nc incurred by OST usage increases anaerobic energy production and produces an increased tachycardiac response to a given relative submaximal workload.
  • Article
    To determine the influence of varying doses of smokeless tobacco (moist snuff) on resting heart rate and blood pressure and the performance of brief, high-intensity exercise, 12 snuff users were examined at rest and while performing Wingate Anaerobic Tests after taking six different doses of snuff. Snuff caused an increase in heart rate; the larger the dose, the larger the response. Increases in systolic and diastolic blood pressure also occurred but were similar at all doses. Performance of brief, high-intensity exercise was unaffected, so that there was no benefit for such activities (e.g., sprinting bases in base ball).
  • Article
    There were two experiments on abstinence from smokeless tobacco. The purpose of the first experiment was to determine abstinence effects from smokeless tobacco. The purpose of the second experiment was to examine the effects of different doses of nicotine gum on smokeless tobacco abstinence effects. The subjects were male Copenhagen smokeless tobacco users who underwent 3 days of baseline measurement while continuing to use smokeless tobacco ad libitum, and 5 days of the experimental condition. In the first experiment, the subjects were assigned randomly to one of two groups and compared: continuous smokeless tobacco users (n = 10), and deprivation plus no nicotine gum (n = 10). In the second experiment, subjects were assigned randomly and in a double-blind fashion to one of three groups and compared: (1) deprivation plus 0 mg nicotine gum (n = 20); (2) deprivation plus 2 mg nicotine gum (n = 20); and (3) deprivation plus 4 mg nicotine gum (n = 20). The first experiment showed significant increases upon abstinence for the following variables: (1) craving; (2) difficulty concentrating; (3) restlessness; (4) excessive hunger; (5) eating; (6) reaction time; (7) variability of reaction time and (8) total withdrawal scores for both the self-rated and the observer-rated forms. The second experiment showed that nicotine gum failed to significantly reduce smokeless tobacco abstinence effects, although those with high cotinine levels may receive some benefit from nicotine gum.
  • Article
    The effects of smokeless tobacco (ST) use were studied in 1109 members of major and minor league professional baseball teams during spring training in 1988. The prevalence of current ST use was 39%. The median age at initiation among users was 18 years, and the median duration of use was 5 years. Among users, 75% cited a snuff brand as their usual ST product. Oral leukoplakia was present in 46% (196/423) of current-week ST users and 1.4% (7/493) of nonusers (odds ratio, 60; 95% confidence interval, 28 to 130). Prevalence of oral leukoplakia among ST users increased with hours used per day and decreased with time lapsed since last use, and was higher in snuff users than in chewing tobacco users. Of the subjects with oral leukoplakia who underwent punch biopsy, 91 had benign hyperkeratosis and one had mild dysplasia. Overall prevalence of dental caries, gingivitis, and plaque did not differ between ST users and nonusers. In analyses confined to facial surfaces of mandibular incisor teeth, where ST is most commonly used, there were significant increases among users in both gingival recession and attachment loss. Users of ST did not differ from nonusers in blood pressure, pulse, total or high-density lipoprotein cholesterol level, or white blood cell count, but among users high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels were inversely associated with serum cotinine levels. The major health effects of ST use among professional baseball players are oral leukoplakia and localized periodontal disease. The study population was young, physically fit, and characterized by relatively moderate short-term ST use.
  • Article
    The risk for oral mucosal lesions associated with use of smokeless tobacco among 1,109 professional baseball players during spring training in 1988 was investigated. Leukoplakia was very strongly associated with use of smokeless tobacco in this population of healthy young men. Of the 423 current smokeless tobacco users, 196 had leukoplakia compared to seven of the 493 nonusers (OR = 60.0, 95% CI = 40.5-88.8). The amount of smokeless tobacco used (in hours per day that smokeless tobacco was held in the mouth), recency of smokeless tobacco use (hours since last use), type (snuff versus chewing tobacco), and brand of snuff used were significantly associated with risk for leukoplakic lesions among smokeless tobacco users. Ninety-eight leukoplakic areas in 92 subjects were biopsied and examined microscopically. All lesions were benign, but one specimen had mild epithelial dysplasia. The long-term significance of leukoplakia in smokeless tobacco users and their relation to oral cancer is not clear.
  • Article
    This report describes periodontal findings from a comprehensive study of smokeless tobacco use in professional baseball players. Subjects consisted of 1,094 players, coaches, and training staff of seven major league and their associated minor league teams. Before being examined, subjects completed questionnaires on patterns of smokeless tobacco use (validated by blood chemistry studies), rinsed their mouths under supervision, and were cautioned not to discuss their use of tobacco with the dental examiners. They then received a complete oral examination that included recording of all mucosal abnormalities, missing teeth, caries, extrinsic stain, attrition, Plaque Index, Gingival Index, pocket depth, attachment loss, and gingival recession. More than 50% of team members reported using smokeless tobacco, and 39% reported use during the current week. Among current week users, 46% had oral mucosal lesions, located primarily in the mandible at sites where the smokeless tobacco quid was placed. The use of smokeless tobacco was not necessarily associated with severe forms of periodontal disease, and the presence of poor oral hygiene and gingivitis in these users was not related to the development of oral lesions. However, sites adjacent to mucosal lesions in smokeless tobacco users showed significantly greater recession and attachment loss than in sites not adjacent to lesions in users or comparable sites in non-users.
  • Article
    The use of smokeless tobacco (ST) within the United States has increased greatly in recent years, especially among adolescent boys and young men. Recent national data completed from several large scale studies indicate that 10-12 million Americans use some form of ST. Representing a significant systemic and oral health risk, ST usage can produce a wide range of negative effects on both soft and hard oral tissues. These oral conditions include bad breath, discolored teeth and restorative materials, excessive tooth surface wear (abrasion), decreased ability to taste and smell, gingival (gum) recession, advanced periodontal soft and hard tissue destruction, tooth loss, soft tissue erythema and leukoplakia. Long-term ST usage is directly correlated to an increased risk of cancer of the mouth, larynx, throat and esophagus. Much of the destruction of oral tissues is related to the localization of the tobacco quid; i.e., it is habitually held in only one spot in the mouth. Nicotine from ST can activate the sympathetic nervous system thereby significantly increasing heart rate, blood pressure, cardiac stroke volume and output and coronary blood flow. A common misconception is that ST is a 'safe' alternative to smoking cigarettes. Several recent Surgeon General's Reports list ST as being addictive. It is highly possible that ST users will 'graduate' to cigarettes if they eventually conclude that these products are socially unacceptable, inconvenient or out of vogue. Health professionals, educators, parents and schoolchildren need to be informed about the significant health risks associated with ST use.
  • Article
    On March 25, 1986, the Surgeon General of the Public Health Service released a report that detailed the results of the first comprehensive, indepth review of the relationship between smokeless tobacco use and health. This review, prepared under the auspices of the Surgeon General's Advisory Committee on the Health Consequences of Using Smokeless Tobacco, is summarized in this article. In the United States, smokeless tobacco is used predominantly in the forms of chewing tobacco and snuff. During the past 20 years, the production and consumption of these products have risen significantly in marked contrast to the decline in smokeless tobacco use during the first half of the century. National estimates indicate that more than 12 million persons age 12 and older in the United States used some form of smokeless tobacco in 1985, and half of these were regular users. The highest rates of smokeless tobacco use occurred among adolescent and young adult males. Examination of the relevant epidemiologic, experimental, and clinical data revealed that oral use of smokeless tobacco is a significant health risk. This behavior can cause cancer in humans, and the evidence is strongest for cancer of the oral cavity, particularly at the site of tobacco placement. Smokeless tobacco use can also lead to the development of noncancerous oral conditions, particularly, oral leukoplakias and gingival recession. Further, the levels of nicotine in the body resulting from smokeless tobacco can lead to nicotine addiction and dependence.
  • Article
    Epidemiologic studies often compare several groups of subjects for the presence or absence of a specified biological trait, where each subject in a group contributes two or more observations to the analysis. Examples occur in ophthalmologic studies, where each subject contributes observations on each of two eyes, and dental studies, where observations on each of several teeth may be contributed. Application of the standard Pearson chi-square test to such data is not valid, since the resulting sample observations are not statistically independent. In this paper we show how simple adjustments can be made to the Pearson chi-square statistic that adjust for the within-subject clustering. Application to other types of investigations involving clustered data is also discussed.
  • The use of smokeless tobacco appears to be finding its way onto middle school, high school and college campuses as a socially acceptable and popular habit. Numerous reports in the literature have described the oral changes that appear to be associated with the use of smokeless tobacco in adults. Such information is unavailable for the lower age groups. A study was therefore undertaken to determine the prevalence and frequency of oral hard- and soft-tissue alterations associated with the use of smokeless tobacco in a teen-age population. High school students in grades 9 to 12 were evaluated on a random basis. From a total sample of 1,119 students, 117 users of smokeless tobacco were identified. Four distinct lesions associated with smokeless tobacco use were identified clinically: (1) hyperkeratotic or erythroplakic lesions of the oral mucosa, (2) gingival or periodontal inflammation, (3) a combination of oral mucosal lesions and periodontal inflammation, and (4) cervical erosion of the teeth. Among the smokeless tobacco users, 113 were boys and 4 were girls. Fifty-seven (48.7 percent) of the users had soft-tissue lesions and/or periodontal inflammation or erosion of dental hard tissues. Ninety-nine of the 117 users were Caucasian, 6 were Hispanic, 1 was black, 1 was Asian, 1 was an American Indian, and 6 failed to identify an ethnic origin. Use ranged from one to twenty "dips" per day, with an average time per dip of 30 minutes. Most users had been dipping for an average of 2 years, and twelve different tobacco brands were identified.
  • Article
    The use of smokeless tobacco (ST) products is associated with mucosal lesions, gingival recession, and attachment loss at the site of tobacco placement. Monocytes/macrophages are primary producers of PGE2 and IL-1 beta, inflammatory mediators which are thought to play a role in the destruction of the periodontium. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of ST alone and in combination with a major stimulator of inflammation, bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS), on monocyte secretion of these mediators. Peripheral blood monocytes (PBM) were isolated by counterflow centrifugal elutriation from 15 healthy donors who were non-ST users. PBM were incubated for 24 hours in RPMI 1640 containing various concentrations of ST (0%, 0.005%, 0.01%, 1%) with or without 10 micrograms/ml LPS (Porphyromonas gingivalis LPS or Escherichia coli LPS). Of the ST preparations, only 1% ST resulted in PBM mediator secretion (7.7 +/- 2.0 ng/ml for PGE2 and 1.3 +/- 0.2 ng/ml for IL-1 beta) above that of control (unstimulated) cultures. Furthermore, the combination of 1% ST and LPS resulted in a potentiation of PGE2 release (5-fold for E. coli LPS + 1% ST and 10-fold for P. gingivalis LPS + 1% ST; P < 0.0001, one-way ANOVA) relative to the LPS preparations alone. In contrast, PBM IL-1 beta release decreased more than 2-fold upon E. coli LPS and 1% ST exposure, relative to treatment with E. coli LPS alone (P < 0.0001, one-way ANOVA).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
  • Article
    We surveyed varsity athletes (N = 1,328) in 16 California colleges about their patterns of spit (smokeless) tobacco (ST) use, related habits, reasons for use, and preferred methods for quitting. Prevalence of use was analyzed by sport and demographic characteristics, and patterns of use in players using snuff exclusively, using chewing tobacco exclusively, and those using both were compared. Odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals were calculated, adjusting for ethnic group. Prevalence was highest in Whites (44%) and Native Americans (48%) and lowest in African Americans (11%), and higher in varsity baseball (52%) than varsity football players (26%), in players attending rural colleges, and among those who ever smoked cigarettes or used alcohol. Forty-one percent of ST users initiated regular use during their high school years. Athletes who used snuff exclusively used it more intensively and for more years than those who used chewing tobacco exclusively. Snuff users indicated a greater perceived need for ST, but also were more ready to quit. These data suggest ST programs with prevention and cessation components are appropriate for high school as well as college athletes. Such interventions should focus on baseball players, distinguish snuff from chewing tobacco users in planning quit strategies, integrate intervention programs for cigarette smoking and alcohol consumption, provide training in refusal skills, and attempt to change social norms in support of ST use by integrating popular peers and significant others (e.g., wives/girlfriends) to endorse nonuse of ST.
  • Article
    Smokeless tobacco usage, particularly by young men and boys, has increased dramatically in the United States. To assess their possible risk, we reviewed the records of 128 patients with oral carcinoma who had used smokeless tobacco exclusive of other carcinogens. Most were elderly white women (average age, 78 years), 78% of whom had used smokeless tobacco for 40 or more years. The median duration of symptoms before presentation was only 3 months, yet initially 42% of these patients had T3 or T4 lesions and 30% had nodal metastases. Forty-two percent had posttreatment recurrence at the presenting site (average, 8.2 months); 26% had a second oral-cavity tumor at a new site more than 24 months after treatment (average, 49.3 months), indicative of a field cancerization phenomenon. Forty-seven percent were alive after 3 years and 37% after 5 years. These findings emphasize that strong preventive programs are needed if today's young users of smokeless tobacco are not to form future oral cancer patient populations.