Twenty-five-year Followup of the Israeli High-risk Study: Current and Lifetime Psychopathology

ArticleinSchizophrenia Bulletin 21(2):183-92 · February 1995with10 Reads
DOI: 10.1093/schbul/21.2.183 · Source: PubMed
Abstract
Current and lifetime psychopathology was assessed in 50 Israeli children of parents with schizophrenia who were either of kibbutz families and raised collectively with the help of child care workers, or of urban families and raised by their parents. Index subjects were compared with 50 matched control children of healthy parents by means of the Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia-Israel. Subjects were evaluated in adulthood at a mean age of 31 years; schizophrenia was found exclusively among children of ill parents, and no effect of town or kibbutz rearing on risk for schizophrenia was observed. Major affective illness was more common among kibbutz index subjects. Affective symptomatology observed in some index parents was evenly distributed among town and kibbutz parents and was not related to the diagnosis of affective disorders in at-risk children. Current adult functioning was similar between town- and kibbutz-raised subjects (and in general reflected good adjustment); an excess of personality disorders was found among index subjects. The present findings support the concept that both familial and environmental factors operate in the expression of psychopathology.
    • "The Edinburgh High Risk Study has a slightly different approach since it includes children with 2 or more 1 st og 2 nd degree relatives and has done quite long follow-ups. Also the Israeli High Risk Study (IHRS [20, 21] ) and the Jerusalem Infant Development Study (JIDS) [22] deserve mentioning for contributing to the current knowledge. All the studies are pointing in the same direction supporting the neurodevelopmental hypothesis, but no study has to our knowledge been made with all children having the same age, including genetic material in combination with a thorough estimate of environmental factors on a representative cohort. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background: Severe mental illnesses like schizophrenia and bipolar disorder are known to be diseases that to someextent, but not entirely can be understood genetically. The dominating hypothesis is that these disorders should be understood in a neurodevelopmental perspective where genes and environment as well as gene-environment-interactions contribute to the risk of developing the disease. We aim to analyse the influences of genetic risk and environmental factors in a population of 520 7-year-old children with either 0, 1 or 2 parents diagnosed with schizophrenia spectrum psychosis or bipolar disorder on mental health and level of functioning. We hypothesize that a larger proportion of children growing up with an ill parent will display abnormal or delayed development, behavioural problems or psychiatric symptoms compared to the healthy controls. Methods/design: We are establishing a cohort of 5207 year old children and both their parents for a comprehensiveinvestigation with main outcome measures being neurocognition, behaviour, psychopathology and neuromotor development of the child. Parents and children are examined with a comprehensive battery of instruments and are asked for genetic material (saliva or blood) for genetic analyses. The participants arerecruited via Danish registers to ensure representativity. Data from registers concerning social status, birth complications, somatic illnesses and hospitalization are included in the database. Psychological and relational factors like emotional climate in the family, degree of stimulation and support in the home and attachment style are also investigated. Discussion: Data collection started January 1, 2013, and is successfully ongoing. By Aug 2015 424 families areincluded. About 20 % of the invited families decline to participate, equal for all groups.
    Full-text · Article · Oct 2015
    • "However, as opposed to other CPT paradigms, the CPT-IP does not only measure vigilance and sustained attention but also working memory (Nuechterlein, 1983; Nuechterlein and Dawson, 1984; Cornblatt and Erlenmeyer-Kimling, 1985; B.A. Cornblatt et al., 1989a, b), which, unlike sustained attention, has been found to be a critical component of the profile of cognitive impairment in schizophrenia (Cornblatt et al., 1989a; Cornblatt et al., 1997; Cornblatt and Malhotra, 2001). Significantly low CPT-IP performance in schizophrenia patients is not an epiphenomenon of chronicity, illness severity or hospitalization status (Nuechterlein, 1991; Cornblatt and Malhotra, 2001), does not normalize with medication (Cornblatt and Keilp, 1994; Bergman et al., 1995; Cornblatt et al., 1997; Liu et al., 2000), can be detected in at-risk samples before clinical symptoms emerge (Kimling and Cornblatt, 1987a, 1987b, 1992 Ingraham et al., 1995), remain stable throughout development (Cornblatt et al., 1989a; Cornblatt et al., 1999 ), are specific to those at-risk individuals who later develop psychotic spectrum disorders (Cornblatt and Malhotra, 2001 ), seem associated to genetic-risk factors (Chen and Faraone, 2000; Egan et al., 2000) and functional/structural brain abnormalities (Herrera et al., 1991; Cornblatt and Keilp, 1994; Keilp et al., 1997; Salgado-Pineda et al., 2003, 2004). Moreover, CPT-IP performance is poorer in schizophrenia patients compared to depression patients and adolescents at-risk for affective disorders (Cornblatt et al., 1989a; Van Den Bosch et al., 1996; Cornblatt et al., 1997 Cornblatt et al., , 1999). "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Aim To provide normative values for the healthy ethnic Chinese Singaporean population and a large sample of patients with schizophrenia for the Continuous Performance Task-Identical Pairs (CPT-IP). Participants Data were collected on 1011 healthy ethnic Chinese and 654 patients diagnosed with schizophrenia, all between 21 and 55 years of age. Methods Data were stratified by age and gender. The effects of age, gender and education were explored in patients and controls. Performance indices were assessed in their ability to predict group inclusion. Controls’ performance was compared with that reported in a US sample. Results Performance was affected by age, sex, and education, with youth, male sex and higher education providing a performance advantage. Patients’ performance was lower than controls’ by more than 1 standard deviation, with the 3-digit d′ score most significantly discriminating between controls and patients. The effects of socio-demographic factors on performance were in line with those conducted in the US and previously reported in the literature. Conclusions This is the largest norming study ever conducted on the CPT-IP. It will enable investigators and clinicians to select appropriate indices to assess severity of cognitive decline and/or evaluate cognitive remediation therapy outcomes after taking into account age, gender and education factors.
    Full-text · Article · Jul 2014
    • "S.L. Hans et al. parents with nonschizophrenic disorders (Erlenmeyer- Kimling et al. 1995). In one sample, offspring of parents with schizophrenia appeared to be at increased risk for affective disorder at age 25 (Mirsky et al. 1985) but not by age 31 (Ingraham et al. 1995). Typically, these studies rely on diagnostic information from a single proband parent , even though nonproband parents mated with parents with schizophrenia may also be likely to have a mental disorder that could contribute to an offspring's disorder (Quinton et al. 1993). "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Although offspring of parents with schizophrenia are at risk for schizophrenic illness as adults, little is known about their pattern of symptoms as children and adolescents. Lifetime Axis I and II DSM-III-R diagnoses were made for 116 young people (ages 12-22). Forty-one subjects had a parent with schizophrenia, 39 had a parent with a nonschizophrenic mental disorder, and 36 had parents with no mental illness. Schizophrenia spectrum disorders occurred at higher rates among young people with a parent with schizophrenia (17.1%) than in other young people (5.3%), even after controlling for mental disorder in the nonproband parent. Schizophrenia and schizotypal personality disorder occurred exclusively in offspring of parents with schizophrenia. Offspring of parents with schizophrenia were also at increased risk for avoidant personality disorder but not paranoid personality disorder. Although lifetime anxiety disorders were common in all young people regardless of parent diagnosis, current anxiety disorders were more prevalent for the adolescent offspring of parents with schizophrenia. These data strongly suggest familial vulnerability to schizophrenia spectrum disorder that is observable before adulthood, particularly for males.
    Article · Feb 2004
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