Personal and Psychosocial Risk Factors for Physical and Mental Health Outcomes and Course of Depression Among Depressed Patients
Department of Medicine, University of California, Los Angeles, Los Ángeles, California, United StatesJournal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology (Impact Factor: 4.85). 07/1995; 63(3):345-55. DOI: 10.1037/0022-006X.63.3.345
This article focuses on personal and psychosocial factors to identify those that predict change in functioning and well-being and clinical course of depression in depressed outpatients over time. Data from 604 depressed patients in The Medical Outcomes Study showed improvements in measures of functioning and well-being associated with patients who were employed, drank less alcohol, and had active coping styles. Better clinical course of depression was associated with patients who had high levels of social support, who had more active and less avoidant coping styles, who were physically active, and who had fewer comorbid chronic conditions. Findings provide some guidance as to what can be done to improve depressed patients' levels of physical and mental health and affect the clinical course of depression.
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- "al., 1993). Despite criticism to the approach versus avoidance dichotomy (Skinner et al., 2003), a passive avoidant coping style is most strongly associated with severity of mental health problems, across a range of mental health conditions (Goossens et al., 2008; Holahan et al., 2005; McAuliffe et al., 2006; Schnider et al., 2007; Sherbourne et al., 1995). Given the strong link between coping and illness management and recovery skills, one would expect that efficacious coping with symptoms and less passive avoidant coping would be associated with better scores on the IMRS. "
ABSTRACT: Background: The Illness Management and Recovery scales (IMRS) can measure the progress of clients' illness self-management and recovery. Previous studies have examined the psychometric properties of the IMRS. Aims: This study examined the reliability and validity of the Dutch version of the IMRS. Method: Clients (n = 111) and clinicians (n = 40) completed the client and clinician versions of the IMRS, respectively. The scales were administered again 2 weeks later to assess stability over time. Validity was assessed with the Utrecht Coping List (UCL), Dutch Empowerment Scale (DES), and Brief Symptom Inventory (BSI). Results: The client and clinician versions of the IMRS had moderate internal reliability, with α = 0.69 and 0.71, respectively. The scales showed strong test-retest reliability, r = 0.79, for the client version and r = 0.86 for the clinician version. Correlations between client and clinician versions ranged from r = 0.37 to 0.69 for the total and subscales. We also found relationships in expected directions between the client IMRS and UCL, DES and BSI, which supports validity of the Dutch version of the IMRS. Conclusions: The Dutch version of the IMRS demonstrated good reliability and validity. The IMRS could be useful for Dutch-speaking programs interested in evaluating client progress on illness self-management and recovery.
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- "Depression is often chronic or recurrent   and is associated with increased risk of morbidity, decreased physical and social functioning and diminished health-related quality of life . Whereas social isolation and loneliness are known risk factors for developing depression   , participation in social activities has a protective effect on depression  . For many adults, grandparenting is a crucial social activity and role   . "
ABSTRACT: Grandparenting is an important social role, but how adults with a history of depression experience grandparenting is unknown; we describe grandparenting experiences reported by an ethnically diverse sample of adults with a history of depression. Mixed-methods study using semistructured interviews of adults at 10-year follow-up and quantitative data collected over 9 years from 280 systematically sampled participants from a longitudinal, multisite trial of quality-improvement interventions for depressed primary care patients; of 280, 110 reported noncustodial grandparenting experiences. Of 110 adults reporting grandparenting experiences, 90 (82%) reported any positive experience such as special joy; 57 (52%) reported any stressful experience such as separation; and 27 (34%) reported mixed experiences. Adults with chronic or recent depression were significantly more likely than their respective counterparts to report any stressful experience (P<0.05). There was no significant association between depression status and reporting a positive experience. Grandparenting was a highly salient and positive experience as reported by ethnically diverse adults 10 years after being identified as depressed in primary care. Depression status was associated with reporting stressful but not positive experiences. Specific themes underlying positive and stressful experiences may have implications for developing strategies to enhance quality of life for adults with a history of depression who are grandparents. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
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- "Further, most research has employed depressive symptom severity rather than relapse as the dependent variable (e.g., Sherbourne et al., 1995). Thus, while the literature has demonstrated promising moves towards the development of complex models of depression, this literature remains in its infancy with respect to relapse (in Dobson and Dozois, 2008b). "
ABSTRACT: The present study evaluated an integrated model of the role of psychosocial factors in the prediction of relapse of Major Depressive Disorder over a one-year follow-up period. METHODS AND ANALYSES: A range of established variables, including life stress, cognitive-personality vulnerability factors, social support, and coping responses, were simultaneously considered in a series of prediction models, in an adult female sample of remitted depressed individuals. It was determined that interpersonal marked difficulties, social support, and emotion-oriented and avoidance-oriented coping provided the best-fitting and most parsimonious predictive model for depressive relapse at one-year follow-up. The examination of multifactorial models of risk represents a promising avenue for future research and theory development.
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