Article

Drinking-related problems in the United States: Description and trends, 1984-1990

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Abstract

This study uses two national alcohol surveys to assess rates of drinking problems from 1984 to 1990, to examine any changes in reports of drinking problems within demographic subgroups, and to evaluate the role of alcohol use versus demographic variables in predicting drinking problems in the 1990 survey only. Data were obtained from two national alcohol surveys that utilized household probability samples within the 48 contiguous states in 1984 and 1990. Weights to adjust for design effects and nonresponse were applied to both samples of current drinkers. No significant changes were found for reports of three or more dependence symptoms (6.7% in 1984, 7.6% in 1990) or two or more social consequences (10.9% in 1984, 12.8% in 1990). Significant increases in reports of two or more social consequences were found for younger people, never married individuals and respondents who were not employed. A significant increase in reports for three or more dependence symptoms was also found for the unemployed group. Based on a cross-sectional analysis of the 1990 survey only, alcohol use variables were significant predictors of drinking problems. With the exception of younger age, demographic characteristics did not significantly predict alcohol problems. Although drinking problems are pervasive, they may not be sensitive to immediate changes in alcohol consumption. One explanation may be the changing social climate around drinking to which most drinkers have been, and are continuing to be, exposed.

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... Ïðîâåaeäà ñå ñðåùà ñ áèâøèÿ ïúëíîìîùåí ìèíèñòúð âúâ Âèåíà À. Òî- øåâ, çà äà ñå ðàçáåðå êúäå òî÷íî ñå ñúõðàíÿâà àðõèâà ñëåä íåãîâîòî íàïóñêàíå îò ëåãàöèÿòà è ÷ðåç íîâèÿ ïúëíîìîùåí ìèíèñòúð ä-ð Ä. Äîñêîâ ñå äåéñòâà çà óñïåøíîòî ìó èçïðàùàíå â Àêàäåìèÿ- òà 14 . Îò ïîñëåäíàòà ñðåùà âúâ Âèåíà ñå ðàçáèðà, ÷å ñ ïèñìî îò 3 ôåâðóàðè 1922 ã. íà öàðñêàòà ëå- ãàöèÿ 3-òå ñàíäúêà ñ àðõèâà íà Èðå÷åê ñà èçïðàòå- íè â Ñîôèÿ 15 . ...
... Àòàíàñ Øîïîâ ñúîáùàâà çà íóaeäàòà îò ôèíàíñèðàíå íà ôîíä "Áúëãàðñêà áîëíèöà â Ñî- ëóí" 14 . Êîðåñïîíäåíöèÿòà ñå óâåëè÷àâà â íàâå÷å- ðèåòî íà âîéíàòà -òÿ å ñâúðçàíà ñ íàõëóâàíåòî íà ÷åòè, ïîäãîòîâêàòà íà áúëãàðñêàòà àðìèÿ, ñòàòèñ- òè÷åñêè ñâåäåíèÿ çà îáëàñòèòå, íàä êîèòî ïðåòåí- äèðà Áúëãàðèÿ 15 . Ñúäúðaeàò ñå ïðåïèñè íà ïèñìàòà îò ßíêî Ïååâ -âðåìåííî óïðàâëÿâàù ïîñîëñòâîòî â Öàðèãðàä îòíîñíî åâåíòóàëíîòî óâîëíåíèå íà ñî- ëóíñêèÿ âàëèÿ. ...
... AEåíèòå, ÷èèòî ïàðòíüîðè ñà àëêîõî- ëèöè, ñúùî îïèñâàò ñåáå ñè êàòî ïî-ìàëêî ðåëè- ãèîçíè â íàãëàñèòå ñè è ïîâåäåíèåòî [13]. Ïî äàí- íè íà íàöèîíàëíî èçñëåäâàíå â ÑÀÙ ëèöàòà, êîè- òî ñà îòãîâîðèëè, ÷å ðåëèãèÿòà å âàaeíà ÷àñò îò aeèâîòà èì, èìàò ïî-ðÿäêî ïðîáëåìè ñ àëêîõîëà [15]. Ðåëèãèÿòà â ïîâå÷åòî ñëó÷àè (èçêëþ÷åíèÿ ïðàâÿò ðåëèãèèòå, âêëþ÷âàùè óïîòðåáà íà ïñèõî- àêòèâíè âåùåñòâà êàòî ÷àñò îò ðåëèãèîçíèòå ðèòó- àëè) ñå ÿâÿâà ïðîòåêòèâåí ôàêòîð ñðåùó çàâèñè- ìîñòòà êúì âåùåñòâà è âàaeåí êîìïîíåíò â ïðîöå- ñà íà òåðàïèÿòà è ðåõàáèëèòàöèÿòà íà çàâèñèìèòå. ...
Article
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Substance addiction is an enormous problem worldwide, affecting millions of families. Religiosity is a subject with growing interest for clinicians and researchers because of its role in prevention, therapy and recovery of addicted people. This article presents some basic spiritual factors related to substance use disorders. Empirical research shows that religious people develop significantly rarely substance addiction in comparison with less religious people. Four causal models are present that explain the relationship religiosity-substance use. This article concludes with discussion of the implications of these findings for prevention and treatment programs and research. Key words: religiosity, addiction, psychoactive substance, spiritual factors, occultism
... In the general population, the justification for a discussion on alcohol risk reduction is based on the need to reduce morbidity and mortality associated with excessive alcohol consumption. In France and worldwide, data in the literature indicate a link between heavy alcohol use and the occurrence of traffic accidents, violent behaviour, injuries or problems in the workplace [4,[10][11][12][13][14]. These data indicate the thresholds above which the relationship between consumption and risks can be identified (more than three standard alcoholic drinks (30 g) at one time for road accidents [13]). ...
... In France and worldwide, data in the literature indicate a link between heavy alcohol use and the occurrence of traffic accidents, violent behaviour, injuries or problems in the workplace [4,[10][11][12][13][14]. These data indicate the thresholds above which the relationship between consumption and risks can be identified (more than three standard alcoholic drinks (30 g) at one time for road accidents [13]). Apart from the societal risks, a number of psychological and physical risks have been associated with acute or chronic alcohol consumption. ...
Article
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During many years in France, risk reduction strategies for substance abuse concerned prevention strategies in the general population or interventions near users of illicit substances. In this spirit, the reduction of consumption only concerned opiate addicts. With regard to alcohol, the prevention messages relative to controlled consumption were difficult to transmit because of the importance of this product in the culture of the country. In addition, methods of treatment of alcoholism rested on the dogma of abstinence. Several factors have recently led to an evolution in the treatment of alcohol use disorders integrating the reduction of consumption in strategies. Strategies for reducing consumption should aim for consumption below recommended thresholds (two drinks per day for women, three for the men) or, at least, in that direction. It must also be supported by pharmacotherapy and psychotherapy, which offer possibilities. Failure to manage reduction will allow the goals to be revisited and to reconsider abstinence. Finally this evolution or revolution is a new paradigm carried in particular by a pragmatic approach of the disease and new treatments. The aims of this article are to give elements of comprehension relating to the evolution of the practices in France in prevention and treatment of alcohol use disorders and in particular with regard to the reduction of consumption.
... 1). Underage drinking can have immediate health effects, especially in drinking and driving, and is also a strong predictor of substance abuse later in life (Midanik & Clark, 1995). Social consequences for underage drinkers have risen in recent years despite a reduction in overall drinking (Midanik & Clark, 1995). ...
... Underage drinking can have immediate health effects, especially in drinking and driving, and is also a strong predictor of substance abuse later in life (Midanik & Clark, 1995). Social consequences for underage drinkers have risen in recent years despite a reduction in overall drinking (Midanik & Clark, 1995). Young people who begin drinking before age 15 are also four times more likely to develop an addiction to alcohol than those who did not start drinking until they were of legal age, or 21 years old (Grant & Dawson, 1998). ...
Article
This study examines the efficacy of a video entitled “Underage Drinking: A Roll of the Dice,” and accompanying discussion guide. The video illustrates the civil and criminal consequences of underage drinking. The video and discussion aimed to: (1) increase awareness about the problem of underage drinking; (2) increase viewers' and participants' knowledge and perceptions of the risks and responsibilities and reduce the perceived acceptability of underage drinking; and (3) encourage discussion between youths and adults about underage drinking. The “Roll of the Dice” was evaluated in 19 school and community groups in Hawaii. Groups were randomly assigned to receive follow-up materials or no follow-up materials. Evaluation involved three surveys: pretest, posttest, and follow-up. Three hundred youths and adults responded to the first two surveys, and 220 people completed a third survey. Youths and adults showed increases in short-term knowledge, perceived risk, and perceived responsibility, and a decrease in perceived acceptability of underage drinking after viewing the video. Significant improvement between the pretest and follow-up was observed, although the changes were not entirely maintained at the time of the posttest. The results showed that legal consequences of underage drinking are not common knowledge, and that a well-designed one-time program can make a difference. This video and discussion session provide an inexpensive way to raise adults' and youths' awareness of the laws and penalties, resulting in effects maintained for at least a month after the program. Additional follow-up materials did not enhance retention of changes in knowledge and attitudes.
... This study utilizes data from the 2005 National Alcohol Survey (NAS) funded in the Alcohol Research Group's National Alcohol Research Center by the US National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA). The 2005 National Alcohol Survey (NAS) is part of a 5-yearly national alcohol survey series dating back to the mid 1960s but including standard measures allowing trend studies since 1979 [5,6,[21][22][23][24][25][26][27]. The 2005 NAS provides a unique opportunity to compare current drinkers who did or did not report alcohol use in the last 30 days and to determine who may be missed when a shorter timeframe is used. ...
... With the exception of the health subscale, the internal consistencies of constituent subscales in 1984 and 1995 were good to acceptable for research purposes with alphas ranging from .74 to .87 (health subscale alphas have ranged from .58 to .67) [24,25]. To assess Consequences, for increased sensitivity, rather than employing a dichotomy based on a cut point, we used the quasi-continuous count of problem items (of 15) affirmed as occurring during the prior 12 months; 2) Alcohol Dependence was assessed using a set of 17 items [36] covering seven domains defining DSM-IV alcohol dependence in the Fourth Edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual (DSM-IV) [37]. ...
Article
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This study compares current 12-month drinkers who do not report drinking in the last 30 days with current drinkers who drank in the last 30 days and assesses possible misclassification errors from use of a 30-day consumption measure. Data are from the 2005 US National Alcohol Survey (n = 6919), a national household probability survey. Telephone interviews were used to measure alcohol use and alcohol-related problems. This study compared 1300 current drinkers who did not drink in the last 30 days with 2956 current drinkers who drank in the last 30 days. Volume was measured by quantity/frequency scales (12-month and 30-day) and a graduated frequency scale (12-month). Both groups were compared by demographic, alcohol volume, days of five or more drinks, social consequences and dependence measures. Results indicate a significantly lower prevalence rate of current drinking for 30-day measures—47.3% (45.8%, 48.8%) versus 67.3% (66.0%, 68.7%) with 12-month measures. Further, 385 non-30-day drinkers reported 12-month drinking frequencies of once a month or more often, suggesting possible inconsistent reporting of their alcohol use. When this group of ‘inconsistent’ respondents is compared with the 915 non-30-day current drinkers who reported less than monthly drinking, they reported significantly higher yearly volume, days of five or more drinks, mean social consequences and proportion reporting alcohol dependence. In population surveys assessing alcohol use, asking about the previous 12 months rather than the past 30 days provides higher estimates of current use, including more days of heavy episodic use.
... In the general population, the justification for a discussion on alcohol risk reduction is based on the need to reduce morbidity and mortality associated with excessive alcohol consumption. In France and worldwide, data in the literature indicate a link between heavy alcohol use and the occurrence of traffic accidents, violent behaviour, injuries or problems in the workplace [4,[10][11][12][13][14]. These data indicate the thresholds above which the relationship between consumption and risks can be identified (more than three standard alcoholic drinks (30 g) at one time for road accidents [13]). ...
... In France and worldwide, data in the literature indicate a link between heavy alcohol use and the occurrence of traffic accidents, violent behaviour, injuries or problems in the workplace [4,[10][11][12][13][14]. These data indicate the thresholds above which the relationship between consumption and risks can be identified (more than three standard alcoholic drinks (30 g) at one time for road accidents [13]). Apart from the societal risks, a number of psychological and physical risks have been associated with acute or chronic alcohol consumption. ...
Article
Full-text available
During many years in France, risk reduction strategies for substance abuse concerned prevention strategies in the general population or interventions near users of illicit substances. In this spirit, the reduction of consumption only concerned opiate addicts. With regard to alcohol, the prevention messages relative to controlled consumption were difficult to transmit because of the importance of this product in the culture of the country. In addition, methods of treatment of alcoholism rested on the dogma of abstinence. Several factors have recently led to an evolution in the treatment of alcohol use disorders integrating the reduction of consumption in strategies. Strategies for reducing consumption should aim for consumption below recommended thresholds (two drinks per day for women, three for the men) or, at least, in that direction. It must also be supported by pharmacotherapy and psychotherapy, which offer possibilities. Failure to manage reduction will allow the goals to be revisited and to reconsider abstinence. Finally this evolution or revolution is a new paradigm carried in particular by a pragmatic approach of the disease and new treatments. The aims of this article are to give elements of comprehension relating to the evolution of the practices in France in prevention and treatment of alcohol use disorders and in particular with regard to the reduction of consumption.
... Those early findings may have been more closely related to research design than actual differences between lesbians and heterosexual women. Alternatively, as Bloomfield suggested, more recent findings may be a function of decreased use of substances by lesbians, as lesbians conform to the trend toward decreasing consumption found in the general population (Midanik & Clark, 1995). This study cannot answer questions about age-related use of alcohol or drugs or associated problems among clinical populations as the sample is too small. ...
... (l 989b ), Midanik and Clark (1995) and Hall (1993) have all pointed out the complexity of the association between consumption patterns and the experience of alcohol or drug problems. McKirnan and Peterson ( 1989b) found that lesbians and gay men were unlikely to associate conflict related to their sexual orientation with their alcohol or drug use patterns. ...
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This exploratory study compared alcohol and drug use experiences of 19 lesbian/bisexual women and 19 heterosexual women matched according to age, race and socio-economic status. Participants were drawn from a larger study on the relationship between alcohol and family violence among women. The only significant difference found was a higher frequency of use of marijuana by lesbian and bisexual women (t = -0.70, p < .001). Although lesbian and bisexual women did report problems slightly more often than heterosexual women, the differences were not significant. This contradicts earlier reports of more serious drug and alcohol problems among lesbians.
... consumption was 00.0, while the percentage reporting three or more dependence symptoms was 6.6. However, the total number of Jews within a sample of 748 was only 19. 8 On the other hand, some studies claim that this condition is not as rare as had been thought. Blume, Dropkin and Sokolow9 note that publications dating back to the 1960s and 1970s document the existence of alcoholism in Jews. ...
Article
In order to learn more about chemically dependent Jew -ish people, and to help dispel the misinformation about them, the au -thors surveyed individuals who were part of the JACS database.Data from 379 questionnaires were analyzed and compared with the findings of two general population surveys of Jews and a previous study of Jewish alcoholics.Seventy-one percent of respondents reported dependence on more than one substance. Alcohol was found to be the most prevalent drug of both primary (54.7%) and secondary (24.5%) dependence. The male:female ratios for all chemical dependents (1.08:1) and alcohol de -pendents (1:1.006) were lower than observed in national studies of American alcoholic populations, as was also found in a previous study of Jewish alcoholics. The hypotheses that alcoholic Jews suffer from lack of education, poor income, alienation or loss of religious conviction failed to be supported by the JACS study.Alcohol is the drug of choice for chemically dependent Jews. The JACS survey does not support previous ideas about causes of Jewish alcoholism. The relatively large proportion of women found deserves further study.
... Alcohol and drug use-related problems are associated with a current lack of religious affiliation and involvement (Larson and Wilson, 1980; Hilton, 1991). A national study in the United States concluded that persons for whom religion was important were less likely to have drinking problems (Midanik and Clark, 1995). As noted in a study of Gorsuch, all religious groups have fewer alcohol misusers than are found in nonreligious groups, and religious groups with more antialcohol consumption norms produce fewer misusers (Gorsuch, 1995). ...
... In line with average lower rates of use by African Americans compared to European Americans, a few studies have shown lower lifetime rates of alcohol dependence among African Americans compared to European Americans (Anthony, Warner, & Kessler, 1994;Gilman et al., 2008;Schmidt, Greenfield, & Bond, 2007). However, there have also been reports of no differences in alcohol dependence between the groups (Caetano, Baruah, & Chartier, 2011;Grant et al., 2004;Kandel, Chen, Warner, Kessler, & Grant, 1997) and most studies have found higher rates of dependence symptoms (Caetano, 1997;Caetano & Clark, 1998b;Caetano & Kaskutas, 1995;Herd, 1994a;Midanik & Clark, 1995;Mulia et al., 2009). The reason for discrepancies in comparative levels of alcohol dependence rates are unclear, and do not appear to be due to the quality of the studies, given that most are drawn from nationally representative samples. ...
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Researchers have found that, compared to European Americans, African Americans report later initiation of drinking, lower rates of use, and lower levels of use across almost all age groups. Nevertheless, African Americans also have higher levels of alcohol problems than European Americans. After reviewing current data regarding these trends, we provide a theory to understand this apparent paradox as well as to understand variability in risk among African Americans. Certain factors appear to operate as both protective factors against heavy use and risk factors for negative consequences from use. For example, African American culture is characterized by norms against heavy alcohol use or intoxication, which protects against heavy use but also provides within-group social disapproval when use does occur. African Americans are more likely to encounter legal problems from drinking than European Americans, even at the same levels of consumption, perhaps thus resulting in reduced consumption but more problems from consumption. There appears to be one particular group of African Americans, low-income African American men, who are at the highest risk for alcoholism and related problems. We theorize that this effect is due to the complex interaction of residential discrimination, racism, age of drinking, and lack of available standard life reinforcers (e.g., stable employment and financial stability). Further empirical research will be needed to test our theories and otherwise move this important field forward. A focus on within-group variation in drinking patterns and problems is necessary. We suggest several new avenues of inquiry. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved).
... Social consequences of drinking include problems related to interpersonal and occupational functioning, involvement in accidents, drunk driving, and police attention. Dependence symptoms or 'symptomatic drinking' include behaviors such as skipping meals, morning drinking, loss of control/difficulty in stopping or cutting down, blackouts, guilt/remorse about drinking, withdrawal, and physiological tolerance (Midanik and Clark, 1995;Wilsnack et al., 2000). Regardless of category of problem, rates will likely differ depending on whether the data was based on self-report or collateral sources. ...
Article
Full-text available
This study (1) examined patterns of correlations between two alcohol consumption measures and 2 drinking-related problem domains in women from 5 different countries; and (2) tested the hypothesis that the correlations between women's alcohol consumption and social criticism of their drinking would be higher in countries where women's drinking is less accepted or tolerated. Data were from 6 general population studies in Australia, the Czech Republic, the Netherlands, Sweden, and the United States. Controlling for age, correlations between frequency and social criticism were slightly higher than correlations between quantity and social criticism in all countries except the United States and Sweden. Correlations between quantity and dependence symptoms were higher than that between frequency and dependence symptoms in all countries. Correlations between consumption and social criticism were not systematically higher in countries where women's drinking was less common. Results indicate that a social deviance model applied to women's drinking problems may not be useful.
... We have some information from population survey data that, in a period of falling consumption such as in the U.S. after 1981, rates of informal responses by friends and family to drinking they perceived as problematic rose (Room et al. 1991), suggesting that the threshold fell for behaviour that was considered subject to sanction. Supporting this hypothesis, rates of reported social problems from drinking rose in the same period, while consumption levels were falling (Midanik and Clark 1995). ...
Article
The term ‘saturation’ has often been used when alcohol consumption in a region stays the same despite there having been reason to expect an increase, e.g. after a decrease of taxation. However, the term ‘saturation’ has been used only descriptively, and in different ways. We therefore propose a wider-ranging framework for understanding and explaining trends in alcohol consumption, illustrating the operation of the factors with historical or contemporary examples. In the framework, we include not only taxes and other alcohol controls, but also situational and other norms on drinking and intoxication, competing responsibilities and attractions that demand or favour sobriety, structural changes, external influences and the range of societal or cultural responses to alcohol problems.
... Alcohol and drug use-related problems are associated with a current lack of religious affiliation and involvement (Larson and Wilson, 1980;Hilton, 1991). A national study in the United States concluded that persons for whom religion was important were less likely to have drinking problems (Midanik and Clark, 1995). As noted in a study of Gorsuch, all religious groups have fewer alcohol misusers than are found in nonreligious groups, and religious groups with more antialcohol consumption norms produce fewer misusers (Gorsuch, 1995). ...
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Spirituality is a topic of increasing interest to clinicians and researchers interested in addiction because its perceived role in the promotion of meaningfulness in the recovery from addiction. Our review of the literature evaluates different domains relative to the relation between addiction, religion, and psychiatric treatment. Spirituality as a protective or precipitating factor for substance use and as a key component of recovery will be debated. Illustrations of its potential and limitations as a component of treatment will be presented. Types of investigation and integration of this dimension in an eventual therapeutic process strictly respecting the needs and specificities of each one will be discussed.
... Consequences of drinking. These included self-reported problems with personal relationships, work, the police, physical health and psychological health or mental wellbeing related to alcohol, as used in U.S. general population surveys (Caetano, 1997;Midanik and Clark, 1995). ...
Article
To examine the impact of usual drinking patterns and related problems on the acute use of alcohol in injury. The impact of quantity and frequency of drinking, alcohol problems and dependence symptoms on admission to the emergency room (ER) for an alcohol-related injury (based, separately, on a positive blood alcohol concentration [BAC] and self-reported drinking within 6 hours prior to injury), compared with a nonalcohol related injury, was examined using meta-analysis, across 15 ER studies covering seven countries. Pooled effect size for consuming five or more drinks on an occasion at least monthly was significant but not homogeneous, with odds ratios (ORs) of 4.16 for BAC and 3.92 for self-report. Frequency of drinking among nonheavy drinkers was found to have the largest effect size (5.93 for BAC and 4.93 for self-report). Heavy drinking, controlling for frequency, was also significant (ORs of 2.08 for BAC and 1.86 for self-report), but effect size was homogeneous only for self-report. Effect sizes for consequences of drinking and dependence symptoms were also significant and homogeneous, with ORs of 4.29 and 3.55, respectively, for BAC, and 3.84 and 3.94, respectively, for self-report. In meta-regression analysis, among contextual variables the level to which alcohol use is stigmatized in the culture was most consistently predictive of heavy-drinking effect size on an alcohol-related injury, with larger effect sizes found in those studies reporting a lower level of stigmatization. Whereas quantity and frequency of drinking were both found to be highly predictive of an alcohol-related injury, sociocultural variables may affect observed associations of heavy drinking with an alcohol-related injury.
... To reduce skewness, a dichotomous variable was created indicating drunkenness on a monthly or more frequent basis (yes/no). Negative drinking consequences were assessed with a 15-item scale constructed from standard items widely used in prior national studies, and dichotomized to indicate a standard 2+ criterion Midanik and Clark, 1995). The 15 items capture five different kinds of problems that the respondent experienced and attributed to his/her drinking, including arguments or fights, injuries or accidents, workplace or job-related problems, trouble with the law, and health problems. ...
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There is some evidence that individual-level job loss can lead to greater alcohol consumption and problems. While other forms of economic loss were common during the recent recession, these are rarely investigated in studies of macroeconomic decline. This study examined the relationship between types of economic loss in the 2008 to 2009 recession and alcohol outcomes, and whether this varied by gender and age. Data are from the 2009 to 2010 U.S. National Alcohol Survey (N = 5,382). We used multivariable regression to estimate associations between economic loss and alcohol volume, monthly drunkenness, negative drinking consequences, and alcohol dependence in the overall sample and within gender and age groups (18 to 29, 30 to 49, 50+), controlling for demographic and alcohol history covariates. In the overall sample, severe economic loss (job or housing loss) was positively associated with negative drinking consequences, alcohol dependence, and (marginally) drunkenness, whereas moderate loss (loss of retirement savings, reduced work hours/wages, or trouble paying the rent/mortgage) was unassociated with alcohol outcomes. Important gender and age differences were observed. Women reporting retirement loss, reduced hours/wages, and job loss consumed 41 to 70% more alcohol than women unaffected by the recession, and men who experienced job loss and housing problems had increased risk for drunkenness, drinking consequences, and dependence. Middle-aged Americans affected by partial or complete job loss and housing problems also had greater risk of drunkenness and alcohol-related problems, and older adults who lost retirement savings drank 42% more alcohol than their peers unaffected by the recession. With the exception of negative drinking consequences, young adult alcohol outcomes were largely unrelated to recessionary loss. This study highlights the adverse effects of recession-induced economic losses on alcohol use and problems in demographic subgroups. As men and middle-aged Americans were at risk for multiple, adverse alcohol outcomes, these groups may warrant special alcohol screening and intervention efforts in future macroeconomic crises.
... While the majority of studies addressing religiosity and substance use have been conducted among adolescents, our study shows that an inverse relationship is also significant among Hispanic adults. Previous studies among adolescents have found religiosity to be associated with lower use of alcohol and drugs [25][26][27][28][29], though none were conducted among Hispanic adults. Previous studies have also noted that respondents reporting lack of sense of meaning in life were more likely to also report alcohol and drug abuse [30,31]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Objective: The influence of religion, acculturation, and incarceration on substance abuse has been studied, though predominantly among adolescents. Little research exists on how such factors influence substance use among Hispanic adults. The objective of this study was to assess key determinants of substance use among Hispanic adults. Methods: Public access 2012 National Survey on Drug Use and Health was utilized. Univariate and multivariable logistic regression analyses were conducted while accounting for complex survey design to obtain population-weighted estimates. Receiver operator curve analysis was used to evaluate the relative contribution of each variable. Results: Importance of religious influence in life and Spanish language interview were associated with lower odds of substance use, while history of incarceration increased the likelihood of substance use among Hispanic adults. Other factors associated with lower odds were increasing age, being female, and currently married. Other factors associated with increased odds were high school graduate and some college in addition to living above the 200% federal poverty level. Discussion: Results from this study add to the limited body of the literature on determinants of substance use among Hispanic adults. Health education measures should target acculturated Hispanic adults and those with incarceration history to reduce substance use.
... The border's close proximity to a country with distinct drinking norms may also impact patterns of drinking (Caetano, 1987). Factors such as age and drinking norms are also known to predict alcohol problems independently of alcohol consumption patterns Mäkelä, 1978;Midanik and Clark, 1995). There is substantial population contact across the U.S. and Mexico. ...
Article
Background: This paper examines the prevalence, the symptom profile, and the drinking and sociodemographic predictors of current (past 12 months) DSM-IV alcohol abuse and dependence among Mexican Americans living along the U.S.-Mexico border and those living in metropolitan areas away from the border. Methods: Respondents in the non-border areas (primarily Houston and Los Angeles) constitute a multistage probability sample (N = 1,288) of these areas, interviewed as part of the 2006 Hispanic Americans Baseline Alcohol Survey (HABLAS). Respondents in the border area (N = 1,307) constitute a household probability sample of Mexican Americans living on the border. In both surveys, data were collected during computer-assisted interviews conducted in respondents' homes. The HABLAS and the border sample response rates were 76 and 67%, respectively. Results: Although bivariate analyses revealed no overall differences between border and non-border locations, (negative) age trends were more pronounced on the border for male abuse and for dependence among both genders. Among females aged 18 to 29, border residence was linked to significantly higher rates of dependence. In multivariable analyses, the prevalence of male abuse declined more rapidly with age on the border than off the border. Other unique predictors of male abuse were Jewish/other religion and weekly volume of alcohol consumption. Being married or out of the workforce, attaining a higher education, having no religious preference, and weekly volume uniquely predicted female dependence. Age and weekly volume uniquely predicted male dependence. Conclusions: The prevalence of alcohol use disorders among Mexican Americans on and off the U.S.-Mexico border largely mirrors previously documented patterns of alcohol consumption in these areas. For young Mexican American women in particular, border residence is linked to heightened vulnerability to alcohol dependence.
... Interestingly, the prevalence of almost all of the alcoholrelated problem items, taken mainly from the AUDIT questionnaire, has risen over our study period. Similar results were found for the problem items of the CAGE questionnaire during a period of decreasing consumption in regions of France and Switzerland between the 1990s and mid-2000s (Etter & Gmel, 2011;Messiah et al., 2008) and for alcohol problems in general in the early 1980s in the US (Midanik & Clark, 1995). All of these trends in survey-reported consumption and problems are in line with the observations made previously regarding the ''long waves of alcohol consumption'' (Mäkelä et al., 1981) first proposed by Mäkelä et al. (1981) with regard to their study of eight former temperance societies, ''The International Study of Alcohol Control Experiences''. ...
Article
Denmark, along with other industrialised nations, has experienced recent declines in alcohol consumption and other changes to its drinking culture. The point of departure for this study stems from growing evidence of changes in the Danish drinking culture. We have thus proposed a model to describe a society’s drinking culture and have then applied it to the Danish case. We examine trends for several components of the model and focus roughly on a 10-year period from 2003 to 2013. The components include longitudinal survey data on consumption and alcohol‐related harm, registry data on morbidity and mortality, alcohol taxes and prices, physical availability, consumer purchasing power, demographic and structural changes, drinking norms and attitudes, alcohol advertising, as well as health education and promotion efforts. Although unable to conduct formal tests of drinking culture change, a review of our assembled data points in the direction of declining or stagnating consumption and increasing restrictiveness in attitudes, policies and regulations, thus suggesting the start of a shift in drinking practises and perceptions in Denmark. Such changes may also apply to other industrialised countries. Future research should examine longer periods, refine the model and its components, and if possible, conduct formal tests of change.
... Children, adolescents and elderly people are more vulnerable to alcohol-related harm from a given volume of alcohol than other age groups (Hilton, 1987;Midanik and Clark, 1995;Mäkelä and Mustonen, 2000;WHO, 2015). Also, the early initiation of alcohol use (before 14 years of age) is a predictor of impaired health status because it is associated with an increased risk of alcohol addiction and abuse later on in life (Grant and Dawson, 1997;Grant, 1998;DeWit et al., 2000;Kraus et al., 2000;Sartor et al., 2007). ...
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Alcohol consumption in Italy has shown a change in the model of consumption: from a model defined as Mediterranean to a model comparable to that of northern European countries. With regard to teenagers' drinking habits in particular, it is possible to see a new pattern of consumption which is a far cry from that of their peers of past decades. The consumption is concentrated on one occasion and is characterized by the simultaneous ingestion of different alcoholic beverages, often spirits, far from meals. It has also changed the purpose of alcohol drinking from being one of conviviality to the loss of self-control. To study this phenomenon a representative sample of 500 adolescents from the town of Velletri (Rome), was investigated. 76.8% of the sample declared the consumption of alcoholic beverages; 67.1% declared beer, 55.1% wine and 54.1% spirit consumption. The greater alcohol consumption occurs during the weekend, but a considerable number of students also declared that they consumed wine at mealtimes (38.3%). The average age of the first exposure to alcohol consumption is very low: from 10 to 15 and in general the first drunkenness episode occurs at 14. This sample confirms the magnitude of the problem and calls for a further analysis to better understand the phenomenon.
... "Had times when you ended up drinking more, or longer, than you intended") with severity levels defined as mild (endorsement of 2-3 symptoms), moderate (endorsement of 4-5 symptoms), or severe (endorsement of 6+ symptoms). When examining the health consequences of AUD, scholars often discuss alcohol related problems, an umbrella term used to describe social consequences in five problem areas: legal/accidents, health, work, fights, and relationship problems (Midanik & Clark, 1995). ...
Article
We carried out a constructivist grounded theory-based qualitative exploration on the relations between intersectional minority stress and drinking among a community sample of 20 Latinx and African American sexual minority, gender expansive women. Our overarching goal was to illuminate the nuanced ways in which participants’ lived experiences; in relation to race and ethnicity, gender identity, and sexual orientation, intersected to create complex forms of minority stress rarely captured in the research literature. Semi-structured interviews and lifeline methodology were employed to assess participants’ major life stressors and drinking history; particularly, when and how drinking became a regular part of participants’ lives. Our findings indicated that drinking was primarily connected to same-sex romantic partnerships, cultural and familial ties to alcohol, social norms within queer spaces, familial rejection and loss of racial and ethnic community, and chronic stress. Recommendations for research, practice, advocacy, education, and training are discussed.
... According to the World Health Organization, in 2012, approximately 3.3 million deaths globally, 139 million DALYs (disability-adjusted life years), and 5% of the global burden of disease and injury were attributable to alcohol consumption (World Health Organization (WHO), 2014). Moreover, it is known that children, adolescents and elderly people are typically more vulnerable to the negative effects of excessive alcohol consumption than other age groups (Hilton, 1987;Mäkelä and Mustonen, 2000;Midanik and Clark, 1995). Among young people, this vulnerability is related to binge drinking (BD), when a great amount of alcohol is consumed during short periods of time, mainly on weekends (Anderson, 2014;Calafat Far, 2007;Cortés et al., 2007;US Surgeon General, 2007). ...
Article
Aim: To present a comparison between the effects on health due to a reduction in binge drinking (BD) and health-related quality of life (HRQoL), as a result of ALERTA ALCOHOL, an intervention aimed at reducing BD in Spanish adolescents. Methods: A two-arm cluster randomized controlled trial was conducted with an intervention and a control group, randomized at the school level, following individuals over four months. The study population consisted of Andalusian adolescents aged 15 to 19 years who were enrolled in urban public high schools (n = 1247). Participants were assigned randomly to receive the intervention. The main outcomes studied were the number of occasions of BD in the last 30 days, which was directly obtained from the answers given by the adolescents, and HRQoL measured with the EQ-5D-5 L questionnaire. The model of estimation was the generalized estimating equations (GEE) approach. Results: The program showed a BD reduction at the 4-month follow-up, although it was not shown to significantly increase the HRQoL in adolescents who reduced the number of occasions of BD and had received the intervention. However, it was shown that those who would predictably reduce the number of occasions of BD controlled by several sociodemographic variables perceived a higher HRQoL, as did those who had a greater adherence to the program. Conclusions: Higher adherence to a web-based computer-tailored intervention to prevent BD in adolescents has a positive effect on decreasing the number of occasions of BD in adolescents as well as on increasing participants' HRQoL, although this second effect is very small, which could be due to the short follow-up time. This fact is quite important and should be assessed extensively to corroborate the results and translate into health policy.
... Overall, these findings are consistent with other non-E.U. countries reporting increases in alcohol use, alcohol use disorders, and alcohol-related morbidity and mortality, associated with unemployment within a substantial part of the population [14,22,[31][32][33]. ...
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Background: From 2008 on, a severe economic crisis (EC) has characterized the European Union (E.U.). However, changes in substance use behavioral patterns as a result of the economic crisis in Europe, have been poorly reflected upon, and underlying mechanisms remain to be identified; Methods: In this review we explore and systematize the available data on the effect of the 2008 economic crisis on patterns of substance use and related disorders, within the E.U. countries; Results: The results show that effects of the recession need to be differentiated. A number of studies point to reductions in population’s overall substance use. In contrast, an increase in harmful use and negative effects is found within specific subgroups within the society. Risk factors include job-loss and long-term unemployment, and pre-existing vulnerabilities. Finally, our findings point to differences between types of substances in their response on economic crisis periods; Conclusions: the effects of the 2008 economic crisis on substance use patterns within countries of the European Union are two-sided. Next to a reduction in a population’s overall substance use, a number of vulnerable subgroups experience serious negative effects. These groups are in need of specific attention and support, given that there is a real risk that they will continue to suffer negative health effects long after the economic downfall has formally been ended.
... Alcohol and drug use-related problems are associated with a current lack of religious affiliation and involvement (Larson and Wilson, 1980;Hilton, 1991). A national study in the United States concluded that persons for whom religion was important were less likely to have drinking problems (Midanik and Clark, 1995). As noted in a study of Gorsuch, all religious groups have fewer alcohol misusers than are found in nonreligious groups, and religious groups with more antialcohol consumption norms produce fewer misusers (Gorsuch, 1995). ...
Article
Spirituality is a topic of increasing interest to clinicians and researchers interested in addiction because its perceived role in the promotion of meaningfulness in the recovery from addiction. Our review of the literature evaluates different domains relative to the relation between addiction, religion, and psychiatric treatment. Spirituality as a protective or precipitating factor for substance use and as a key component of recovery will be debated. Illustrations of its potential and limitations as a component of treatment will be presented. Types of investigation and integration of this dimension in an eventual therapeutic process strictly respecting the needs and specificities of each one will be discussed.
... Existen modelos teóricos que explican la secuencia de procesos relacionados con el beber temprano o underage drinking 2 y los posibles factores de riesgo y/o protectores (específicos o inespecíficos) para iniciar este consumo en etapas más precoces 3,4 . La evidencia sostiene que los niños y adolescentes son más vulnerables a los efectos nocivos del alcohol de un determinado volumen de alcohol que otros grupos de edad [5][6][7] . La edad de inicio de consumo se relaciona directamente con un deterioro del estado de salud a futuro, a expensas de mayor riesgo de dependencia y abuso de alcohol [8][9][10][11][12] , de otros problemas de salud mental 13 , de accidentes vehiculares 14,15 y de otras lesiones no intencionales 14,16 . ...
Article
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Alcohol consumption is harmful to minors. One of the most widely accep-ted measures for the prevention of harm associated with alcohol consumption for young people is to establish a minimum legal drinking age. This document presents the evidence available on this policy, offers a condensed analysis of its characteristics in the United States of America, describes current consumption patterns of Chilean youth, and proposes concrete solutions to be implemented.
... [1] Children, adolescents, and elderly people are typically more vulnerable to alcohol-related harm from a given quantity of alcohol than other age groups. [2][3][4] Over the years, consumption of alcohol has increased worldwide, and in India, the per capita consumption of alcohol has increased by a whopping 55% during the period of 1992-2012. [5] Original Article Early onset of alcohol use and alcohol use disorder is associated with a family history of alcohol use disorder, [6] aggression and problems with law, [7] social role maladaptation and loss of behavioral control when drinking, [8] childhood criminality, [9] and tobacco use, [10,11] thus substantiating the claim that this may be a distinctive subtype of alcoholism. ...
Article
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Background: Declining age at onset of alcohol consumption over years has been one of the alarming findings in the epidemiology of alcoholism. The study was done to examine whether there was a decline in the age at onset of alcohol use and use disorder in subjects categorized as birth cohorts over the last 60 years seeking de-addiction services from a teaching hospital. Materials and methods: A time-trend study, based on data collected from records, was done among 700 randomly selected subjects seeking de-addiction services. The study was done in a Government Medical College. Besides birth year, family history of alcohol use disorder and psychiatric comorbidity were the main independent variables studied. Trend was tested by linear regression. Results: There was a significant linear decline in the age at onset of alcohol use and use disorder. The mean age at onset of alcohol use and alcohol use disorder declined from 24 to 17 years and 46 to 21 years, respectively, from the pre-1950 birth cohort to the post-1985 birth cohort. Surprisingly, there was a plateau for mean age at onset of alcohol use during 1960s. The trend was significant even after adjusting for variables related to age at onset of alcohol consumption. Conclusions: The trend of decreasing age at onset of alcohol use and alcohol use disorder over time has policy implications. Further studies are needed for exploring mediating or causal factors for the decline in the age at onset of alcohol use and use disorder.
... The first set asked respondents whether their own drinking had a negative effect in the last 12 months on (1) their work, schoolwork or employment opportunities, (2) financial situation, (3) marriage or partnership or relationship, and (4) family members, as well as (5) whether they had become injured as a result of their drinking. This group of problems represents a standard set of social consequences initially used in U.S. survey research over the last several decades [22][23][24] and often in international alcohol survey research. 18,25,26 Using Canadian survey data, Rehm et al. 26 tested the items and found them to have high internal consistency and homogeneity. ...
Article
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Objective: To examine how sociodemographic factors and alcohol consumption are related to a four-way typology of causing harm to others and/or being harmed by others' and one's own drinking. Data and methods: Data from the 2011 Danish national survey (n = 2,569) were analyzed with multi nomial logistic regression. Results: Younger age and heavy drinking were significant correlates of both causing harm and being harmed. Women and better educated respondents were more likely to report negative effects on relationship and family from another's drinking. Better educated respondents had higher risks for work, financial, or injury harms from another's drinking. Mean alcohol consumption and risky single occasion drinking were related to both causing harm and being harmed from one's own drinking. Conclusions: Drinking variables were the strongest correlates of causing harm and being harmed. Efforts to reduce risky drinking may also help reduce exposures to collateral harm.
... Problem drinking was measure by reporting at least one out of 15 consequence items during the last year. The consequence scale covered areas involving jobworkplace problems (3 items), trouble with the law (3 items), aggression (4 items), social and health problems (3 items) and accidents (2 items), and has been widely used in earlier National Alcohol Surveys (Midanik and Greenfield, 2000;Midanik and Clark, 1995). ...
Article
Background: Substance use problems are overrepresented in probability samples of patients in primary care settings including the emergency room (ER) compared to the general population. While large proportions of those with alcohol or drug use disorders are most likely to obtain services for these problems outside the mental health or substance abuse treatment system, accounting, in part, for this overrepresentation, little is known about the association of alcohol misuse or drug use with health services utilization in the general population. Methods: The prevalence and predictive value of alcohol misuse and drug use on ER and primary care use was analyzed on 6919 respondents from the 2005 National Alcohol Survey (NAS). Results: Among those reporting an ER visit during the last year, 24% were positive for risky drinking (14+ drinks weekly for men and 7+ for females and/or 5+/4+ in a day in the last 12 months), 8% for problem drinking, 3% for alcohol dependence, and 7% for illicit drug use greater than monthly. Figures for primary care users were, respectively: 24%, 5%, 3%, and 3%. ER users were more likely to be positive for problem drinking and greater than monthly illicit drug use compared to non-ER users, while no significant differences were found in substance use for users and non-users of primary care. In logistic regression controlling for gender, age, and health insurance, problem drinkers were twice as likely as non-problem drinkers (Odds ratio, OR=1.99) (p<0.01), and those reporting greater than monthly drug use were almost twice as likely as those using drugs less frequently or not at all (OR=1.92; p=0.01) to report ER use, while those reporting alcohol dependence were 1.63 times more likely to report primary care use (p<0.05). Conclusion: These data support the belief that both the ER and other primary care settings are important sites for identifying those with substance use problems and for initiating a brief intervention.
... Alcohol-related problems in Sample 1 were measured using the 13item dependence symptoms subscale created by the Alcohol Research Group for use with the general population (Midanik & Clark, 1995). Participants indicated either 1 (yes) or 0 (no) if any of the items had occurred after drinking. ...
Article
Men's alcohol consumption and casual sexual behavior peak in early adulthood. Although there is a strong positive association between these behaviors, most studies have utilized a between-subjects approach rather than a person-centered approach to assess this relationship. A person-centered approach allows for an examination of subgroups of drinkers that may differ in their casual sexual behaviors. To address this gap, secondary data analyses were conducted with two independent samples totaling 906 men between the ages of 18 and 29 from the Midwestern United States. In both studies, participants reported their alcohol expectancies and consumption, sexual behaviors, and sexual attitudes. Multiple group latent profile similarity analyses were conducted using the alcohol-related variables. Four similar profiles emerged in both samples; thus, the data were combined. Casual sex-related variables were then examined in relation to the profiles. The two lighter drinking groups differed from one another in their alcohol consumption and sexual attitudes; however, they did not differ in their alcohol expectancies or number of sex partners. The two heavier drinking groups differed from one another in their liquid courage expectancies, alcohol consumption, one-time-only partners, and sexual attitudes; however, they did not differ from each other in their sex-drive expectancies or lifetime partners. Person-centered approaches can be used to develop more tailored interventions, particularly for those at greater risk for the negative health consequences of engaging in sexual behavior with multiple one-time-only partners.
Article
This chapter examines the clinical research and programmatic interventions addressing the influence of religiousness and spirituality on substance use, abuse, and recovery. Harmful substance use targeted in this chapter includes alcohol, drugs of abuse, and tobacco. Following our review and summary of what is known about the relationship between spiritual and religious factors and problematic substance use, abuse/dependence, and recovery, we provide recommendations for future intervention and clinical/research investigation in this growing field. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
This study examines the potential for a negative psychological impact as a result of childhood exposure to family violence. Psychopathological outcomes in adulthood, such as alcohol problems and depression, are examined in light of reports of childhood physical abuse and exposure to parental violence. A national household probability sample of over 3,000 respondents were asked whether they had, as children, observed violence or threats of violence between their parents or whether they had directly experienced violence from one or both parents. Observed threats of violence was the most potent predictor of depression and current heavy drinking in women. Among men, observed threats of violence predicted current heavy drinking, and alcohol dependence symptoms; personal experience of violence predicted depression. Impulsivity was a main effect predictor of virtually all outcome variables for men and women, but typically did not interact with experience or observation of violence. Findings suggest that individuals who remember childhood experiences of indirect violence from parental conflicts have higher rates of pathological adult outcomes. Impulsivity and sensation seeking are highly related to these outcomes over and above violence history. Family conflict variables and temperament variables are highly correlated with one another but make independent contributions.
Article
The objective of this study was to report trends in alcohol problems among whites, blacks, and Hispanics between 1984 and 1995. Data were obtained from two nationwide probability samples of U.S. households, the first conducted in 1984 and the second in 1995. The 1984 sample consisted of 1777 whites, 1947 blacks, and 1453 Hispanics. The 1995 sample included 1636 whites, 1582 blacks, and 1585 Hispanics. On both occasions, interviews (average length, 1 hr) were conducted in respondents' homes by trained interviewers. The results indicate that between 1984 and 1995, alcohol problems were stable among white and black men and increased among Hispanic men. The rates of three or more alcohol problems for men of each ethnic group for 1984 and 1995 were: 12% and 11% for white men, 16% and 13% for black men, and 9% and 16% for Hispanic men, respectively. Problem prevalence was stable and relatively low among women in all three ethnic groups. Overall, the prevalence of alcohol problems continues to be high among men in the United States. Even though recent research has shown that rates of frequent heavy drinking among white men have declined, we found no corresponding decrease in problem prevalence. Rates of frequent heavy drinking and alcohol-related problems between 1984 and 1995 have remained especially high among black and Hispanic men, suggesting that men of these two ethnic groups should be specifically targeted for renewed prevention efforts.
Article
This is both a retrospective and a 16 and 28 months prospective study of the association between psychiatric comorbidity and social consequences (accidents, fights, broken relationships, drunken driving arrest, and reduced employment) related to alcohol in a nation-wide sample (n = 351) of substance abusers seeking inpatient treatment. Psychiatric comorbidity was evaluated with the Diagnostic Interview Schedule, while drinking history and social consequences were assessed with a structured questionnaire. The social consequences had a high rate of re-occurrence. Controlled for alcohol consumption, polysubstance abuse predicted accidents (OR = 2.9) and fights (OR = 3.9) among men, while among pure alcoholics of both sexes phobia (OR = 4.3) and antisocial personality disorder (OR = 3.0) predicted fights. Only level of abuse predicted broken relationships. Antisocials had most drunken driving arrests. Attempts to reduce these social consequences should aim at treating polysubstance abuse, phobia, and antisocial personality disorder. However, the overriding aim should be the promotion of abstinence.
Article
Objective: To examine the population and geographic patterns, patient characteristics, and clinical presentations and outcomes of alcohol-related ED visits at a national level. Methods: Cross-sectional data on a probability sample of 21,886 ED visits from the 1995 National Hospital Ambulatory Medical Care Survey were analyzed with consideration of the individual patient visit weight. The annual number and rates of alcohol-related ED visits were computed based on weighted analysis in relation to demographic characteristics and geographic region. Specific variables of alcohol-related ED visits examined included demographic and medical characteristics, patient-reported reasons for visit, and physicians' principal diagnoses. Results: Of the 96.5 million ED visits in 1995, an estimated 2.6 million (2.7%) were related to alcohol abuse. The overall annual rate of alcohol-related ED visits was 10.0 visits per 1,000 population [95% confidence interval (CI) 8.7-11.3]. Higher rates were found for men (14.7 per 1,000, 95% CI 12.5-16.9), adults aged 25 to 44 years (17.8 per 1,000, 95% CI 15.0-20.6), blacks (18.1 per 1,000, 95% CI 14.0-22.1), and residents living in the northeast region (15.2 per 1,000, 95% CI 12.1-18.2). Patients whose visits were alcohol-related were more likely than other patients to be uninsured, smokers, or depressive. Alcohol-related ED visits were 1.6 times as likely as other visits to be injury-related, and 1.8 times as likely to be rated as "urgent" or "emergent." The leading principal reasons for alcohol-related ED visits were complaints of pain, injury, and drinking problems. Alcohol abuse/dependence was the principal diagnosis for 20% of the alcohol-related visits. Conclusion: Alcohol abuse poses a major burden on the emergency medical care system. The age, gender, and geographic characteristics of alcohol-related ED visits are consistent with drinking patterns in the general population.
Article
The effects of genetic polymorphisms in the ALDH2 and ADH2 genes and stress levels, as assessed by the daily hassles scale on the prevalence of problem drinkers, were investigated in males in a Japanese occupational population. The frequency of problem drinkers was estimated by the Kurihama Alcoholism Screening Test (KAST). The prevalence of those with a high KAST score (≥0.0) was significantly higher in ALDH2*1/*1 (18.4%) than in ALDH2*1/*2 (4.8%). Multiple logistic regression analysis revealed significant contributions by levels of alcohol consumption, the ALDH2 genotype, and daily hassles to the prevalence of those with a high KAST score. When we analyzed the data for each ALDH2 genotype, heavier alcohol consumption (≥28.8 ml/day), older age (≥40 years old), and very high daily hassles levels (≥20) significantly increased the prevalence of problem drinkers in ALDH2*1/*1. On the contrary, no variables other than heavier alcohol consumption influenced the prevalence in ALDH2*1/*2. In summary, the present study revealed significant contributions of both daily hassles and the ALDH2 genotype to the increase of problem drinkers in an occupational population. Health promotion activities to prevent from alcohol dependence should focus on ALDH2*1/*1, especially those of middle age, and should include stress management as a part of their activities.
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Background Alcohol is a psychoactive substance with toxic and addictive properties. Biomarkers like GGT, AST, ALT and MCV are influenced by excessive ethanol consumption. Alcohol consumption represents a health risk and it has been linked to unemployment. The aim of this study how working status predict alcohol consumption through a cross sectional study comparing alcohol-related biomarkers levels in office workers and unemployed people. Methods This study includes 157 office workers and 157 unemployed people, who were recruited from January to December 2018. A propensity score matching procedure was applied to obtain two homogenous groups in terms of age and gender. A non-parametric analysis was performed on serum biomarkers that are generally altered by alcohol consumption. Logistic regression models were designed to evaluate how working status predict abnormal biomarker levels related with alcohol consumption. Results No differences in median biomarker values were found between groups. Logistic regression analysis showed that office work is a negative predictor of pathological biomarker levels. Office workers had a significant relation with the levels of GGT (OR 0.48; 95% CI [0.28–0.84]), AST (OR 0.42; 95% CI [0.22–0.78]), ALT (OR 0.39; 95% CI [0.23–0.66]), and MCV (OR 0.37; 95% CI [0.19–0.70]). Conclusion Office workers had lower absolute frequencies of pathological values of alcohol consumption biomarkers, after matching for age and gender compared with unemployed people. In addition, a significant negative association between office work is a negative predictor of biomarker levels of alcohol consumption. These results showed that work is an important determinant of health and that can represent a benefit for workers in terms of reducing the risk of consuming alcohol. Cite this as
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Background: Religiosity and spirituality have been clearly identified as strong protective factors against drug use in many levels. Objective: The present revision of literature intended to describe the main scientific studies that deal with the role of religiosity in the treatment and prevention of drug use. Method: The sources cited in this revision article are indexed in the databases PubMed and Scielo, between 1976 and 2006, treating questions relative to religiosity, spirituality and drug use. Results: Studies have to the evidence that people who regularly attend a religious worship, of any kind, or that give relevant importance to their religious belief, or, still, that they practice daily the proposal of the professed religion, show minor licit and illicit durg use rate. In addition, drug addicts present better recovery rates when their treatment is permeated by a spiritual approach of any origin, when compared to drug addicts who are treated exclusively by conventional medicine. Conclusions: Due to the strong social assistance role of religions in Brazil, the exploration of this subject in the Brazilian context would be of great relevance for the public health.
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BACKGROUND: Religiosity and spirituality have been clearly identified as strong protective factors against drug use in many levels. OBJECTIVE: The present revision of literature intended to describe the main scientific studies that deal with the role of religiosity in the treatment and prevention of drug use. METHOD: The sources cited in this revision article are indexed in the databases PubMed and Scielo, between 1976 and 2006, treating questions relative to religiosity, spirituality and drug use. RESULTS: Studies have to the evidence that people who regularly attend a religious worship, of any kind, or that give relevant importance to their religious belief, or, still, that they practice daily the proposal of the professed religion, show minor licit and illicit durg use rate. In addition, drug addicts present better recovery rates when their treatment is permeated by a spiritual approach of any origin, when compared to drug addicts who are treated exclusively by conventional medicine. CONCLUSIONS: Due to the strong social assistance role of religions in Brazil, the exploration of this subject in the Brazilian context would be of great relevance for the public health.
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Hintergrund: Bisherige Studien weisen auf ein „Nord-Süd-Gefälle” in der Prävalenz riskanten Alkoholkonsums in Deutschland hin. Allerdings sind diese Ergebnisse teilweise mit methodischen Einschränkungen behaftet. Die aktuelle Studie erlaubt eine zuverlässigere Schätzung riskanten Alkoholkonsums. Zudem werden regional unterschiedliche Trinkstile ermittelt und ihr Zusammenhang mit unterschiedlichen Indikatoren problematischen Alkoholkonsums untersucht. Methodik: Verwendet wurden repräsentative Daten für die 18- bis 59-jährige Allgemeinbevölkerung in Deutschland aus den Jahren 1995 und 1997. Basierend auf 15 017 vollständigen Datensätzen wurden Prävalenzraten für Abstinenz, für riskanten Konsum (>30 g Reinalkohol pro Tag bei Männern und >20 g bei Frauen), für die CAGE-Symptome missbräuchlichen Konsums und für exzessiven Konsum (Häufigkeit von mehr als fünf alkoholischen Getränken pro Gelegenheit) sowie Durchschnittswerte berechnet und eine Clusteranalyse über Bundesländer durchgeführt. Ergebnisse: Es zeigten sich regionale Unterschiede in der Verbreitung des riskanten Alkoholkonsums sowie der Abstinenz, ohne dass ein klares „Nord-Süd-Gefälle” festgestellt werden konnte. Die Clusteranalyse weist jedoch auf einen Nord-Süd-Unterschied im Trinkstil hinsichtlich Häufigkeit und Menge des Konsums von Bier, Wein und Spirituosen hin. Im Süden zeigte sich im Vergleich zum Norden ein Trinkmuster von mehr Bier-, weniger Wein- und weniger Spirituosenkonsum pro Trinktag bei seltenerem Konsum von Bier und Spirituosen. Während sich keine Unterschiede zwischen den Clustern hinsichtlich der Anteile riskanten Alkoholkonsums, der CAGE-Symptome sowie dem Anteil exzessiven Alkoholkonsums ergaben, unterschieden sie sich bezüglich der durchschnittlich konsumierten Menge Reinalkohols. Die Menge der täglichen Alkoholaufnahme war in den nördlichen Ländern höher. Schlussfolgerung: Im Gegensatz zu anderen deutschen Studien konnten in der vorliegenden Untersuchung bei beobachtbaren regionalen Unterschieden keine Hinweise auf ein Nord-Süd- Gefälle in der Prävalenz unterschiedlicher Indikatoren problematischen Konsums festgestellt werden. Die unterschiedlichen Trinkstile beider Cluster (nördliche vs. südliche Bundesländer) scheinen weder Unterschiede in der Häufigkeit exzessiver Trinkanlässe noch der Häufigkeit von Missbrauch und Abhängigkeit zur Folge zu haben. Der nördliche Stil führt lediglich zu einem erhöhten durchschnittlichen Konsum an Reinalkohol. Methodische Unterschiede der Studien werden diskutiert.
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Approximately 1% to 3% of elderly in the United States suffer from the consequences of excessive alcohol consumption. Many more drink amounts of alcohol that place them at risk for alcohol-related problems. Alcoholism is thought to be a significant contributor to the etiology of self-neglect among older adults. Affected individuals can suffer from malnutrition, develop chronic health problems, acquire unintentional injuries, become depressed, neglect their health care needs, and isolate themselves from friends and family. Premature death can result. Professionals who provide services to elderly people with alcohol-related problems have a critical role to play by screening these individuals for an alcohol use disorder and encouraging them to participate in treatment. Identification of and intervention for an alcohol use disorder may contribute to the prevention of self-neglect among older adults.
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This paper explores the effect of regional (“wet” vs. “dry”) variation in drinking patterns and problems on the prevalence of alcohol-related problems among those seeking care in primary care settings. A sample of black primary care patients interviewed in Hinds County, MS (n= 740) and in Contra Costa County, CA (n= 93) are compared on quantity and frequency of usual drinking, drunkenness, consequences of drinking, and alcohol dependence. Controlling for demographic differences in logistic regression analysis, drinkers in Contra Costa, while no more likely to report heavy drinking, were four times more likely to report alcohol-related consequences, more than five times more likely to report alcohol dependence experiences, and more than nine and a half times more likely to report ever having had treatment for an alcohol problem than those in Hinds County. Data suggest that regional variations in drinking patterns may be reflected in alcohol involvement in primary care caseloads, and that the large variation in the prevalence of alcohol-related problems found in primary care settings may, in part, be attributable to this. All primary care settings do not appear to hold equal promise for screening for and intervening with problem drinking, and further research is needed in determining those settings that provide the greatest potential for targeting prevention efforts.
Article
Aims. To assess associations between drinking behaviour, gender and age with reported experiences related to drinking. Design. Cross-sectional survey. Setting and participants. Interviews were performed in 1992 with a representative sample of the Finnish population between 15 and 69 years of age (N = 3446). Measurements. Annual intake of alcohol, frequency of drunkenness, and 14 negative and eight positive reported experiences related to drinking. Findings. Logistic regression models showed that overall intake and frequency of drunkenness were independently associated with almost all reported positive and negative consequences of drinking. Women more commonly reported that drinking had helped them to sort out interpersonal problems at home or in the work-place, to feel more optimistic about life, and to express their feelings. Men more commonly reported that drinking had helped them to be funnier and wittier and to get closer to the opposite sex. Drunken driving was markedly male behaviour, but women more commonly reported other types of reckless behaviour and adverse consequences of drinking. However, men more commonly said they were criticized by family for their drinking. With the exception of health problems, both positive and negative consequences of alcohol were more common among younger drinkers. Conclusions. Once overall intake and frequency of drunkenness were controlled for, significant differences between men’s and women’s perceptions of the costs and benefits of alcohol consumption emerged. Men tended to perceive more hedonic benefits while women perceived more functional benefits. Women reported behaving more recklessly in drinking situations. In light of the results, women were not under selective social control.
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To examine the association between increases in income and self-reported alcohol consumption, binge drinking, and alcohol problems in 2006 and 2012 in Brazil. Participants were interviewed as part of 2 multistage representative cluster samples of the Brazilian household population between November 2005 and April 2006 and between November 2011 and March 2012. The number of current drinkers during these 2 intervals (n = 1,379 and n = 1,907, respectively) comprised the sample analyzed. Four past-year outcome variables-standard drinks per week, binge drinking, presence of alcohol-related social/health problems, and DSM-5 alcohol use disorder (AUD)-were estimated across income, age, and gender groups. Regression models were estimated to evaluate these and other sociodemographic effects on drinking and problem outcomes and to test for possible wave by income interactions. Response rates were 66.4% in 2006 and 77% in 2012. Income increases were seen in virtually all age-gender subgroups and were particularly pronounced for younger age groups and older women. Both genders reported increased drinks per week (men: 12.82, 2006; 15.78, 2012; p < 0.01; women: 4.89, 2006; 7.66, 2012; p < 0.001) and proportion binge drinking (men: 57%, 2006; 66%, 2012; p < 0.05; women: 39%, 2006; 48%, 2012; p < 0.05), although this was not seen in all gender and age groups. Social/health problem prevalence decreased among men (37%, 2006; 26%, 2012; p < 0.001) and remained the same among women (13%, 2006; 14%, 2012). DSM-5 AUD decreased among men (34%, 2006; 24%, 2012; p < 0.01) and remained stable among women (14%, 2006; 16%, 2012). Brazilian economic development between 2006 and 2012 led to a rise in income in several gender and age groups. Although not always directly associated with an observed increase in alcohol consumption, the rise in income may have created a sense of optimism that inhibited a rise in alcohol-related problems. Copyright © 2015 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.
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Although several attempts were made in the 1950s and 1960s to develop a demography of organizations, none were successful. While recent work shows more promise, it is still the case that organizational demography does not really exist, either as an academic field or as an institutionalized component of policy making. Unsurprisingly, detailed knowledge about the demography of the corporation in the modern world has been slow to develop; corporations and other kinds of organizations remain poorly understood. The lack of corporate demography represents a missed opportunity, one filled with many possibilities for looking at corporations and industries in a new way. The applications of a corporate-demographic approach described in this article demonstrate the potential value of corporate demography for understanding the changing roles of corporations and populations and communities of corporations.
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Cannabis is the most commonly used drug among those who drink, yet no study has directly compared those who use cannabis and alcohol simultaneously versus concurrently (i.e., separately) in the adult general population. Here, we assess differences in demographics, alcohol-related social consequences, harms to self, and drunk driving across simultaneous, concurrent, and alcohol-only using groups. Secondary analyses of the 2005 and 2010 National Alcohol Survey (N = 8,626; 4,522 female, 4,104 male), a Computer Assisted Telephone Interview survey of individuals aged 18 and older from all 50 states and DC. Blacks and Hispanics are over-sampled. Data were collected using list-assisted Random Digit Dialing. Multinomial and multivariable logistic regressions were used for analyses. The prevalence of simultaneous use was almost twice as high as concurrent use, implying that individuals who use both cannabis and alcohol tend to use them at the same time. Furthermore, simultaneous use was associated with increased frequency and quantity of alcohol use. Simultaneous use was also the most detrimental: compared to alcohol only, simultaneous use approximately doubled the odds of drunk driving, social consequences, and harms to self. The magnitudes of differences in problems remained when comparing drunk driving among simultaneous users to concurrent users. The overall set of results is particularly important to bear in mind when studying and/or treating problems among alcohol/cannabis co-users because they demonstrate that in the general population, co-users are a heterogeneous group who experience different likelihoods of problems relative to co-use patterns. Copyright © 2015 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.
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Objective The present study compares changes in mean consumption and hazardous drinking between 1992/3 and 1997 in Switzerland, first without adjusting for changes in mode of questionnaire administration, and then by adjusting for mode of administration by use of a methodological split-sample study. Changes were compared for the total population and for subgroups of sex and linguistic regions. Method The samples of the first and second Swiss Health Surveys (SHS), conducted in 1992/3 and 1997, respectively, were analyzed. Both surveys had used a combined telephone/self-administered questionnaire technique. Individuals had first been interviewed by telephone and were subsequently sent by mail a questionnaire containing additional questions. Whereas in the first SHS the questions on alcohol consumption had been included in the mailed questionnaire, in the second they were administered by telephone. In addition, to evaluate possible effects of different questionnaire versions, a split-sample study conducted in 1996 administered the version of the first SHS to one split of the sample and that of the second to the other. For the present study, only current drinkers were analyzed, resulting in sample sizes of N=9,464 (first SHS), N=9,774 (second SHS), and N=658 (split-sample study). Results When mode ofadministration was not taken into account, mean consumption and percentages of hazardous drinkers decreased overall and in all but one ofthe eight subgroups examined. Controlling for mode of administration, however, resulted in (a) an overall increase in mean consumption and in the percentages of heavy drinking and (b) both increases and decreases for separate subgroups. Conclusions Methods of data collection may influence within-country comparisons of repeated cross-sectional surveys of alcohol consumption.
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The effects of genetic polymorphisms in the ALDH2 and ADH2 genes and stress levels, as assessed by the daily hassles scale on the prevalence of problem drinkers, were investigated in males in a Japanese occupational population. The frequency of problem drinkers was estimated by the Kurihama Alcoholism Screening Test (KAST). The prevalence of those with a high KAST score (> or =0.0) was significantly higher in ALDH2*1/*1 (18.4%) than in ALDH2*1/*2 (4.8%). Multiple logistic regression analysis revealed significant contributions by levels of alcohol consumption, the ALDH2 genotype, and daily hassles to the prevalence of those with a high KAST score. When we analyzed the data for each ALDH2 genotype, heavier alcohol consumption (> or =28.8 ml/day), older age (> or =40 years old), and very high daily hassles levels (> or =20) significantly increased the prevalence of problem drinkers in ALDH2*1/*1. On the contrary, no variables other than heavier alcohol consumption influenced the prevalence in ALDH2*1/*2. In summary, the present study revealed significant contributions of both daily hassles and the ALDH2 genotype to the increase of problem drinkers in an occupational population. Health promotion activities to prevent from alcohol dependence should focus on ALDH2*1/*1, especially those of middle age, and should include stress management as a part of their activities.
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