Endocarditis in a dog due to infection with a novel Bartonella subspecies

Department of Companion Animal and Special Species Medicine, College of Veterinary Medicine, North Carolina State University, Raleigh 27606.
Journal of Clinical Microbiology (Impact Factor: 3.99). 02/1995; 33(1):154-60.
Source: PubMed


Vegetative valvular endocarditis involving the aortic and, to a lesser extent, mitral valves was diagnosed echocardiographically in a 3-year-old spayed female Labrador retriever. Historically, the dog had been treated with tetracycline hydrochloride and prednisolone for positive seroreactivity to Ehrlichia canis and antinuclear antigens. Although three aerobic and anaerobic blood cultures failed to grow bacteria, blood cultured simultaneously by the lysis centrifugation technique grew a fastidious, gram-negative organism. Despite an initial therapeutic response, the owner elected euthanasia 17 days later. Necropsy confirmed aortic and mitral valvular endocarditis. Bacteria phenotypically similar to Bartonella species were visualized in the heart valve by light and electron microscopy, and Bartonella DNA from a frozen heart valve was amplified by PCR. Subsequent phenotypic and genotypic characterization of the isolate, including biochemical testing, cellular fatty acid analysis, DNA hybridization, and sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene indicated that this organism, which can induce endocarditis in dogs, is a novel Bartonella subspecies containing an insertion sequence unique among currently recognized Bartonella species. The name Bartonella vinsonii subsp. berkoffii subsp. nov. will be proposed for this organism.

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Available from: Edward B Breitschwerdt
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    • "arupensis OK-94-513, human Welch et al. 1999 AY166582 AF214557 B. vinsonii subsp. berkhofii 93-CO1, dog Breitschwerdt et al. 1995 AF165989 U28075 "
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    ABSTRACT: Although bats have been implicated as reservoir hosts for a number of zoonotic and life-threatening viruses, the bat bacterial flora and its zoonotic threat remain elusive. However, members of the vector-borne bacterial genera Bartonella causing various human as well as animal diseases have recently been isolated or detected from bats and their ectoparasites. In this study, we sampled 124 insectivorous microbats (Daubenton's bat, Myotis daubentonii) for peripheral blood in southwestern Finland in 2010. A Bartonella-specific PCR targeting rpoB (RNA polymerase β-subunit) was positive with blood samples from 46 bats (prevalence 37%). Scaled mass indexes of the infected and noninfected bats did not differ (p = 0.057). One rpoB sequence was identical with the rpoB sequence of B. naantaliensis strain 2574/1, previously isolated from bats in Finland. The rest of the sequences were highly similar to each other with nucleotide identity scores of 96% or higher. Nucleotide identity scores to the previously described type strain sequences of Bartonella or other database entries were no higher than 87%. Sequence analyses of another gene, gltA (citrate synthase), gave no higher than 90% nucleotide identity scores. On the basis of the conventional 95% sequence similarity cutoff in bacterial species delineation, a novel species of Bartonella was detected. We propose a species name Candidatus B. hemsundetiensis. Phylogenetic analyses based on rpoB and gltA sequences indicate that Candidatus B. hemsundetiensis clusters in a deep-branching position close to the ancestral species B. tamiae and B. bacilliformis. Our study reinforces the importance of bats as reservoirs of Bartonella.
    Full-text · Article · Oct 2015 · Vector borne and zoonotic diseases (Larchmont, N.Y.)
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    • "arupensis Cattle [77] [78] B. vinsonii subsp. berkhoffii Dog [79] B. vinsonii subsp. vinsonii Vole [80] "
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    ABSTRACT: In this article, authors review the current knowledge of Bartonella infection in small mammals including rodents, insectivores, bats and exotic small mammal pets and their vectors in Asia. Species of Bartonella are Gram-negative intracellular bacteria that infect erythrocytes of various mammalian and non-mammalian animals and mainly transmitted by blood sucking arthropod vectors. The genus Bartonella includes several species of important human diseases with severe clinical signs. Several new Bartonella species were isolated from rodents and other small mammals, and from human patients in Asia. Bartonella species are identified using standard polymerase chain reaction amplification and a sequencing targeting two housekeeping genes (gltA and rpoB) and the internal transcribed spacer fragment. Authors also discuss the implications in term of potential emerging zoonotic diseases.
    Full-text · Article · Oct 2014 · Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine
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    • "berkhoffii infection. Images are reproduced with permission from (a) Beerlage et al., 2011, (b) Breitschwerdt et al., 1995, (c) Kempf et al., 2001b, (d) Yager et al., 2010, (e) Kempf et al., 2001a, (f) Pappalardo et al., 2000, (g) Albrich et al., 2004 and (h) Breitschwerdt et al., 1999. embedded tissues from cats (Fuji et al., 2005) and a steer (Breshears and Johnson, 2008) with systemic reactive angiomatosis. "
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    ABSTRACT: In his homage to Lucretius ('Georgica'), Vergil is credited with stating: 'Felix qui potuit rerum cognoscere causas' ('Fortunate is he who knows the causes of things'). Based on numerous commentaries and publications it is obvious that clinicians, diagnosticians and biomedical research scientists continue to struggle with disease causation, particularly in the assessment of the pathogenic role of 'stealth pathogens' that produce persistent infections in the host. Bartonella species, because of their evolutionary ability to induce persistent intravascular infections, present substantial challenges for researchers attempting to clarify the ability of these stealth bacteria to cause disease. By studying the comparative biological and pathological behaviour of microbes across mammalian genera, researchers might be able more rapidly to advance medical science and, subsequently, patient care by undertaking focused research efforts involving a single mammalian species or by attempting to recapitulate a complex disease in an rodent model. Therefore, in an effort to further assist in the establishment of disease causation by stealth pathogens, we use recent research observations involving the genus Bartonella to propose an additional postulate of comparative infectious disease causation to Koch's postulates.
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