Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Infection of CD4+ T Cells Down-Regulates the Expression of CD28: Effect on T Cell Activation and Cytokine Production
Infection with human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) results in dysregulation of normal T cell function. To study the effects of HIV-1 at the cellular level, primary T cell lines were generated by alloantigen stimulation of CD4+ T cells collected from peripheral blood of HIV-1-infected donors. Using Epstein-Barr virus-infected B lymphocytes (EBV-LCL) as a source of alloantigen, the T cell lines were expanded in vitro for 7 weeks. Uninfected T cell lines were cultured in parallel. Virus was inducible from the infected lines with stimulation, and complete infection was achieved after 4-7 weeks depending on the line. The down-modulation of CD28 expression correlated with virus replication and spread. Furthermore, CD28 mRNA was not inducible in the infected lines after stimulation with alloantigen. Loss of CD28 correlated with reduced responsiveness to costimulation with a monoclonal antibody to CD28 following similar engagement of the CD3 protein. In contrast, activation with alloantigen was not affected. HIV-1 infection and down-modulation of CD28 did not alter the relative levels of IL-2, IFN-gamma, and IL-4 mRNA. Production of the various cytokine mRNAs following alloantigen stimulation was inhibited by CTLA4Ig and thus remained under the regulation of CD80 and CD86 expressed on the EBV-LCL. Taken together, our data suggest that dysregulation of normal T cell function associated with HIV-1 infection may result in part form the loss of CD28 expression.
Available from: Robert Root-Bernstein
- "One would expect that interference with CD28 expression would therefore lead to decreased cytokine production, anergy and apoptosis, all of which would significantly impair T-cell regulated functions, including activation of APCs and B cells. Indeed, during HIV-1 infection, the expression of CD28 significantly decreases (Gamberg et al., 2004; Park et al., 1998; Kammerer et al., 1996; Haffar et al., 1995; Caruso et al., 1994), subsequently resulting in Tcell dysregulation such as abnormal cytokine production , anergy and apoptosis (Linsley and Ledbetter, 1993; Groux et al., 1992). The precise mechanism of CD28 down-regulation during HIV-1 infection has yet to be fully elucidated, but the discovery of viral-encoded miRNA from Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) (Pfeffer et al., 2004) offers a new venue of possibilities. "
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ABSTRACT: It is well-known that HIV-1 infection results in a gradual decline of the CD4+ T-lymphocytes, but the underlying mechanism of this decline is not completely understood. Research has shown that HIV-1 infection of CD4+ T cells results in decreased CD28 expression, but the mechanism of this repression is unknown. There is also substantial evidence demonstrating regulatory involvement of microRNA (miRNA) during protein expression in plants and some animals, and reports have recently been published confirming the existence of viral-encoded miRNAs. Based on these findings, we hypothesize that viral-encoded miRNA from HIV-1 may directly alter T cell, macrophage and dendritic cell activity. To investigate a potential correlation between the genomic complementarity of HIV-1 and host cell protein expression, a local alignment search was performed to assess for regions of complementarity between the HIV-1 proviral genome and the mRNA coding sequence of various proteins expressed by CD+ T cells and macrophages. Regions of complementarity with strong correlations to the currently established criteria for miRNA:target mRNA activity were found between HIV-1 and CD28, CTLA-4 and some interleukins, suggesting that HIV-1 may produce translational repression in host cells.
Available from: jleukbio.org
- "As a result of HIV infection, expression of specific surface proteins is altered, and regulation of these proteins by HIV occurs at a transcriptional as well as posttranslational level. For example, the cellular host proteins CD4, CD28, CD3, and MHC I play a key role in the immune response to infections and have been shown to be downregulated by HIV-1[2,3,8,9]. The modulation of these surface receptors has been attributed, in large part, to the highly pleiotropic HIV-1 Nef protein. At least five HIV-derived proteins are known to contribute to host protein regulation, including Tat, Nef, Vpu, Vpr, and Env. "
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ABSTRACT: Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) has derived a variety of means to evade the host immune response. HIV-derived proteins, including Tat, Nef, and Env, have all been reported to decrease expression of host molecules such as CD4 and major histocompatibility complex I, which would assist in limiting viral replication. The mannose receptor (MR) on the surface of macrophages and dendritic cells (DC) has been proposed to function as an effective antigen-capture molecule, as well as a receptor for entering pathogens such as Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Pneumocystis carinii. Regulation of this receptor would therefore benefit HIV in removing an additional arm of the innate immune system. Previous work has shown that MR function is reduced in alveolar macrophages from HIV-infected patients and that surface MR levels are decreased by the HIV-derived protein Nef in DC. In addition, several laboratories have shown that CD4 is removed from the surface of T cells in a manner that might be applicable to decreased MR surface expression in macrophages. In the current study, we have investigated the role of Nef in removing MR from the cell surface. We have used a human macrophage cell line stably expressing the MR as well as human epithelial cells transiently expressing CD4 and a unique CD4/MR chimeric molecule constructed from the extracellular and transmembrane domains of CD4 and the cytoplasmic tail portion of the MR. We show that the MR is reduced on the cell surface by approximately 50% in the presence of Nef and that the MR cytoplasmic tail can confer susceptibility to Nef in the CD4/MR chimera. These data suggest that the MR is a potential intracellular target of Nef and that this regulation may represent a mechanism to further cripple the host innate immune system.
Available from: Margarida Lima
- "ϩ / TCR␣␤ ϩ T-cell compartment. CD8 ϩ /TCR␣␤ ϩ T-cells showed an intriguing stable immunophenotypic pattern— CD2 ϩhigh , CD7 ϩdim , CD11a ϩhigh , CD28 Ϫ/ϩdim , CD38 ϩhigh , CD45RO ϩhigh , CD45RA Ϫ/ϩdim , HLA-DR ϩhigh —which has been associated with a state of recent T-cell activation              "
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ABSTRACT: Although a number of studies on the phenotypic changes that occur after T-cell activation have already been published, the specific immunophenotypic features of T-lymphocytes and the frequency at which TCR-variable region (TCR-V) restricted T-cell expansions occur "in vivo" during acute viral infection still remains to be established. We report on the immunophenotype and TCR-V repertoire of peripheral blood T-cells from 28 patients with acute infectious mononucleosis. Immunophenotypic studies were performed by flow cytometry using direct immunofluorescence techniques and stain-and-then-lyse sample preparation protocols with three- and four-colour combinations of monoclonal antibodies directed against a large panel of T- and NK-cell associated markers, activation- and adhesion-related molecules and TCR-Vbeta, -Vgamma and -Vdelta families. Nearly all patients (27/28) showed a massive expansion of CD8(+)/TCRalphabeta(+) T cells, the majority (>90%) of which displayed an immunophenotype compatible with T-cell activation: CD2(+high), CD7(+low), CD11a(+high), CD38(+high), HLA-DR(+high), CD28(+/-low), CD45RO(+high), CD45RA(-/+low), CD11b(-/+low), CD11c(+/-low), CD16(-), CD56(-), CD57(-), CD62L(-), CD94(-), CD158a(-), CD161(-), NKB1(-). Additionally, the levels of both CD3 and CD5 were slightly decreased compared to those found in normal individuals. Late-activation antigens, such as CD57, were found in small proportions of CD8(+)/TCRalphabeta(+) T-cells. Increased numbers of CD4(+)/TCRalphabeta(+) T-cells, TCRgammadelta(+) T-cells and NK-cells were also noticed in 17, 16 and 13 of the 28 cases studied, respectively. Evidence for activation of CD4(+)/TCRalphabeta(+) and TCRgammadelta(+) T-cells relied on changes similar to those described for CD8(+)/TCRalphabeta(+) although less pronounced, except for higher levels of both CD5 and CD28 in the absence of reactivity for CD11c on CD4(+)/TCRalphabeta(+) T-cells and higher levels of CD161 and CD94 on TCRgammadelta(+) T-cells. Small expansions of one or more TCR-Vbeta families accounting for 12 +/- 7% of either the CD8(+)/TCRalphabeta(+) or the CD4(+)/TCRalphabeta(+) T-cell compartment were found in 12 of 14 patients studied, whereas the distribution of the TCR-Vgamma and -Vdelta repertoires tested in 2 of the individuals with expanded TCRgammadelta(+) T-cells was similar to that observed in control individuals. The results presented here provide evidence for an extensive T-cell activation during acute viral infection and establish the immunophenotype patterns associated with this condition.
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