Article

Nostalgia: A Psychological Perspective

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Abstract

A survey was designed to assess nostalgia for 20 aspects of experience as well as relative judgments of the world past, present, and future. Surveys were completed by 648 respondents, 268 males and 380 females, ranging in age from 4 to 80 years old. Split-half reliability was .78. Test-retest reliability over a 1-wk. interval on a separate sample of 50 respondents was .84. Nostalgia was related to the judgment of the past relative to the present. Gender differences were not significant, but significant differences across age groups were obtained for most items. The intensity of nostalgic sentiment varied across objects, situations, aspects of society, and people. Factor analysis suggested that nostalgia is comprised of a number of factors reflecting different spheres and levels of experience. For nostalgia, conceptualized as a multifaceted, composite construct, results were discussed with respect to four approaches--generational, developmental, personality, and transient mood state. Suggestions were made for further development of the survey and for research exploring relationships among nostalgia, motivation, emotion, and behavior.

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... We examined the content of anticipated nostalgia by coding participants' narratives. We also asked participants to rate how nostalgic they expected to feel in the future for various present and future life experiences, predominantly adapted from the Nostalgia Inventory (Batcho, 1995). To avoid conflating anticipated nostalgia with anticipatory nostalgia or rumination, we ensured that the items were phrased neutrally (e.g., "My current family") instead of negatively (e.g., "Times with family or friends won't last forever," as in Batcho & Shikh, 2016). ...
... Next, participants read a list of 23 present and future experiences/objects and rated how nostalgic they generally anticipated feeling about each item (0 = not applicable, 1 = not at all, 6 = very much; Table 2). We adapted the items from the Nostalgia Inventory (Batcho, 1995) and directed participants to focus on the present and future (e.g., "My current family," "Places I am planning to go"). We excluded the item concerning not knowing sad or evil things, and added four items that we considered highly relevant to anticipated nostalgia but that were not represented in the Nostalgia Inventory (e.g., "My children growing up," "Social relationships I'm currently seeking"). ...
... Participants listed between 0-15 objects of anticipated nostalgia (M = 3.34, SD = 2.60), totaling 699 objects. We coded these objects using 19 categories, 12 of which were based on the Nostalgia Inventory (e.g., "parents/other family," "friends, classmates or colleagues," "pets or animals;" Batcho, 1995). The remaining seven were based on research on the content of nostalgia (e.g., "personal achievements" such as graduating from university or getting promoted at work, "significant possessions" such as getting a new car or purchasing a rare coin, and "life stages" such as being at school or being young; Hepper et al., 2012;Wildschut et al., 2006). ...
Article
Anticipated nostalgia is a new construct that has received limited empirical attention. It concerns the anticipation of having nostalgic feelings for one’s present and future experiences. In three studies, we assessed its prevalence, content, emotional profile, and implications for self-regulation and psychological functioning. Study 1 revealed that anticipated nostalgia most typically concerns interpersonal relationships, and also concerns goals, plans, current life, and culture. Further, it is affectively laden with happiness, sadness, bittersweetness, and sociality. Studies 2 and 3 assessed the implications of anticipated nostalgia for self-regulation and psychological functioning. In both studies, positive evaluation of a personal experience was linked to stronger anticipated nostalgia, and anticipated nostalgia was linked to savouring of the experience. In Study 3, anticipated nostalgia measured prior to an important life transition predicted nostalgia a few months after the transition, and post-transition nostalgia predicted heightened self-esteem, social connectedness, and meaning in life.
... de conhecimento, como a Sociologia (Davis, 1979), a Antropologia (McCracken, 1988), a História (Hobsbawm, 1983) e a Publicidade (Holak & Havlena, 1998;Holbrook & Schindler, 1991). As pesquisas na Psicologia, por sua vez, ganharam notoriedade nas duas últimas décadas a partir das publicações de Batcho (1995) e Wildschut et al. (2006). ...
... Em relação à sua natureza, um ponto diverge entre os seus principais proponentes: identificar se a nostalgia é uma característica intrínseca da pessoa ou uma emoção. Inicialmente, Batcho (1995) considera a nostalgia como uma característica intrínseca dos indivíduos, cuja expressão desse traço depende da magnitude com que cada um a apresenta, isto é, a frequência das experiências nostálgicas difere entre as pessoas devido à sua característica de personalidade. Além disso, a autora sugere que o sentimento nostálgico ocorre por meio da interação entre a interpretação cognitiva da experiência e a emoção do momento lembrado (Batcho, 2013). ...
... A partir do exposto, no presente estudo adota a definição da nostalgia como uma característica relativamente estável (Batcho, 1995) e ambivalente, uma vez que há a justaposição de afetos negativos e afetos positivos . Ademais, é um construto profundamente social, uma vez que os relacionamentos interpessoais são importantes para o seu manejo (Batcho, 2013) e para suas implicações motivacionais (Stephan et al., 2015). ...
Article
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This study aimed to develop the Disposition to Nostalgia Scale (DNS) and to investigate evidence for its factorial validity, convergent validity and internal consistency. The aim was to assemble 20 items that were in the literature or were designed with the purpose of describing nostalgic experiences. Participants were 208 undergraduate students (Mage = 22.8 years, SD = 6.13, ranging from 18 to 60), the majority male (50.7%), single (86.5%), and from the middle social class (54.1%). They answered the initial items of the DNS and two other measures that assess the same construct: The Nostalgia Inventory (NI) and the Southampton Nostalgia Scale (SNS), in addition to demographic questions. Factorial analysis (PAF) was performed, identifying a general factor that accounted for 42.3% of the total variance, presenting adequate reliability (α = .84). Corroborating evidence for its convergent validity, the DNS scores correlated positively with the two other nostalgia measures (NI and SNS). In conclusion, the DNS presents adequate psychometric properties and can be used to assess the disposition to nostalgia.
... A história deste construto perpassa diferentes campos de conhecimento, como a Sociologia (Davis, 1979), a Antropologia (McCracken, 1988), a História (Hobsbawm, 1983) e a Publicidade (Holak & Havlena, 1998;Holbrook & Schindler, 1991). As pesquisas na Psicologia, por sua vez, ganharam notoriedade nas duas últimas décadas a partir das publicações de Batcho (1995) e Wildschut, Sedikides, Ardnt e Routledge (2006). ...
... Inicialmente, Batcho (1995) considera a nostalgia como uma característica intrínseca dos indivíduos, cuja expressão desse traço depende da magnitude com que cada um a apresenta, isto é, a frequência das experiências nostálgicas difere entre as pessoas devido à sua característica de personalidade. Além disso, a autora sugere que o sentimento nostálgico ocorre por meio da interação entre a interpretação cognitiva da experiência e a emoção do momento lembrado (Batcho, 2013). ...
... A partir do exposto, no presente estudo adota a definição da nostalgia como uma característica relativamente estável (Batcho, 1995) e ambivalente, uma vez que há a justaposição de afetos negativos e afetos positivos . Ademais, é um construto profundamente social, uma vez que os relacionamentos interpessoais são importantes para o seu manejo (Batcho, 2013) e para suas implicações motivacionais (Stephan et al., 2015). ...
Preprint
O presente estudo teve como objetivo desenvolver a Escala de Disposição à Nostalgia (EDN), reunindo evidências de validades baseada na estrutura interna, concorrente e consistência interna. Procurou-se reunir 20 itens que constavam na literatura ou foram elaborados com o fim de descrever vivências nostálgicas. Os participantes do estudo foram 208 estudantes universitários (Midade = 22,8; DP = 6,13; variando de 18 a 60 anos), a maioria do sexo masculino (50,7%), solteira (86,5%) e de classe social média (54,1%). Estes responderam aos itens iniciais da EDN e duas outras medidas que avaliam o mesmo construto: Inventário de Nostalgia (IN) e Southampton Nostalgia Scale (SNS), além de perguntas demográficas. Uma análise fatorial (PAF) foi realizada, identificando um fator geral que explicou 42,3% da variância total, apresentando precisão adequada (α = 0,84). Corroborando evidências de validade convergente, as pontuações da EDN se correlacionaram positivamente com as duas outras medidas de nostalgia (IE e SNS). Conclui-se que a EDN pode ser usada para avaliar a disposição à nostalgia, mostrando evidências psicométricas adequadas. Palavras-chave: nostalgia; escala; validade; precisão.
... A state version of the Nostalgia Inventory (Batcho, 1995) was used as a measure of state nostalgia, where participants were specifically instructed to respond to the Nostalgia Inventory based on how they were feeling in the moment. Participants are presented with a dictionary definition of nostalgia (i.e., "According to the Oxford Dictionary, 'nostalgia' is defined as 'a sentimental longing for the past'") and self-report how nostalgic they are currently feeling about 20 different aspects (e.g., "family, " "places") of their past (1 = not at all nostalgic, 7 = very nostalgic; α = 0.86; M = 4.78, SD = 0.97). ...
... The state version of the Nostalgia Inventory (Batcho, 1995) described in Study 1 was used as a measure nostalgic feelings (α = 0.92; M = 4.17, SD = 1.29). ...
... Participants completed the state nostalgia measure used in Studies 1 and 2 (Batcho, 1995; α = 0.88; M = 4.86, SD = 0.95). Elliot et al. (2006) 4-item friendship-approach goal scale used in Study 2 was used to assess approach-related social goals (α = 0.86; M = 5.38, SD = 1.05). ...
Article
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Loneliness is difficult to overcome, in part because it is associated with negative social cognitions and social motivations. We argue that nostalgia, a positive emotional experience that involves reflecting on cherished memories, is a psychological resource that regulates these maladaptive intrapsychic tendencies associated with loneliness. We tested this hypothesis across 4 studies. Study 1 examined whether nostalgia mitigates the inverse relation between loneliness and social confidence. Studies 2, 3, and 4 examined nostalgia’s potential to mitigate the inverse relation between loneliness and approach-oriented social goals and intentions. The results provided support that nostalgia mitigates reduced social confidence and low approach-oriented social goals/intentions associated with loneliness. The associations between loneliness and reduced social confidence, and loneliness and less approach-oriented social goals/intentions, respectively, were found to be weaker as a function of nostalgia. This weakening appeared to be due to nostalgia’s positive effect on social confidence and approach-oriented social goals/intentions, respectively, particularly at high levels of loneliness.
... High-nostalgia (compared to low-nostalgia) individuals value social inclusion. In an early study (Batcho, 1998), participants first completed the Nostalgia Inventory (NI; Batcho, 1995), which assesses nostalgia proneness across different aspects of everyday life. Specifically, participants rated how much they generally missed each of 20 items from when they were younger (e.g., "someone I loved, " "the way people were, " "my pets"). ...
... Participants in the "Nostalgia-part 1, wave 1" LISS study completed the Southampton Nostalgia Scale (SNS; Barrett et al., 2010) and the NI (Batcho, 1995). For the SNS, they responded to seven items. ...
... Participants responded to the materials individually, on a computer. As in Study 1, we assessed nostalgia proneness with the SNS (Barrett et al., 2010; α = 0.91, M = 5.04, SD = 1.13) and NI (Batcho, 1995;α = 0.87, M = 4.38, SD = 1.04). We assessed national identification with Leach et al. (2008) 14-item ingroup identification scale, which participants filled out in reference to their Greek nationality (1 = strongly disagree, 7 = strongly agree). ...
Article
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In two studies, we examined the association between nostalgia proneness (i.e., trait-level nostalgia) and importance of the collective self. In Study 1, we tested and supported the hypothesis that nostalgia proneness is positively correlated with relational collectivism, which entails an emphasis on one’s connections with close others and small social networks. In Study 2, we demonstrated that nostalgia proneness is also positively correlated with group collectivism, which emphasizes one’s membership in more abstract, larger social groups or categories, and was reflected in increased identification with a national ingroup. These findings offer insight into the nature of nostalgia proneness—a consequential and stable personality trait.
... In this direction, extant literature highlights two possible responses to nostalgic ads, viz. cognitive (Holbrook & Schindler, 1994;Stern, 1992) and emotional (Batcho, 1995;Davis, 1979;Holak & Havlena, 1998). The cognitive responses of nostalgia are associated with recollections of past events, while the emotional responses relate to emotions or feelings associated with these recollections (Jain et al., 2019), which indicates a possible association between cognitive and emotional responses. ...
... Initially considered as a psychological disorder or neurological disease (Wildschut et al., 2006), was later reconceptualized as a positive emotion in the late twentieth century (Davis, 1979;Wildschut et al., 2006) which can be endured by almost everyone (Sedikides et al., 2015). Studies describe nostalgia as "bittersweet longing for past", which means an individual generally associates positive emotions with past experiences (Batcho, 1995). Reinforcing the notion, many researchers recognize that nostalgic past is often "idealized," as viewed through "rose-colored" glasses (Havlena & Holak, 1991;Stern, 1992). ...
... As compared to the Indian population, the sample was quite similar in terms of gender (WEF, 2018). We collected data from adult consumers, i.e., above 20 years of age, based on the assertion made in previous studies that adults feel nostalgia more than the younger population (Batcho, 1995). The distribution of age of the sample was observed as follows: 20-24 years of age 28.6% respondents, 25-30 years 8.6% respondents, 31-35 years 28.2% respondents, 36-40 years 28.2% respondents, 41-45 years 5.0% respondents and 46-50 years and above 1.3% respondents. ...
Article
Spiritual well-being plays an integral role in the reconstruction of past events. In this direction, the current study investigates how differences in individuals’ spiritual well-being elicit different cognitive and emotional responses to nostalgic ads. And how such differences in spiritual well-being lead to the different purchase intention of nostalgic products. We displayed a series of old Indian ads to respondents and found spiritual well-being influenced ad-evoked nostalgia and purchase intention of nostalgic products positively. Our study contributes to a road less travelled in nostalgia marketing and necessitates marketers to consider audiences’ spiritual well-being before applying nostalgic appeal.
... The concept of nostalgia has been studied or theorized for several hundred years (Davis, 1979;Jacobsen, 2020;Merchant et al., 2013). Researchers have found the occurrence of nostalgia to be quite prevalent among individuals who have reached mid-life (Batcho, 1995;Davis, 1979;Hepper et al., 2020;Routledge et al., 2013). Marketers across industries have tried using nostalgia-based practices in their marketing activities to exploit consumer memories. ...
... In literature, age is broadly divided into five generations: Generation Z (born between 1996 and the present day); Generation Y, known as Millennials (born between 1977 and 1995); Generation X (born between 1965 and 1976); Baby Boomers (born between 1946 and1964); and Builders or the Silent Generation (born between 1925 and 1945) (Bialik & Fry, 2019;Dimock, 2019;Edwards & Robinson, 2020;Moore & Vincent, 2019). Batcho (1995) concluded that nostalgia toward holidays, pets, and toys declines with increasing age, while a sense of nostalgia toward music reflects the opposite pattern, with gradually increasing nostalgia, from a low in childhood to a peak in later years. However, nostalgia toward one's family remains relatively stable across the age groups until a significant increase after 50 years of age. ...
... Further scope for research on nostalgia in marketing Batcho (1995) attempted to define nostalgia proneness as a personality trait of an individual and developed a 20-item nostalgia inventory scale. ...
Article
ABSTRACT This research article tracks the evolution of the concept of nostalgia as a concept in marketing and more generally. The present study specifically highlights the development of a theoretical framework that can serve to integrate existing conceptual models and to offer implications for understanding nostalgia as a phenomenon among consumers as a tool for marketing practice. The study aims to bring together existing research and to serve as a springboard for future research and applications.
... To our knowledge, no published research has examined levels of personal nostalgia systematically across the lifespan. In the closest investigation, Batcho (1995) assessed the extent to which US individuals aged 4-80 years missed 20 items from their past, finding that overall nostalgia levels peaked during college years and declined with increasing age, with some variation by type of object (e.g., music and family increased in older age). However, this study had an unbalanced age distribution (46% were aged 18-21) and analyzed age as six broad categories, collapsing the 8% of participants aged 50 or older into a single category. ...
... Finally, we tested if nostalgia proneness differs by gender. Evidence is mixed: some studies find higher nostalgia in women (Best & Nelson, 1985), others find higher nostalgia in men (Kusumi et al., 2010), but most find no difference (Batcho, 1995;Routledge et al., 2011;Wildschut et al., 2006;Zhou et al., 2008). We note that all studies were approved by the relevant institutional Ethics Committee, and that all participants provided informed consent and were debriefed. ...
... The New Oxford Dictionary of English (1998) definition. Prior research has operationalized nostalgia proneness either as the extent to which people miss objects and experiences from their past (Batcho, 1995(Batcho, , 1998 or the extent to which people experience nostalgia frequently and value its role in their life (Barrett et al., 2010;Routledge et al., 2008). We assessed both aspects in order to capture the construct comprehensively. ...
Article
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Nostalgia is a bittersweet—albeit predominantly positive—self-relevant and social emotion that arises from reflecting on fond and meaningful autobiographical memories. Nostalgia might facilitate successful aging by serving as a socioemotional selectivity strategy in the face of limited time horizons. Four studies tested the role of nostalgia in maintaining psychological wellbeing across the adult lifespan and across differing time perspectives. In Study 1, community adults (N = 443, age 18-91) completed measures of nostalgia proneness and six psychological wellbeing dimensions. Age was more positively related to wellbeing for those high than low on nostalgia proneness: High-nostalgic individuals showed a maintenance or increase in psychological wellbeing with age, whereas low-nostalgic individuals did not. In Study 2 (N = 35, age 18-25), experimentally inducing a limited time perspective—a core trigger of socioemotional selectivity—in young adults prompted greater nostalgia. In Study 3 (N = 93, age 18-33) and Study 4 (N = 376, age 18-55), experimentally inducing a limited time perspective reduced some aspects of wellbeing among those who recalled an ordinary (Study 3) or lucky (Study 4) autobiographical memory, but this effect was eliminated among those who recalled a nostalgic memory. Nostalgia buffers perceptions of limited time and facilitates the maintenance of psychological wellbeing across the adult lifespan. Study 1 also shows that nostalgia is frequent across ages in the UK, with over half of people in every age group between 18-90 experiencing nostalgia at least once a week. Nostalgia proneness peaks in emerging adulthood and older adulthood.
... Foundationally, nostalgia is an autobiographical memory experience that coincides with an affective response, but several researchers further define nostalgia as a distinct social emotion (e.g., Hepper et al., 2012;Holak & Havlena, 1992, 1998Sedikides et al., 2004Sedikides et al., , 2008. The conceptualization of nostalgia as a social emotion is tied to the common targets of nostalgia, such as past and present social partners (Batcho, 1995;Wildschut et al., 2006), and associated outcomes, such as social support and interpersonal connectedness (Sedikides et al., 2016;Wildschut et al., 2010). In many ways, this definition of nostalgia is limited, given that nostalgia can also be triggered by thoughts of places, things, and times past that are not directly tied to social partners. ...
... One pioneering study utilizing a life-span sample (ages 4-80 years) found that most respondents reported experiencing nostalgia about once per week (Batcho, 1995). Another survey found that most young adult participants (79%) reported experiencing nostalgia once a week, whereas only 4% experienced nostalgia less frequently than once a month (Wildschut et al., 2006). ...
... Nostalgia often arises from negative affect and elevates mood closer to a more neutral baseline or to an intermixing of joy and sadness (Holak & Havlena, 1998;Wildschut et al., 2006). Thus, the affective concomitants of nostalgia are usually bittersweetthe mingling of a positive memory with the sadness that comes from knowing that memory cannot be relived (Batcho, 1995;Wildschut et al., 2006). Research on emotional complexity suggests older adults are more likely than their younger counterparts to simultaneously feel both positive and negative emotions (i.e., happiness and sadness; Carstensen et al., 2000). ...
Article
Nostalgia, the fond remembrance of one's past, is a common experience hypothesized to increase across the life span. Yet data on the specific features of nostalgia, such as daily frequency and associated affect, are scarce. This study sought to address this limitation by assessing the daily experience of nostalgia using experience-sampling methods. A life-span sample of 108 participants (47 young, 31 middle-aged, and 30 older adults) completed a 2-week, twice-daily experience-sampling study that yielded data describing the frequency and emotions of everyday nostalgia. Multilevel logistic regression analyses supported increased nostalgia frequency at every life stage: Young adults were 60% less likely to report nostalgia compared with middle-aged adults (odds ratio [OR] = .40), whereas older adults were 3 times more likely than middle-aged adults to report nostalgia (OR = 3.05). Additionally, the experience of nostalgia was associated with significant heterogeneity in positive and negative affect. Approximately 72% of participants experienced an increase in positive affect, and 51% experienced an increase in negative affect. For young and middle-aged adults, a change in positive affect was associated with a 2-times-larger increase in nostalgia likelihood, whereas a change in negative affect was more strongly associated with a nostalgia experience in older adults. The current study provides increased evidence for the affectively mixed nature of nostalgia and how the affective pattern differs for adults of different ages. Greater nostalgia frequency may be instrumental during life review when individuals make meaning of their lives, fulfilling developmental goals of late adulthood. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved).
... Some researchers avoided explicit definitions of nostalgia and relied on tasks that captured essential components of the construct. Krystine I. Batcho (1995) incorporated the core element of missing the past into the Nostalgia Inventory (NI) by having respondents indicate how much they miss each of 20 items from when they were younger. Items include concrete things such as toys and your house and abstract concepts such as not having to worry and the way people were. ...
... Nostalgia-prone participants preferred happy song lyrics, related more closely to lyrics focused on other people, and considered others in forming their sense of self (Batcho 2007;Batcho et al. 2008). Nostalgia proneness correlated with a warm view of the respondent's personal past and the world when the respondent was younger (Batcho 1995(Batcho , 1998Batcho et al. 2011;Batcho and Shikh 2016). Nostalgia-prone individuals reported a favorable background of pleasant childhood emotional and social behavioral experiences and were more likely to rely on adaptive coping strategies (Batcho 2013a;Batcho et al. 2011). ...
... Different tasks and measures might account for discrepant findings by engaging the affective or cognitive dimensions of nostalgia to varying degrees. Vanessa Köneke (2010) compared results assessed with Batcho's (1995) NI and those with the seven-item Southampton Nostalgia Scale (SNS; Barrett et al. 2010). NI scores correlated with neuroticism and openness, whereas SNS scores correlated with neuroticism, lamenting, openness, agreeableness, and authoritarianism. ...
Chapter
Looking to the future is undeniably a healthy perspective that embodies the seeds of hope for better days ahead. Scientific, technological and social progress has contributed to an enhanced quality of life, and the anticipation of cures and inventions reinforces a focus on the future. Amid excitement for progress, the experience of nostalgic yearning for the past may be difficult to understand.
... 877). These days, the homesickness literature focuses on adjustment difficulties (e.g., separation anxiety) associated with transitions away from home (Kerns et al., 2008;Thurber & Walton, 2007), whereas the nostalgia literature focuses on the sentimental yearning for positive aspects of one's past, a yearning that may include but is not limited to one's home (Batcho, 1995;Sedikides et al., 2008a). Furthermore, nostalgia's psychological profile is distinct, and far more positive, than those of rumination and counterfactual thinking (Cheung et al., 2018;Jiang et al., 2021). ...
... A key variable is dispositional nostalgia, addressed by Batcho (2007). Participants completed the Nostalgia Inventory (Batcho, 1995), indicating the extent to which they missed 20 objects (e.g., TV shows, movies, my family house, vacations I went on, the way society was) from their youth. Then they rated six sets of lyrics on a variety of dimensions. ...
Article
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We provide a narrative review of the nascent literature on the psychological benefits of music-evoked nostalgia. Music is a prevalent and influential source of nostalgia. Music-evoked nostalgia confers approach-oriented psychological benefits in the social domain (by fostering social connectedness), self-oriented domain (by raising self-esteem, instilling a sense of youthfulness, elevating optimism, and enhancing inspiration), and existential domain (by strengthening meaning in life and augmenting self-continuity). Music-evoked nostalgia also confers psychological benefits indirectly. For example, it elevates optimisms by fostering sequentially social connectedness and self-esteem. Also, by fostering social connectedness, it enhances inspiration, strengthens meaning in life, and augments self-continuity. Furthermore, music-evoked nostalgia serves to buffer individuals against discomforting states, such as sadness. We conclude by discussing music-evoked nostalgia in people with dementia, contemplating the role of individual differences and context, considering the possibility that music-evoked nostalgia serves physiological functions, and asking whether familiarity with the music is necessary for the evocation of nostalgia and its ensuing benefits.
... The Nostalgia Inventory assessed personal nostalgia as a dispositional trait (Batcho, 1995(Batcho, , 1998(Batcho, , 2007. Consistent with Stern's (1992) definition of nostalgia as the longing for one's past, respondents rate the extent to which they miss each of 20 items from when they were younger on a 9-point scale (1 = Not at all, 9 = Very much). ...
... Consistent with Stern's (1992) definition of nostalgia as the longing for one's past, respondents rate the extent to which they miss each of 20 items from when they were younger on a 9-point scale (1 = Not at all, 9 = Very much). The inventory is reported to have a splithalf reliability of 0.78 and 1-week test-retest reliability of 0.84 (Batcho, 1995), an acceptable level of internal consistency of 0.86 as measured by Cronbach's alpha (Batcho et al., 2008), and testretest reliability of 0.82 over a 4-week interval (Batcho et al., 2011). Consistent with prior research, the Nostalgia Inventory yielded an acceptable level of internal consistency of 0.88 as measured by Cronbach's alpha and a split-half reliability of 0.81 in this study. ...
Article
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Contemporary research has showcased many benefits of nostalgia, but its bittersweet character and historical reputation as unhealthy raise the possibility of less favorable impacts. In recent studies, daily diary data highlighted nostalgia’s mixed valence and suggested that nostalgia is more strongly associated with negative feelings. Variables that influence the adaptive or maladaptive dimensions of nostalgia have not yet been fully explored. Recently, a focus on when nostalgia is experienced relative to past and future was introduced in the construct of anticipatory nostalgia, missing the present prematurely before it has become past. Distinct from personal nostalgia, anticipatory nostalgia was found to be characterized by difficulty enjoying the present and a tendency toward sadness and worry. The present study examines the distinctive dynamics at play in anticipatory and personal nostalgia by exploring the relationship between each type of dispositional nostalgia and reported experience with happy and sad stories. The Nostalgia Inventory, the Survey of Anticipatory Nostalgia, and a brief form of the PANAS were completed by 144 undergraduates (110 women), who rated their exposure and reactions to happy and sad stories. Reported frequency of exposure to happy and sad stories was related to dispositional happiness and sadness. Personal and anticipatory nostalgia did not differ in frequency of exposure to happy and sad stories, but they did differ in reactivity to and learning from sad stories. Findings highlight the importance of the timing of nostalgia, consistent with the distinction between nostalgia for the past and nostalgia for what is still present.
... Although specific definitions of nostalgia vary, personal nostalgia is commonly understood to denote currently missing aspects of one's lived past (Batcho, 1995(Batcho, , 2013a. Definitions of nostalgia as "a sentimental longing or wistful affection for the past" (Sedikides et al., 2015a, p. 52;Sedikides et al., 2015b, p. 195) and as "missing or longing for something in the past" (Batcho, 1995) share the common element of longing for the past. ...
... Although specific definitions of nostalgia vary, personal nostalgia is commonly understood to denote currently missing aspects of one's lived past (Batcho, 1995(Batcho, , 2013a. Definitions of nostalgia as "a sentimental longing or wistful affection for the past" (Sedikides et al., 2015a, p. 52;Sedikides et al., 2015b, p. 195) and as "missing or longing for something in the past" (Batcho, 1995) share the common element of longing for the past. Definitions that include the component of affection for the past often qualify it with descriptors such as "wistful, " that is, "characterized by melancholy, longing or yearning." ...
Article
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What helps consumers extract the greatest happiness from their experiences? The current investigation is the first to introduce to the consumer literature the construct of anticipatory nostalgia, defined as missing aspects of the present before they vanish in the future. While personal nostalgia involves fond memories and longing for what has already been lost, anticipatory nostalgia involves missing what has not yet been lost. In four studies, we show that marketing communications can elicit anticipatory nostalgia, and this emotion can either enhance or reduce consumer enjoyment of the experience, depending on the experience valence or the individual's level of life satisfaction. Specifically, mediated by anxiety, anticipatory nostalgia decreased enjoyment and positive affect in pleasant situations, but it enhanced enjoyment and affect in unpleasant circumstances. Study 4 extended the paradigm to a real-life setting and showed that the impact of anticipatory nostalgia on enjoyment and meaningfulness can last as long as 8 h after the manipulation.
... Consumer nostalgia is often favored by young people (Holbrook and Schindler, 1991;Shields and Johnson, 2016). As for measuring nostalgic feelings, the scales of nostalgic feeling made by Holbrook (1993); Batcho (1995), and Smeekes et al. (2021) were widely cited, and some Chinese scholars including Lu (2008), , He (2010), and also dedicated to the development of nostalgia scales. Nostalgia proneness was mainly related to the living environment, personality, life accident, insecurity, past experience, and loneliness (Ford and Merchant, 2010;Wang et al., 2011;Juhl et al., 2020). ...
... The scale modified and used by Sargeant et al. (2006) was used to measure the intensity of relations and friends, with three items in total. Nostalgia proneness adopts the scale designed by Batcho (1995), Lu (2008); He (2010), Merchant and Ford (2008), Ford and Merchant (2010), and Cheung et al. (2017), with 12 items in total. The measurement of insecurity adopts the scale modified and used in the article by Collins and Read (1990) and Wang (2010), with a total of four items. ...
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The rapid outbreak of COVID-19 wreaked havoc and brought a pause to the normal lives, and the labor market and human livelihoods were strongly negatively affected because of it. The emergence of groups that were unable to withstand various pressures has increased the appeal of donation behavior to a certain extent. Therefore, under the impetus of COVID-19 and digital background, online donation represented by Waterdrop financing has become popular. In the common difficult period, how to improve an individual’s willingness to donate online has become an urgent problem to be solved. To address this issue, on the basis of previous literature, we proposed a research hypothesis and a theoretical model of “nostalgia-relationship variables-donation”. After that, we determined the measurement scale, conducted a large sample survey, and finally conducted hypothesis testing through confirmatory factor analysis and structural equation modeling analysis. Through the above analyses, the study reached the following conclusions: the main influence factors of personal nostalgic proneness are insecurity, past experience, loneliness, and recovery from grief, among others. There is a positive causal link between nostalgia proneness and familial utility intensity and emotional utility intensity. The greater the degree of the nostalgia intensity of the donor, the more the trust placed in charitable organizations. The donors’ relationship commitment to charitable organizations significantly influences their online donation willingness. The main source of relationship commitment consists of emotional intensity, followed by trust, and finally, familial intensity.
... In other words, nostalgia connotes sentimental longing for past memories. Reisenwitz, (2004) found that People often experience a sense of nostalgia about their positive past experiences and nostalgia is an individual emotion evoked by stimulating past experience Nonetheless, according to Batcho, K. I. (1995), nostalgia is a personal emotion that can only be evoked from the actual well of lived experience. Goulding, C. (2001), mentioned that nostalgia was either an integral aspect of the visit or a result of an aesthetic conceptualization of history. ...
... They try to remember the experiences that they have gathered during their past visits to destinations after some period of time. Nostalgia is more than just memory, it is a complex emotion with different causes and different manifestations (Batcho, 1995;Davis, 1979). Generally, when a consumer has nostalgia about a past experience, he/she tends to feel positive emotions such as warmth and joy. ...
Conference Paper
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Nostalgia is a past memory, a type of dream about the past or past experiences that have direct connection to the present travel decisions. Nostalgic Tourism is a particular type of authentic travel which focuses on a time sufficiently ongoing to be recollected by individuals who are as yet alive today. Tourists seek emotional comfort from a familiar past, so that they are more likely to prefer tourism products that are reminiscent of past moments. Thereby, individuals desire to purchase tourism products that can arouse their feelings of nostalgia, which will eventually lead them to a strong intention for repurchasing the same tourism product in the future. The main purpose of this study is to investigate the relationship between nostalgic experiences and revisit intention of domestic tourists with special reference to Nuwara Eliya, Sri Lanka. The study mainly depends on the primary data that has been collected by through self -administered questionnaires and the convenience sampling method was used as a sampling technique to collect data from the 100 domestic tourists. Quantitative data analytical method was employed in analyzing the data using multiple regression. Findings reflect that nostalgic attributes has the highest impact of revisit intention of tourists Sri Lanka while nostalgic values being the least. Moreover, nostalgic characteristics too play a considerable role in impacting the revisit intention of tourists through nostalgic experiences. Mediating role of nostalgic triggers can be measured in future researches.
... Nostalgia is defined as 'a yearning for the past, or a fondness for tangible or intangible possessions and activities linked with the past' and is often experienced when individuals feel 'separated from an era to which they are attached' (Davis, 1979;Holbrook, 1993). Recent work on nostalgia has shown that individuals generally associate more positive than negative feelings with the past when asked about nostalgia (Batcho, 1995;Holbrook & Schindler, 2003). Also, consuming nostalgic products or brands allow consumers to reconnect with the past as well as the social communities that consumed those products together (Brown et al., 2003). ...
... In a sports context, when a team's performance is currently unsatisfactory, fans may yearn for products that remind them of the 'good old days' when the team had a good reputation. Also, given that the contents of nostalgic thoughts are generally positive (Batcho, 1995;Holbrook & Schindler, 2003), and are perceived as better than the present (Basset, 2006;Batcho, 1998), nostalgic thoughts of fans of teams that do not have a history of success (e.g. Memphis Grizzlies) should also have the same effect as it has on fans of teams that had once had immense success (e.g. ...
... Davis (1979) report that older people tend to be nostalgic. Batcho (1995) ...
... Nostalgia Inventory. We collected the Nostalgia Inventory (Batcho, 1995), which 266 assesses the degree to which individuals currently miss specific aspects from their past. The 267 scale consists of 20 items, including "Places" and "The way people were". ...
Preprint
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Listening to music can cause experiences of nostalgia and melancholia. Although both concepts are theoretically related, to date they have not been analyzed together. In this study, we identify their theoretical underpinnings and determine how they can be measured empirically. We analyze how listening to music causes nostalgia and melancholia, and whether both experiences are related to different behavioral intentions. To this end, we conducted an online experiment with 359 participants who listened to music they considered either nostalgic, melancholic, or neutral. Afterward, participants answered 122 items related to nostalgia and melancholia. Using Structural Equation Modeling, and more specifically Multiple Indicators and Multiple Causes Modeling, we first developed two new scales, the Formative Nostalgia Scale and the Formative Melancholia Scale. Both scales consist of five items each. Results showed that listening to music indeed increased nostalgia and melancholia. Although considerably different, both concepts are related nonetheless: Listening to nostalgic music increases melancholia, whereas listening to melancholic music does not increase nostalgia. In addition, both experiences are related to different behavioral intentions: Whereas experiencing nostalgia was associated with a stronger intention to share the music and listen to it again, experiencing melancholia revealed the exact opposite relation.
... Historical benchmarks feature prominently in work of psychologists and sociologists on nostalgia, for example. While psychologists view feelings of nostalgia, commonly quite casually defined as a feeling that the past used to be better, primarily with reference to personal experiences, such as a birth, degree or other personal milestones (Batcho, 1995;Sedikides et al., 2008), sociologists define it in a much broader sense and relate it to more general views about the state of the world (Davis, 1979;Duyvendak, 2011). Notwithstanding these differences, both approaches emphasize that nostalgia develops in comparison with a benchmark in the past. ...
Article
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Abstract The notion that through increasing state cooperation and dependency national divisions can be overcome, and peace can be secured is at the core of European integration. Political elites often refer to the devastations of the Second World War (WWII) as a means to convey the added value of European cooperation today. Do references to the devastations of WWII enhance public support for European cooperation today? By presenting evidence from survey experiments conducted in the six largest member states (France, Germany, Italy, Poland, Spain and the United Kingdom) in July 2017, this study suggest that they do, albeit only when it comes to financial assistance for other member states in dire economic need. References to the devastations of WWII do not make respondents more willing to support free movement of people or the establishment of an European army. These findings are important as they suggest that reminding people of the devastations of WWII triggers a largely transactional response among the public: a willingness to provide financial support This evidence suggests that securing public support for free movement of people or European security cooperation through historical rhetoric might be difficult to achieve.
... Assessment of nostalgia followed. Participants completed a state version of the Nostalgia Inventory (Batcho, 1995), which measures level of nostalgia for 20 objects from one's past (e.g., "my family," "toys," "the way people were," "having someone to depend on"). Participants in the high loneliness condition reported feeling more nostalgic than those in the low loneliness condition. ...
Article
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Nostalgia, a sentimental longing for one's past, has been garnering keen empirical attention in the psychological literature over the last two decades. After providing a historical overview, we place the emotion in cross-cultural context. Laypeople in many cultures conceptualize nostalgia similarly: as a past-oriented, social, self-relevant, and bittersweet emotion, but more sweet (positively toned) than bitter (negatively toned). That is, the nostalgizer reflects on a fond and personally important event—often their childhood or valued relationships—relives the event through rose-colored glasses, yearns for that time or relationship, and may even wish to return briefly to the past. Also, triggers of nostalgia (e.g., adverts, food, cold temperatures, loneliness) are similar across cultures. Moreover, across cultures nostalgia serves three key functions: it elevates social connectedness (a sense of belongingness or acceptance), meaning in life (a sense that one's life is significant, purposeful, and coherent), and self-continuity (a sense of connection between one's past and present self). Further, nostalgia acts as a buffer against discomforting psychological states (e.g., loneliness) similarly in varied cultural contexts. For example, (1) loneliness is positively related to, or intensifies, nostalgia; (2) loneliness is related to, or intensifies, adverse outcomes such as unhappiness or perceived lack of social support; and (3) nostalgia suppresses the relation between loneliness and adverse outcomes. Additionally, nostalgia facilitates one's acculturation to a host culture. Specifically, (1) nostalgia (vs. control) elicits a positive acculturation orientation toward a host culture; (2) nostalgia (vs. control) amplifies bicultural identity integration; and (3) positive acculturation orientation mediates the effect of host-culture nostalgia on bicultural identity integration. We conclude by identifying lacunae in the literature and calling for follow-up research.
... In simple terms, nostalgia refers to a sentimental longing for a past that is forever gone. It is often identified as an emotional response brought on by a dissatisfaction or detachment in the present, and an anxiety for the future (Batcho, 1995;Boym, 2008;Davis, 1979). As a result, a seemingly superior, familiar, and stable past is sought that is comprised of happier times which may generate mixed feelings of both joy and loss. ...
Article
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This paper considers the role of nostalgia-based leisure in the present COVID-19 pandemic. Enforced lockdowns and social distancing initiatives have been met with various media channels replaying famous sport matches, classic films and memorable concerts from the past. Furthermore, social media is full of families interacting more; playing traditional board games and numerous other leisure-related activities such as baking bread and making fresh pasta. Nostalgia may well end up being one of the primary coping mechanisms (for all generations) of enduring isolation, fear - and a general loss of freedom. It is also worth considering whether we are now creating our own future nostalgia where, when the crisis is through, we will long for the social bonds and sense of community the pandemic created.
... Na segunda situação, a concepção de um passado melhor não necessariamente exige um presente pior (real ou imaginado como tal), pelo contrário (BATCHO, 1995). No terceiro cenário, a nostalgia aparece como produto de lembranças difíceis que se tornaram parte de um repertório de redenção, isto é, quando se atribuiu às dificuldades do passado novos significados e, ao futuroe não ao que já passou -, a aura de bons tempos (SEDIKIDES et al., 2008;LOWENTHAL, 2015). ...
Article
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The article shows nostalgia as a category of analysis used to understand the landscape and the feelings evoked by the places that contain substrates of memory. In this article, in addition to the historical background of the word and its classification as sweet and bitter, we also deal with the similarities and differences in relation to the term "saudade", and the different types of narrative in which nostalgia can be enmeshed.
... Nostalgia is experienced frequently, typically once or twice a week (Hepper et al., 2020;Wildschut et al., 2006), across ages (Hepper et al., 2020;Madoglou et al., 2017) and cultures (Hepper et al., 2014). In nostalgic reverie, individuals revisit fondly meaningful events from their childhood or relationships, and often yearn for a return to this cherished past (Batcho, 1995;van Tilburg, Bruder, et al., 2019;Wildschut et al., 2006). The emotion is often triggered by sensory stimuli, including music (F. S. Barrett et al., 2010) and scents (Reid et al., 2015), as well as by adverse psychological (e.g., loneliness; Zhou et al., 2008) and environmental (e.g., inclement weather; van Tilburg et al., 2018) stimuli. ...
Article
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We conducted an integrative data analysis to examine the hedonic character of nostalgia. We combined positive and negative affect measures from 41 experiments manipulating nostalgia (N = 4,659). Overall, nostalgia inductions increased positive and ambivalent affect, but did not significantly alter negative affect. The magnitude of nostalgia’s effects varied markedly across different experimental inductions of the emotion. The hedonic character of nostalgia, then, depends on how the emotion is elicited and the benchmark (i.e., control condition) to which it is compared. We discuss implications for theory and research on nostalgia and emotions in general.
... Lay perceptions of nostalgia's prototype reveal prominent positive features (e.g., happy, warm) combined with less pronounced negative ones (e.g., yearnful, sad; Hepper et al., 2012). The prototype of nostalgia experiences is similar across several cultures and most age groups (Batcho, 1995;Hepper et al., 2014). ...
Article
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Disillusionment arises when life experiences strongly discredited positive assumptions or deeply help beliefs. Under these conditions, people feel lost, confused, and disconnected from their social environments. Ultimately, disillusioned individuals struggle to maintain meaning and inhabit a state of existential concern. However, the past can provide solace as a refuge of meaning and social connection. Indeed, nostalgic reflection is a commonly cited source of meaning in life. Accordingly, we investigated if disillusioned people could rely on nostalgic reverie to bolster, or reestablish, diminished perceptions of meaning, in three experiments. In Study 1, we confirmed that experimentally induced disillusionment lowers perceptions of meaning. In Study 2, induced disillusionment caused people to retrieve nostalgic events in a memory recall task, and feelings of nostalgia subsequently suppressed the effect of disillusionment on meaning in life. Finally, in Study 3, we manipulated both disillusionment and nostalgia, before measuring meaningfulness. Only disillusioned participants who did not engage in nostalgic reflection suffered meaning-loss. These results provide convergent evidence for the nostalgia-as-meaning resource hypothesis and further support the well-established psychological benefits of nostalgia. Our findings delineate a common story of our time; disillusioned citizens can replenish and reaffirm meaning in thoughts of past fondness and glory.
... To better understand this point, consider nostalgia. Nostalgia involves a longing for the past (Batcho, 1995). It involves "feeling happy and sad at the same time" (Wildschut, Sedikides, Arndt, & Routledge, 2006;Wildschut, Stephan, Sedikides, Routledge, & Arndt, 2008, p. 1). ...
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In this chapter, we review the literature on leadership and emotion. Progress in understanding the junction of these two ideas has been steady but slow. To address this concern, at the conclusion of this chapter, we briefly discuss two theoretical obstacles that, in our view, have slowed progress. However, we begin with the larger substance of our chapter, which focuses on leaders’ affect at three levels of analysis – the overall climate, the work team, and, finally, the leader himself or herself. We show that leader emotion can be important at all three levels of analysis. At the highest level of analysis, leaders create emotional climate through personnel practices, by rewarding (or punishing) culturally appropriate emotion displays, and by their treatment of individual employees. Moving to teams and dyads, we will see that emotions can influence followers through contagion or emotional correspondence. Finally, looking within the leader, our review underscores how emotional intelligence is crucial for effective leadership.
... Nostalgia is politics, but these politics are also interwoven with media and culture. The bottom of it 1 Nostalgia's positive qualities are supported by Batcho (1995) and Jackson (1986). There are, however, those who consider nostalgia primarily a negative emotional experience: Best and Nelson (1985), Hertz (1990), Holbrook (1993), and Peters (1985). ...
Article
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Nostalgia makes us all tick: It engages [...]
... First, future research on time-honored restaurants might use t-tests to explore whether various demographic variables affect consumers' perceptions of nostalgia. Second, as older consumers may be more prone to nostalgic feelings for the past than their younger counterparts (Batcho, 1995), the perceptions of and feelings of nostalgia toward time-honored restaurants of consumers over 40 years of age might be investigated in the future. Third, our results for nostalgia triggers and nostalgic experiences should be replicated in other areas in China and other cultural contexts to extend their generalizability. ...
Article
With a long history and strong culinary heritage, time-honored restaurants are often associated with the phenomenon of nostalgia. However, research on nostalgia and nostalgic experiences in time-honored restaurants is largely absent. This study built a framework for nostalgic experiences to understand nostalgia triggers as antecedents and consumers’ revisit intention as the outcome. A survey of 366 residents in Beijing and Shanghai, China, revealed that nostalgia triggered by food and service staff significantly evoked consumers’ memories, and the food and restaurant environment stimulated the communitas component of nostalgic experiences. Memory had a positive effect on both communitas and positive emotions, while communitas had a positive effect on positive emotions. Finally, positive emotions resulted in significantly increased revisit intention.
... Although the sense of nostalgia is omnipresent across ages, genders, social groups and societies, their causes and consequences are shaped differently across the globe (Hepper et al., 2020). For instance, Batcho (1995) indicated that nostalgia declines toward toys, holidays and pets with an increase in age. Nostalgia toward family members remains static while an opposite pattern toward music was observed in individuals. ...
Article
Purpose The use of nostalgia in the marketing domain has been popular around the world. Nostalgia has been considered a complex yet ambivalent emotion, which has ignited curiosity among marketing researchers and practitioners alike. In response to calls from marketing practitioners and scholars to understand nostalgia formation among consumers, this study tracks the evolution of nostalgia concepts in the domains of marketing and, more generally, business management. This study aims to highlight the development of a theoretical framework to integrate existing concepts and offer implications based on understanding nostalgia as a phenomenon among consumers as a tool for marketing practice. Design/methodology/approach This study is descriptive and inductive in nature. The manuscript is designed and positioned as a conceptual study exploring nostalgia’s journey from the domain of psychology to business management. The study synthesizes concepts of nostalgia from psychology, sociology and business management. Findings The study reveals that nostalgia in the business-management domain is not perceived in the same way as in psychology studies. It has journeyed through different schools of thought and is now used as an impactful marketing practice. The manuscript offers relevant information to marketing practitioners to improve their nostalgia marketing strategies, such as advertising and promotions, retro-branding, crowd-sourcing and culturally oriented practice. Subsequently, the manuscript offers pointers for understanding consumers across the generations and exploring nostalgia and consumption patterns for future research. Research limitations/implications The manuscript offers relevant information about nostalgia to marketing practitioners to improve their nostalgia marketing strategies and proposes avenues for future research to the domain scholars. Originality/value To the best of the authors’ knowledge, there is no comprehensive paper tracking the journey of nostalgia in business practices and providing directions for future research. This study extends existing literature both by suggesting future research directions and by drawing marketing practitioners’ attention to a conceptual framework for understanding the processes of and relationships with consumer nostalgia, including ways to use consumer nostalgia within marketing practices.
... Individual differences in nostalgia, such as nostalgia proneness (Barrett et al., 2010;Batcho, 1995;Holbrook, 1993) and the extent of nostalgia functions (Wildschut et al., 2006), have long been the main issue of nostalgia research. The assumption of a working self might clarify these issues by providing a mechanism that defines which information is remembered from the autobiographical knowledge base and how the retrieved information is evaluated at the time of remembering. ...
Article
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Nostalgia, a sentimental longing for the past, has attracted attention in the fields of psychology and marketing in recent years. Although these studies have identified what nostalgia is, including its triggers and functions, the question of how nostalgia is induced remains unanswered. In this article, we review existing psychological models and recent neuroimaging studies that have investigated the neural correlates of nostalgia and propose a provisional framework of nostalgia induction. The multilevel memory-reward coactivation framework expects that different types of autobiographical memory (AM), such as episodic AM and semantic AM, activate the associated meso-limbic reward system. This framework also assumes a working self, a complex set of active goals, and associated self-images, which enables us to explain individual differences in nostalgia experience by influencing what is remembered and how the retrieved information is evaluated. This framework is advantageous in that it can integrate existing psychological models into one model and can explain individual differences in nostalgia that are important for the use of nostalgia, especially in clinical situations.
... Nostalgia Inventory. We collected the Nostalgia Inventory (Batcho, 1995), which 266 assesses the degree to which individuals currently miss specific aspects from their past. The 267 scale consists of 20 items, including "Places" and "The way people were". ...
... According to this author, nostalgia appears because people evoke positive memories when they experience unpleasant moments. In psychology, nostalgia is often described as an affective-cognitive construct in which the cognitive component includes remembering, reflecting and evaluating things, people and events of the past, and the affective component describes emotions related to the past (Batcho, 1995;Wildschut et al., 2006). ...
Article
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Purpose: The article aims to expand the nostalgic brand management area by empirically examining the impact of nostalgia on all components of brand equity and, consequently, on the consumers’ attitudes and purchase intention. Design/methodology/approach: The research was conducted in the form of direct and indirect communication with 1000 Polish respondents using the personal and online survey techniques. Two main stages of research were carried out in the fourth quarter of 2018. Findings: The results confirm that consumers are nostalgic towards both generational and transgenerational brands, what positively affects the perceived quality of brands, associations connected with them, as well as consumers’ loyalty. The rating of nostalgic brands equity is higher than in case of brands perceived as non-nostalgic, with the exception of brands from the automotive industry. The nostalgic brands equity depends on age of the respondents but is not dependent on the consumers’ gender. It was also confirmed that brand equity is rated higher in case of nostalgic transgenerational brands than the generational ones. Practical Implications: The results can serve as a guide for managers in implementing the nostalgic brand strategy. Originality/value: The consumers’ attitudes were evaluated considering the type of the nostalgic brand.
... Participants completed two measures of trait nostalgia. The Nostalgia Inventory (NI; Batcho, 1995) asks participants to rate how nostalgic they feel about items from their past, including people (e.g., "someone I loved," "my friends") and objects (e.g., "my childhood toys," "my family house"). The 7-item Southampton Nostalgia Scale (SNS; Barrett et al., 2010) assesses the frequency ("How often do you experience nostalgia?") ...
Article
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The COVID-19 pandemic has triggered and exacerbated psychological distress, and exposed psychological vulnerabilities, in large swathes of the population. Under challenging circumstances, nostalgia may convey tangible psychological and physical health benefits. We review recent evidence for nostalgia’s utility in vulnerable populations, including sojourners and immigrants, civil war refugees, people suffering bereavement, people facing a limited time horizon, and people living with dementia. Having raised the prospect of a positive role for nostalgia in responding to adversity, we next present findings from a series of randomised nostalgia interventions and their impact over time in the workplace, during the COVID-19 pandemic, and at university, respectively. We conclude by offering evidence-based recommendations for future interventions, highlighting the importance of optimal person-activity fit, diversity of content, and accessibility of delivery mechanisms.
... Kişiliği şekillendiren bir faktör olan nostaljiyi (Davis, 1979), her birey farklı bir şekilde deneyimlemektedir ve bireylerin nostalji eğilimleri farklı düzeyde olmaktadır (Holbrook ve Schindler, 1991). Dolayısıyla, nostalji vurgusu yapan pazarlama faaliyetlerine tüketicilerin tepkileri aynı olmamakta; tüketicilerin nostaljiye olan tepkileri bireyden bireye farklılıklar gösterebilmektedir (Batcho, 1995;Vess v.d, 2012;Singh, Sharma ve Kumar, 2020). Benlik kurgusu, bireylerin kendilerini bağımsız hissetmelerine ve kişilerarası ilişkilere önem vermelerine göre farklılık gösterdiği (Markus ve Kitayama, 1991) için bireylerin sahip oldukları benlik kurgusunun nostalji düzeylerine ve nostaljiye atfettikleri değere paralel olarak birbirinden ayrışacağı söylenebilir. ...
Conference Paper
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Positive emotions play an essential role in consumers' relationships with brands. Since brand nostalgia and personal nostalgia evoke pleasant feelings in consumers, it is important to examine their relational consumer brand interaction role. While nostalgia has been frequently studied in various consumer behavior contexts and marketing communication activities such as advertisements, limited studies examine brand-consumer interaction in relational contexts. In light of the importance of relational marketing in today's marketing strategies, it is crucial to investigate the relationships between brand nostalgia, brand engagement, and brand happiness. The present study examines these relationships in the context of nostalgic brands. A total of 397 individuals participated in the study. Regression analysis was conducted for testing the study’s model. As a result of the study's findings, active brand engagement mediates the relationships between personal nostalgia, brand nostalgia, and brand happiness. In addition, self-construal moderates these relations.
... Personal NostalgiaInventory(Batcho, 1995) a 20-item inventory wherein respondents rate "How much do you miss each of the following things from your past?". ese items ranged from concrete categories (for instance, toys, TV shows, and friends) to abstract categories (the way society used to be, the way people were then, etc.).For the dimension of Celebrity Identi cation, gender, nostalgia-tradition, nostalgia-progress, and risk were all signi cant suggesting there may be a consistent gender e ect on dead celebrity worship. ...
Article
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During the last two decades consumer nostalgia literature has experienced the growing amount of research, nonetheless, the nomological network in the area is still poorly established and fundamental questions of generalizability and measurement of nostalgia effects remain unanswered. This paper represents an attempt to comprehensively assess extant research in consumer nostalgia field, distinguish developments in the literature by summarizing the main findings of previous research and establishing theoretical trends. The analysis reveals that a number of demographic, social and psychological nostalgia antecedents, moderators and outcomes remain at the propositions level or lack the accumulated empirical quantitative support and validation from other studies. Therefore, specific recommendations regarding the development of nostalgia nomological network are provided to aid the continued theoretical and methodological improvements in the area. Since 1991 research in nostalgia has assumed that the correct measurement approach is a reflective one. This paper offers an alternative perspective for viewing and operationalizing nostalgia construct as a formative construct. Guidelines are summarized that aim to assist researchers with decision rules on whether to employ formative or reflective nostalgia measurement for future research. One of the main contributions of this study is to show the need for researchers to explicitly justify their choice of reflective or formative measurement models by supporting it with theoretical arguments and empirical evidence.
... Personal and collective nostalgia. We then measured personal nostalgia with the Individual Nostalgia Scale (Batcho, 1995). Participants answered on a 7-point scale how much they miss 20 stimuli about when they were younger (e.g., family; music; places; friends; 1 = Do not miss at all, 7 = Miss it very much; α = .91). ...
Article
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Populist movements typically endorse a pessimistic view that blames the “elites” for societal problems. Why is this populist worldview so appealing to many citizens? We propose that populism is associated with nostalgia: A bittersweet feeling defined as a sentimental longing for a better past. We tested this idea in three preregistered studies. Study 1 revealed that both personal and collective nostalgia (i.e., referring to either personal memories, or a shared national history) were associated with populist attitudes. Moreover, the nostalgia measures mediated a link between collective angst and populist attitudes. Studies 2 and 3, then, were experiments designed to investigate the causal order between nostalgia and populist attitudes. In Study 2, a manipulation of nostalgia could not establish a causal effect on populist attitudes; however, a measure of nostalgia was again correlated with populist attitudes. In Study 3, we tested the reverse causal order by exposing participants to either a populist or pluralist speech. Results revealed that exposure to the populist speech increased both personal and collective nostalgia. In all studies, these effects emerged independent of political orientation. Apparently, feelings of nostalgia are closely associated with populist attitudes, and may help explain why citizens find a populist worldview appealing.
Article
Nostalgia, a mostly positive emotional experience that involves revisiting cherished memories/experiences, instigates the pursuit of approach-oriented social goals of affiliation and growth. Attachment-related avoidance describes the extent to which people do not rely on relationships for psychological comfort and avoid interpersonal closeness. The purpose of the present research was to determine if individual differences in attachment-related avoidance moderate nostalgia's capacity to energize social pursuits. Across 2 studies nostalgia increased approach-oriented social intentions/goals at lower levels of attachment-related avoidance, but not at higher levels. Among those higher in attachment-related avoidance, nostalgia was found to decrease intentions to connect with others. These studies suggest that while nostalgia typically energizes adaptive interpersonal pursuits, it can drive people with a history of interpersonal avoidance further from interpersonal relationships.
Article
Nostalgia is a sentimental longing for a one’s past. It is an emotion that is known to contribute to multiple adaptabilities. We conducted three studies to develop the Japanese version of the Southampton Nostalgia Scale (SNS), which assesses how often people experience nostalgia on a daily basis. Study 1 indicated that the factor structure of the Japanese version and the original version of the SNS are similar and that the Japanese version of the SNS has acceptable test-retest reliability. Study 2 revealed that the factor structure of the Japanese version of the SNS is stable regardless of age. Finally, Study 3 showed that the pattern of correlational relationships of the Japanese version with explicit variables is similar to the original version of the SNS. These results indicate that the Japanese version of the SNS has acceptable validity and reliability.
Article
This article argues that augmented reality (AR) games such as Pokémon Go are beneficial in enhancing the mood and mental well being of players. Whilst developed purely for entertainment purposes, AR games can offer a number of social and emotional benefits. Within this article Pokémon Go is used as an example. Whilst benefits from playing such as increased physical activity have been found to be short lived, the combination of active participation, positive reinforcement and nostalgia that are central to Pokémon Go ’s gameplay appear to have a longer impact upon mental well being. Using survey data, this research considers three key aspects of mood in relation to the experience of gameplay: activity, relationships and environment. This highlights the impact playing Pokémon Go has on mood, and shows broader implications for the use of AR games in self-help strategies and developing mental well being on an individual level.
Article
Objective: Nostalgia is a sentimental longing for one's past. We examined the hypotheses (rooted in attachment theory and research) that nostalgia prone individuals, by virtue of their greater attachment security, are more empathic and enact more prosocial behavior. Method: In five studies, testing 1923 participants (Nrange = 132-823, 52.42% women, Agerange = 8-90 years), we measured nostalgia proneness and affective empathy. Additionally, we measured cognitive empathy in Study 3, attachment security in Studies 4-5, and prosocial behavior in Study 5. Results: Nostalgia proneness was positively related to affective empathy among younger and older adults (Studies 1, 3-5) and among children (Study 2). This association was stronger for affective empathy than cognitive empathy (Study 3). Also, attachment security mediated the relation between nostalgia proneness and affective empathy (Studies 4-5). Finally, nostalgia prone individuals were more likely to engage in prosocial behavior, and this relation was serially mediated by attachment security and affective empathy (Study 5). Conclusion: The findings establish the empathic and prosocial character of nostalgia prone individuals, and clarify their personality profile.
Article
Nostalgia, a sentimental longing for one's past, predicts or augments psychological wellbeing (PWB). We hypothesized that it does so—at least in part—via authenticity, a sense of alignment with one's true self. We obtained support for this hypothesis in four studies. Using a measurement-of-mediation design, across a Western (United States) and East-Asian (China) culture, we found that nostalgia is associated with both authenticity and PWB, and that the nostalgia-PWB link is mediated by authenticity (Study 1, N = 611). Using an experimental-causal-chain design, we showed that nostalgia increases authenticity across U.S. and Chinese samples (Study 2, N = 777). We then demonstrated that authenticity increases PWB on a domain-general measure (Study 3, N = 596, U.S. sample). Finally, we clarified that the benefits authenticity confers on PWB are domain general rather than domain specific (Study 4, N = 414, U.K. sample). This research represents the first attempt to address systematically the path from nostalgia to PWB via authenticity. We discuss implications for the broader literature.
Article
Integrating the theories of nostalgia and consumer‐brand relationships, this study developed and tested a theoretical model for understanding ad‐evoked nostalgia within the context of Facebook. Online survey data (n = 395) were collected using Amazon MTurk to disentangle the relationships between antecedents, ad‐evoked nostalgia, and outcomes. An analysis of the structural model revealed that the need to belong and nostalgia proneness had positive, direct effects on ad‐evoked nostalgia, which subsequently affected self‐brand connections and brand engagement behaviors on Facebook. Facebook use intensity was not found to influence ad‐evoked nostalgia. Theoretical and managerial implications, along with future research directions, were discussed.
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Introduction: New trend in virtue ethics focuses on personal trait and motivation to highlight the important role of perceptive and motivational aspect of emotions. Aim: The goal of present research was showed the line to facilitate moral virtues into personal identity by focusing on potentials of nostalgia. The question of the present study is that nostalgia as a non-moral emotion has which relation to the importance of moral virtues. Method: Method of research was correlational study and PhD and graduate students of Shiraz University were the statistical society of this research. 71 students participated in this research. Participants responded to event reflection manipulation (Wildschut et al., 2006), Moral identity scale (Aquino & Reed, 2002) and Nostalgia inventory (Batcho,1995). To analyze of data using SPSS 19, Amos and calculator of composite reliability depend on Raykov s formula (1997). Results: The result showed that nostalgia was significant positive predictor for internalizing and symbolizing. Conclusion: The results showed that nostalgia is a positive predictor for internalizing moral values in the individual's self-concept, and also predicting the representation and social pretense as a person who carries some values. Probability, Nostalgia is associated with a kind of emotional regulation and other importance in the person's life, which facilitates the strong moral identity by integration of self and openness to other.
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Purpose Using two theoretical lenses – social identity theory and generation cohort theory – the present study analyzes the influence of sport motivations (i.e., patriotism, drama and excitement of the game, nostalgic associations, interest in star players and social influence) on the intentions to watch the International Cricket Council (ICC) Twenty-20 (T20) World Cup of three different generation cohorts (i.e., Generations X, Y and Z). Design/methodology/approach Data were collected from N = 499 cricket lovers from Pakistan based on a non-probability sampling technique. Exploratory factor analysis (EFA), confirmatory factor analysis (CFA), structural equation modeling (SEM) and multi-group modeling techniques were used as methods. Findings SEM results show that cricket fans' intentions to watch the T20 World Cup are positively influenced by patriotism, drama and excitement of the game, and social influence. The results of multi-group modeling reveal significant differences between Generation X-ers, Y-ers and Z-ers regarding the effect of sport motivations on their intentions to watch the ICC T20 World Cup. Specifically, our findings show that for X-ers, interest in star players and nostalgic associations are the main motivations behind watching the T20 World Cup, whereas drama and excitement appeared to be an important predictor for Y-ers, and patriotism and social influence are more likely to increase Z-ers' intentions to watch the T20 World Cup. Originality/value This study is the first of its kind to report the motivations of Generations X, Y and Z to watch the T20 World Cup.
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The article examines the differences in the thematic content of nostalgic memories of townspeople in different age groups, as well as the imaginative content constituting nostalgic memories. The presented study is based on the assumption that the thematic content of significant nostalgic memories is associated with existential goals that need to be solved at a certain stage of life. Regardless of their thematic content, nostalgic memories of respondents of all age groups are constituted by images associated with nature. The data was collected through online survey (n=174). The Nostalgia Inventory questionnaire (K. Batcho) has been modified; the themes related to nature were included in the questionnaire and had shown its relevance especially for middle and older age. The results of the study showed that for youth nostalgic memories become a supportive and formative resource, for middle age people a source of critical self-reflection, a challenge to authenticity, for the elderly a way of "gathering" life together. Thus, memories become an experience – the work that provide life direction and meaningfulness. The assumption that, regardless of its thematic content, nostalgic memories of respondents of all age groups are constituted by images associated with nature has been confirmed. Our findings allow to conclude that the beneficial effect of nostalgic memories on the psychological well-being of a person is associated with the existence of the images of nature that constitute nostalgic memories.
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Background: Brain cortical activity in resting electroencephalogram (EEG) recordings can be considered as measures of latent individual disposition to approach/avoidance behavior. This systematic review aims to provide an updated overview of the relationship between resting EEG cortical activity and approach/avoidance motivation personality traits. Methods: The review process was conducted according to the PRISMA-Statement, using PsycArticles, MEDLINE, Scopus, Science Citation Index, and Research Gate database. Restrictions were made by selecting EEG studies conducted in resting idling conditions, which included approach/avoidance personality traits or parallel measures, and an index of EEG brain activity. In the review 50 studies were selected, wherein 7120 healthy adult individuals participated. Results: The study of the relationship between resting EEG cortical activity and approach/avoidance personality traits provides controversial and unclear results. Therefore, the validity of resting asymmetry or frequency oscillations as a potential marker for approach/avoidance personality traits is not supported. Conclusions: There are important contextual and interactional factors not taken into account by researchers that could mediate or moderate this relationship or prove it scarcely replicable. Further, it would be necessary to conduct more sessions of EEG recordings in different seasons of the year to test the validity and the reliability of the neurobiological measures.
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The purposes of this study were to (1) examine the triggers of patrons’ nostalgia and (2) examine how the nostalgia triggers induce patrons’ emotional responses, thus influencing revisit intentions. Based on a literature review, 20 triggers that induce nostalgia were derived. The empirical data utilized in this study was collected from 438 luxury restaurant patrons who had visited a luxury restaurant more than 60 days prior to responding to the survey. The initial responses were then examined using exploratory factor analysis (EFA). The EFA results indicated that patrons’ nostalgia is induced by four factors: ‘food’, ‘event’, ‘environment’, and ‘staff’. Subsequent data analysis revealed that all four triggers of personal nostalgia bear a significant impact on inducing patrons’ pleasurable responses. Moreover, it was revealed that hiatus plays a significant moderating role in the relationship between nostalgia and patron's pleasurable responses. In other words, as time elapses following a restaurant visit, nostalgia triggers leads to higher levels of pleasurable responses regarding their experiences in the restaurant. Finally, such pleasurable responses lead to revisit intentions. Based on these findings, possible interpretations and managerial implications are suggested in the latter part of the study.
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The relationship between nostalgia and coping during difficult times was explored in 2 empirical studies. In the first, 80 undergraduates, 60 women and 20 men, completed the Nostalgia Inventory, a measure of nostalgia proneness, the COPE Inventory, a dispositional measure of strategies for coping with stressful events, and the Childhood Survey, a survey of impressions of childhood experiences. Nostalgia proneness correlated with use of adaptive coping, including emotional social support, expressing emotions, turning to religion, and suppressing competing activities, and did not correlate with escapist or avoidance strategies, including denial, behavioral disengagement, and substance abuse. Nostalgia proneness was related positively to favorable emotional and behavioral childhood experiences and did not correlate with adverse experiences. Favorable impressions of childhood correlated positively with adaptive coping strategies and inversely with dysfunctional ones, whereas unfavorable childhood experiences correlated positively with dysfunctional coping. Regression analyses suggested that the relationship between nostalgia proneness and certain coping strategies may be mediated in part by childhood experiences. In a second study, 100 undergraduates, 86 women and 14 men, completed the Nostalgia Inventory, recalled autobiographical memories that illustrated how childhood is either special or similar to their present life, and rated their likely use of strategies in dealing with 2 hypothetical problems. Nostalgia proneness correlated with emotional and instrumental social coping and with the goal-directed strategies of planning, taking action, and positive reframing. Further research is recommended to explore the role of childhood memories in coping and to identify mechanisms that mediate the relationship between nostalgia and coping.
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This research conducts five studies and uses 1185 respondents to develop and validate a six-item, seven-point Likert scale capable of measuring a personal nostalgia response to an advertisement. Traditional forms of scale development and a variety of experimental conditions are undertaken to develop and validate the scale. Statistical techniques include t-tests, correlation, regression, confirmatory factor analysis and a multitrait–multimethod matrix. This research fulfils a significant gap in the current knowledge as the current scales neither distinguish between the distinct types of nostalgia nor measure personal nostalgia as a response to advertising independently of other reactions. This is despite personal nostalgia being considered as a distinct form of nostalgia with a suggested differing influence on a number of important consumer behaviour responses. The scale has implications for researchers undertaking future studies exploring personal nostalgia's influence on consumer behaviour reactions. Nostalgia is also a commonly used and has effective advertising appeal, and this research provides practitioners with a parsimonious instrument to measure the level of personal nostalgia experienced as a result of advertising exposure. This assists in ensuring accuracy when predicting consumer reactions.
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This study examined the content of adults' stereotypes about sex differences in both the experience and the expression of emotions and investigated how these beliefs vary with the age of the target person. Four hundred college students (200 men and 200 women) judged the frequency with which they believed males or females in one of five age groups (infants, preschoolers, elementary schoolers, adolescents, and adults) typically feel and express 25 different emotions. It was found that adults' gender-emotion stereotypes held for both basic and nonbasic emotions and appear to be based on a deficit model of male emotional expressiveness (i.e., a belief that males do not express the emotions they feel). Moreover, these beliefs about sex differences in emotionality refer primarily to adolescents and adults. It was concluded that gender-emotion stereotypes are complex and that there may be an age-of-target bias in the evaluation of others' emotions.
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a b s t r a c t Three studies tested and supported the proposition that nostalgia buffers existential threat. All studies measured nostalgia proneness and manipulated death awareness (mortality salience; MS). In Study 1, at low, but not high, levels of nostalgia proneness, participants in the MS condition responded less pos-itively to an identity threat than participants in the control condition. In Study 2, at low, but not high, levels of nostalgia proneness, participants in the MS condition evidenced greater levels of death anxiety than participants in the control condition. In Study 3, at high, but not low, levels of nostalgia proneness, participants in the MS condition indicated greater feelings of state nostalgia than participants in the con-trol condition.
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a b s t r a c t Two functions of nostalgia are consistently documented in the literature: self-positivity and social con-nectedness. These reflect agency and communion, respectively. Such dimensions are polarized no more than in narcissists, who are high in agency and low in communion. In three studies we tested whether high and low narcissists differ in the content of nostalgic recollections, whether they become nostalgic about different objects, and whether nostalgia serves different functions for them. High (versus low) nar-cissists made more agentic references in their narratives and manifested nostalgic proclivity toward agentic objects. Furthermore, nostalgia served a self-positivity function, but not a social connectedness function, for high (versus low) narcissists. Findings highlight the relevance of personality—narcissism, in particular—for the experience of nostalgia.
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Tested a hypothesis based on F. Davis's (1979) argument that nostalgia helps individuals construct identity continuity. Davis predicted that people whose lives feature discontinuity will be more likely to become nostalgic—in particular, that males will be more nostalgic than females. The present study developed analogous hypotheses for race and geographic and occupational mobility and tested them through a secondary analysis of 4 national sample surveys: The National Senior Citizens Survey (1968), a National Council on Aging study (1974), a mental health survey (1976), and the General Social Survey (1980). Results do not support the discontinuity hypothesis. Nonwhites were more nostalgic than Whites, but otherwise discontinuity did not have the predicted effects. It is concluded that while analysis of survey results cannot provide a conclusive test of Davis's hypothesis, it calls the argument into question. (14 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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Personal nostalgia provides an emotionally engaging means for bonding a donor to a nonprofit organization. Yet, little is known about the relationship between personal nostalgia and charitable giving; this research seeks to fill this gap. A review of the extant literature is integrated with the findings from thirteen focus groups (Study 1) to develop a conceptual model. This model is tested in Studies 2 (using 457 older public television donors) and 3 (with a broader sample of 502 donors) using structural equations modeling. The findings indicate that discontinuity, recovery from grief, and loneliness, along with previous life experiences influence the level of personal nostalgia felt by a donor and associated with a charitable organization. This personal nostalgia provides emotional and familial utility to the donor. The research establishes that the effect of personal nostalgia on the donor's commitment is mediated by the emotional and familial utility that the nostalgia generates.
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According to terror management theory, people turn to meaning-providing structures to cope with the knowledge of inevitable mortality. Recent theory and research suggest that nostalgia is a meaning-providing resource and thus may serve such an existential function. The current research tests and supports this idea. In Experiments 1 and 2, nostalgia proneness was measured and mortality salience manipulated. In Experiment 1, when mortality was salient, the more prone to nostalgia participants were, the more they perceived life to be meaningful. In Experiment 2, when mortality was salient, the more prone to nostalgia participants were, the less death thoughts were accessible. In Experiment 3, nostalgia and mortality salience were manipulated. It was found that nostalgia buffered the effects of mortality salience on death-thought accessibility.
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This research examines the differences in emotional responses of 806 respondents experiencing Personal or Historical Nostalgic reactions to advertising appeals using an experimental research design. Five emotions common to both conditions are revealed and significant changes in intensity of these emotions are examined. As hypothesized, Upbeat / Elation, Loss / Regret, and Warm / Tender related emotions are significantly more intense under the Personal Nostalgic condition compared to the Historical. However, Negative / Irritation and Serenity / Calm related emotions did not significantly alter. This research highlights the need to treat Nostalgia as two separate appeals and provides insight useful to practitioners about consumer’s reactions to each specific appeal. It also suggests the need for future research into Personal and Historical Nostalgia’s effect on various other consumer behavior responses.
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Over the past decade, there has been growing interest in nostalgia and consumption experiences on the part of a small group of consumer researchers. This article offers an insight into the nostalgic experiences gained through consuming history at a contemporary British living museum. The findings of the research focus on two types of nostalgic behavior, which are identified as existential and aesthetic. Differences in the nostalgic reaction are conceptualized in relation to such factors as the quantity and quality of the individual's role repertoire, the experience of alienation in the present, and the extent and quality of social contact. The article aims to offer a perspective that draws upon both existing work in related fields and the findings of the research in order to contextualize nostalgia as an experiential factor behind the consumption of recreated history in the living interactive museum. © 2001 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
For holidays and toys, the decline began after the 18-to 21-year age period, REFERENCES American heritage dictionary The index of leading cultural indicators Nostalgia and discontinuity: a test of the Davis hypothesis
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Yearning for yesterday: a sociology o/ nostalgia BMDP statistical so/tware manual 4M factor analy-sis
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13th generation: abort, retry, ignore, fail? New York: Vintage Books. ROOF, W. C. (1993) A generation of seekers
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HOWE, N., & STRAUSS, B. (1993) 13th generation: abort, retry, ignore, fail? New York: Vintage Books. ROOF, W. C. (1993) A generation of seekers. San Francisco, CA: Harper. STMUSS, W., & HOW, N. (1991) Generations. New York: Quill, William Morrow. The Merriam-Webster dictionary. (1974) New York: Pocket Books. Accepted December 14, 1994
13th generation: abort, retry, ignore, fail? New York: Vintage Books. ROOF, W. C. (1993) A generation of seekers The Merriam-Webster dictionary
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HOWE, N., & STRAUSS, B. (1993) 13th generation: abort, retry, ignore, fail? New York: Vintage Books. ROOF, W. C. (1993) A generation of seekers. San Francisco, CA: Harper. STMUSS, W., & HOW, N. (1991) Generations. New York: Quill, William Morrow. The Merriam-Webster dictionary. (1974) New York: Pocket Books. Accepted December 14, 1994 This article has been cited by:
A blast from the past: The terror management function of nostalgia Romancing the past: Heritage visiting and the nostalgic consumer
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Clay Routledge, Jamie Arndt, Constantine Sedikides, Tim Wildschut. 2008. A blast from the past: The terror management function of nostalgia. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology 44:1, 132-140. [CrossRef] 11. Christina Goulding. 2001. Romancing the past: Heritage visiting and the nostalgic consumer. Psychology and Marketing 18:6, 565-592. [CrossRef]
13th generation: abort, retry, ignore, fail?
  • N Strauss
HOWE, N., & STRAUSS, B. (1993) 13th generation: abort, retry, ignore, fail? New York: Vintage Books.
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STMUSS, W., & HOW, N. (1991) Generations. New York: Quill, William Morrow.
generation: abort, retry, ignore, fail
  • N Howe
  • B Strauss
HOWE, N., & STRAUSS, B. (1993) 13th generation: abort, retry, ignore, fail? New York: Vintage Books.
  • W Stmuss
  • N How
STMUSS, W., & HOW, N. (1991) Generations. New York: Quill, William Morrow. The Merriam-Webster dictionary. (1974) New York: Pocket Books.
BMDP statistical so/tware manual
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DLXON, W. J. (Ed.) (1992) BMDP statistical so/tware manual. Vol. 1 (Release 7). 4M factor analysis. Los Angeles, CA: Univer. of California Press.
A generation of seekers
  • W C Roof
ROOF, W. C. (1993) A generation of seekers. San Francisco, CA: Harper.