Department of Clinical Sciences, New York State College of Veterinary Medicine, Cornell University, Ithaca.Veterinary Clinics of North America Equine Practice (Impact Factor: 0.44). 01/1995; 10(3):591-602.
Most ocular and orbital injuries or acute ocular inflammation in horses result in similar signs of adnexal swelling, photophobia, blepharospasm, and lacrimation. It is hoped that detailed examination and the suggestions in this article will enable veterinarians attending horses having ocular emergencies to arrive at a correct diagnosis and appropriate therapy.
Chapter: Ocular Emergencies
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ABSTRACT: Septicemia in humans is described as a leading cause of uveitis, which eventually can induce blindness. Uveal inflammatory findings could be related to sepsis severity in newborn foals and might be used as an indirect indicator for survival. Seventy-four septic foals, 54 nonseptic foals, and 42 healthy foals. Prospective observational clinical study. A detailed blinded, ophthalmic examination was performed by boarded ophthalmologists on all admitted newborn foals. Foals were grouped as septic (when blood culture resulted positive or the sepsis score was > or =14), nonseptic, and controls. Based on blood culture results, the septic group was subdivided into bacteremic and nonbacteremic foals. Blood culture was performed in 62/74 septic foals, from which 35 (56%) were bacteremic and 27 (44%) were non-bacteremic. Anterior uveitis was diagnosed in a significantly (P < .005) higher number of septic/bacteremic foals (14/35, 40%) than in septic/nonbacteremic foals (5/27, 19%), nonseptic foals (4/54, 7%), and control foals (0%). Anterior chamber fibrin was only observed in 4/14 (29%) septic/bacteremic foals with anterior uveitis. Anterior uveitis was also associated with posterior uveitis in 6/35 (19%) septic/bacteremic foals. The diagnosis of uveitis was related to nonsurvival (P = .001, odds ratio = 6.2, 95% confidence interval = 2.1-18.2). Anterior uveitis is highly prevalent in septic newborn foals, especially in those with a positive blood culture, and it should be considered as a survival prognostic factor.
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