Herbimycin A induces the 20 S proteasome- and ubiquitin-dependent degradation of receptor tyrosine kinases
Department of Medicine, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York, United States Journal of Biological Chemistry
(Impact Factor: 4.57).
Herbimycin A is an ansamycin antibiotic isolated as an agent that reverses morphological transformation induced by v-src. Although herbimycin A is widely used as a tool for inhibiting multiple tyrosine protein kinases and tyrosine kinase-activated signal transduction, its mechanism of action is not well defined and includes a decrease in both tyrosine kinase protein levels and activity (Uehara, Y., Murakami, Y., Sugimoto, Y., and Mizuno, S. (1989) Cancer Res. 49, 780-785). We now show that herbimycin A induces a profound decrease in the total cellular activity of transmembrane tyrosine kinase receptors, such as insulin-like growth factor, insulin, and epidermal growth factor receptors. A substantial proportion of the in vivo inhibition could be explained by an increase in the rate of degradation. The enhanced degradation of insulin-like growth factor-insulin receptor was prevented by inhibitors of the 20S proteasome, whereas neither lysosomotropic agents nor general serine- and cysteine-protease inhibitors were active in preventing receptor degradation induced by herbimycin A. Moreover, in a temperature-sensitive mutant cell line defective in the E1-catalyzed activation of ubiquitin, herbimycin A treatment at the restrictive temperature did not result in the degradation of insulin receptor. These results suggest that herbimycin A represents a novel class of drug that targets the degradation of tyrosine kinases by the 20S proteasome. The ubiquitin dependence of this process indicates that this degradation of tyrosine kinases might involve the 20S proteasome as the proteolytic core of the ubiquitin-dependent 26S protease.
Available from: PubMed Central
- "Therefore, PTKs (e.g., Src kinases) may serve as an additional target for selective inhibition of periprosthetic osteolysis. Importantly, proteasome is implicated in this process since it has been reported that herbimycin A targets the degradation of tyrosine kinases by the 20S proteasome . Moreover, apart from its inhibitory action on PTKs, genistein was found to downregulate the expression of VEGF, a major angiogenic factor in periprosthetic microenvironment. "
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ABSTRACT: The leading complication of total joint replacement is periprosthetic osteolysis, which often results in aseptic loosening of the implant, leading to revision surgery. Extracellular matrix degradation and connective tissue remodeling around implants have been considered as major biological events in the periprosthetic loosening. Critical mediators of wear particle-induced inflammatory osteolysis released by periprosthetic synovial cells (mainly macrophages) are inflammatory cytokines, chemokines, and proteolytic enzymes, mainly matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs). Numerous studies reveal a strong interdependence of MMP expression and activity with the molecular mechanisms that control the composition and turnover of periprosthetic matrices. MMPs can either actively modulate or be modulated by the molecular mechanisms that determine the debris-induced remodeling of the periprosthetic microenvironment. In the present study, the molecular mechanisms that control the composition, turnover, and activity of matrix macromolecules within the periprosthetic microenvironment exposed to wear debris are summarized and presented. Special emphasis is given to MMPs and their endogenous tissue inhibitors (TIMPs), as well as to the proteasome pathway, which appears to be an elegant molecular regulator of specific matrix macromolecules (including specific MMPs and TIMPs). Furthermore, strong rationale for potential clinical applications of the described molecular mechanisms to the treatment of periprosthetic loosening and osteolysis is provided.
Available from: Seiichi Mori
- "Individuals with these tumors often responded to TKI therapy, but usually had progressive disease after 6–12 months of therapy. These resistant tumors often acquired either an additional mutation (T790M) in exon 20 of EGFR or a second mutation in the downstream pathway of EGFR, both resulting in the development of resistance to EGFR-TKI [10–12]. "
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Sensitivity to a tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) is correlated with the presence of somatic mutations that affect the kinase domain of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR). Development of resistance to TKI is a major therapeutic problem in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Aim of this study is to identify agents that can overcome TKI resistance in NSCLC.
We used a carefully selected panel of 12 NSCLC cell lines to address this clinical problem. Initially, the cell lines were treated with a variety of 10 compounds. Cellular proliferation was measured via MTT assay. We then focused on the gefitinib-resistant, EGFR mutant cell lines [H1650: exon 19 and PTEN mutations; and H1975: exons 20 (T790M) and 21 (L858R)] to identify agents that could overcome TKI resistance.
Both 17-DMAG (Hsp90 inhibitor) and belinostat (histone deacetylase inhibitor, HDACi) effectively decreased the growth of almost all NSCLC lines. Also, belinostat markedly decreased the expression of EGFR and phospho-Akt in the cells. Combination of 17-DMAG and belinostat synergistically inhibited in vitro proliferation of these cells. Furthermore, both agents and their combination almost completely prevented TKI-resistant tumor formation (EGFR T790M mutation) in a xenograft model.
These results suggest that the combination of 17-DMAG and belinostat should be examined in a clinical trial for TKI-resistant NSCLC cell.
Available from: ncbi.nlm.nih.gov
- "Cells degrade proteins through two major systems, the proteasome and the lysosome. The proteasome is involved in the degradation of most cytosolic and nuclear proteins as well as some membrane proteins    and removes misfolded or misaggregated proteins in the endoplasmic reticulum . The lysosome degrades membrane proteins and extracellular materials that enter the cell via endocytosis . "
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ABSTRACT: Human organic anion transporter hOAT1 plays a critical role in the body disposition of environmental toxins and clinically important drugs including anti-HIV therapeutics, anti-tumor drugs, antibiotics, anti-hypertensives, and anti-inflammatories. hOAT1 has two GXXXG motifs in its transmembrane domains 2 and 5, a motif linked to the protein processing and oligomerization of other proteins. In the current study, we substituted glycine of these GXXXG motifs with alanine and evaluated the effect of such mutations on the expression and function of hOAT1. Mutations of GXXXG motif in the transmembrane domain 2 resulted in mutants G144A and G148A, both of which had no transport activity due to complete loss in the surface and total cell expression of the transporter protein. Treatment of G144A- and G148A-expressing cells with proteasomal inhibitor resulted in the recovery of ER-resident immature form of hOAT1, but not its surface-resident mature form, whereas treatment of these cells with lysosomal inhibitor had no effect on the expression of the mutant transporters. Mutations of GXXXG motif in the transmembrane domain 5 resulted in mutants G223A and G227A, among which only G227 had dramatic reduction of transport activity due to dramatic loss in the surface and total cell expression of the transporter. The reduction in the surface expression of G227 was consistent with the decrease in maximum transport velocity Vmax. Treatment of G227A-expressing cells with proteasomal inhibitor or lysosomal inhibitor resulted in partial recovery of both the immature form and the mature form of hOAT1 in the total cell extracts. However, such partial recovery of the mature form in total cell extracts did not lead to the partial recovery of surface expression and function of the transporter. Our data suggest that the GXXXG motifs in transmembrane domains 2 and 5 play critical roles in the stability of hOAT1.
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