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Coenzyme Q1O Concentrations in Normal and Pathological Human Seminal Fluid

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Abstract

Coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) levels were assayed in total seminal fluid or both in seminal fluid and seminal plasma in 77 subjects with normal or pathological findings at standard semen analysis. CoQ10 levels showed a significant correlation with sperm count and with sperm motility. An interesting exception was constituted by patients with varicocele, in whom the correlation with sperm concentration was preserved, whereas the correlation with sperm motility was lacking. Moreover, they showed an increased ratio of plasma CoQ to total seminal CoQ10 in comparison with the other subjects. These data suggest a pathophysiological meaning of CoQ10 in human seminal fluid and a possible molecular defect in varicocele patients. CoQ10 measurement could represent an important examination in infertile patients; moreover, from these results a rationale might arise for a possible treatment with exogenous CoQ10 in dyspermic patients.

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... In oxidative balance, coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) plays a crucial antioxidant role, with scavenging properties, to maintain cellular membrane integrity. In spermatozoa biology, it has a key role in energy metabolism, enabling mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation and consequently supplying energy for their motility [20][21][22]. CoQ10 is detectable in human seminal fluid and shows direct correlation with seminal parameters [23]. Its antioxidant properties are directly related to sperm protection, as suggested by the inverse correlation between hydroperoxides and ubiquinol (CoQ10 reduced fraction) in seminal fluid [24]. ...
... A. Controls (normozoospermic) 12 patients, median age and interquartile range 34 (33)(34)(35)(36)(37)(38)(39)(40)(41) years, BMI 21 (18)(19)(20)(21)(22)(23) kg/m 2 , 33% smokers. B. Varicocele (VAR), 29 patients, median age and interquartile range 33 (26)(27)(28)(29)(30)(31)(32)(33)(34)(35)(36)(37) years, kg/m 2 , 40% smokers. ...
... C. Idiopathic oligo-, asteno-, oligoastenozoospermia (IDIO), 24 patients, median age and interquartile range 37 (33.5-40.5) years, BMI 24 (20)(21)(22)(23)(24)(25)(26)(27) kg/m 2 , 30% smokers. We used the term "idiopathic" referring to seminal abnormalities of unknown etiologies, according to literature indication [51][52][53][54]. ...
Article
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Oxidative and inflammatory damage underlie several conditions related to male infertility, including varicocele. Free light chains of immunoglobulins (FLCs) are considered markers of low-grade inflammation in numerous diseases. Coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10), a lipidic antioxidant and anti-inflammatory compound, is involved in spermatozoa energy metabolism and motility. We aimed to evaluate FLCs’ seminal levels in patients with varicocele in comparison to control subjects and to correlate them with CoQ10 and Total Antioxidant Capacity (TAC) in human semen. Sixty-five patients were enrolled. Semen analysis was performed; patients were divided into three groups: controls, 12 normozoospermic patients, aged 34 (33–41) years; varicocele (VAR), 29 patients, aged 33 (26–37) years; and idiopathic, 24 oligo-, astheno- and oligoasthenozoospermic patients aged 37 (33.5–40.5) years. FLCs (κ and λ) were assayed by turbidimetric method; CoQ10 by HPLC; TAC by spectrophotometric method. λ FLCs showed a trend toward higher levels in VAR vs. controls and the idiopathic group. VAR showed a trend toward lower κ FLCs levels vs. the other two groups. When comparing κ/λ ratio, VAR showed significantly lower levels vs. controls and idiopathic. Moreover, CoQ10 seminal levels showed higher levels in VAR and idiopathic compared to controls. Data reported here confirm lower levels of κ/λ ratio in VAR and suggest a possible application in personalized medicine as clinical biomarkers for male infertility.
... 51,52 CoQ10 can be measured directly in the semen and is correlated with sperm count and motility. 53 Several placebo-controlled studies have demonstrated 4.5% to 6% improvement in sperm motility with CoQ10 supplementation. 53,54 CoQ10 can be found naturally in whole grains, rice bran, soybeans, nuts, cabbage, carrots, onions, potatoes, spinach, oily fish (mackerel and sardines), and organ meats. ...
... 53 Several placebo-controlled studies have demonstrated 4.5% to 6% improvement in sperm motility with CoQ10 supplementation. 53,54 CoQ10 can be found naturally in whole grains, rice bran, soybeans, nuts, cabbage, carrots, onions, potatoes, spinach, oily fish (mackerel and sardines), and organ meats. 48,55 The body is naturally able to synthesize CoQ10, therefore no RDA has been established. ...
Article
Nutraceuticals are food products that that can provide medical or health benefits by preventing or treating disease processes. The high costs associated with assisted reproductive techniques for male infertility have led consumers to find less expensive alternatives for potential treatment. Nutraceuticals are widely available and have many antioxidant properties. This articles reviews the current English literature regarding readily available nutraceuticals and their potential effects on male infertility and potential side effects with excess intake.
... In vivo studies carried out in humans and rats have confirmed that the addition of coenzyme Q10 to the diet improves overall antioxidant capacity and sperm quality (34,54), while the exogenous administration of this fatsoluble antioxidant improved sperm motility in men (11). There is a positive relationship between the concentration of coenzyme Q10 and overall sperm motility (48). Sperm motility and viability are positively correlated with mitochondrial function, and also indicates a significant relationship between ATP concentration with motility and energy index (57). ...
... In addition, the efficacy of coenzyme Q10 has been demonstrated in the function of sperm membranes of horses and goats (80,81). When the antioxidant properties of CoQ10 directly neutralize the ability of lipid peroxide radicals, its antioxidant properties also increase the action potential of mitochondria (48). Besides, coenzyme Q10 can regenerate α-tocopherol from free radicals anions of α-tocopheroxyl (76), and can also remove free radicals (18), preventing the accumulation of cytotoxic aldehydes. ...
Article
Artificial insemination (AI) with frozen or cooled-stored semen plays a key role in the widespread distribution of germplasm of elite livestock resources and the protection of endangered species. Cryopreservation provides long-term preservation of sperm and also encourages a greater exchange of genetic material between distant populations. However, freezing has some detrimental effects on sperm, including premature induction of acrosome response, reduced sperm motility, reduced viability, and impaired sperm DNA integrity and fertility. The transition of the membrane phase occurs when the sperm cools down, and lipid accumulation damages the micro-domain, thereby impairing membrane functions, leaving a gap between the gel and the liquid membrane region. Coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) is a vital lipophilic molecule found in all respiratory eukaryotic cells, including spermatozoa. When such a lipophilic antioxidant is added to the sperm, it can directly diffuse into the polyunsaturated lipid chain present in the plasma membrane, thereby affecting the structure and function of the sperm by generating energy and preventing reactive oxygen. Coenzyme Q10 treatment of sperm from various species improves sperm quality during cryopreservation and cooled-stored condition. It is, however, unclear how this antioxidant affects sperm to improve survival during freezing or cooled-stored condition. Thus, this review highlights the potential protective mechanisms of coenzyme Q10 action during the sperm freezing process.
... A placebo-controlled, randomized study reported a significant improvement of sperm concentration, total sperm count, and sperm motility after CoQ10 supplementation to infertile men [25]. Mancini et al [26] have also reported similar observations in idiopathic OA men. By quantifying CoQ10 levels in the seminal plasma from 77 patients, they have recorded that reduced CoQ10 levels are associated with abnormal sperm morphology and motility. ...
... By quantifying CoQ10 levels in the seminal plasma from 77 patients, they have recorded that reduced CoQ10 levels are associated with abnormal sperm morphology and motility. Based on their findings, they have concluded that patients with idiopathic OA can benefit from CoQ10 supplementation [26]. Recent studies have found that some of these effects of exogenously administered CoQ10 are due to the modulation of gene expression [22]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Purpose: Oxidative stress and sperm DNA fragmentation (SDF) are potential contributing factors for idiopathic male infertility. Coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) have been reported to be effective in the treatment of idiopathic male infertility, in general, owing to its antioxidant properties. Thus, the present study intends to investigate the effects of CoQ10 therapy on semen parameters, oxidative stress markers and SDF in infertile men, specifically with idiopathic oligoasthenozoospermia (OA). Materials and methods: In this case-control study, sixty-five infertile patients with idiopathic OA and forty fertile men (control) were included. All participants underwent semen analysis based on the World Health Organization guidelines (5th edition, 2010). Patients received CoQ10 at the dose of 200 mg/d orally for three months. Seminal plasma CoQ10, total antioxidant capacity (TAC), total reactive oxygen species (ROS), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), and SDF levels were measured in controls (baseline) and infertile patients pre- and post-CoQ10 treatment. Results: CoQ10 treatment for three months significantly improved sperm concentration (p<0.05), progressive motility (p<0.05), total motility (p<0.01), seminal fluid CoQ10 concentration (p<0.001), TAC (p<0.001), and GPx (p<0.001) levels in infertile men with OA. Further, ROS level (p<0.05) and SDF percentage (p<0.001) were reduced in OA patients as compared to the baseline. CoQ10 levels also correlated positively with sperm concentration (r=0.48, p=0.01) and total motility (r=0.59, p=0.003) while a negative correlation was recorded between SDF and sperm motility (r=-0.54, p=0.006). Conclusions: CoQ10 supplementation for three months could improve semen parameters, oxidative stress markers and reduce SDF in infertile men with idiopathic OA.
... 2,[6][7][8] It appears that coenzyme Q 10 levels can decline with advancing age as a result of either increased requirements or decreased production. 1 Endogenous deficiencies have been observed in a variety of disorders, including CHF, cardiomyopathy, cancer, hypertension, Parkinson's disease, spontaneous abortion, male infertility, chronic hemodialysis, and periodontal disease. [1][2][3][8][9][10][11][12] Pharmacokinetics. Coenzyme Q 10 is slowly absorbed, with peak blood levels occurring 5-10 hours after oral administration. ...
... Blood plasma and seminal fluid concentrations of CoQ 10-TOTAL , -tocopherol, and -tocopherol were determined by HPLC method using a UV detector at 275 and 295 nm and calculated by external standards (Sigma) [14]. Minor modifications were made in seminal fluid preparation as follows: 1.0 mL seminal fluid + 200 L pbenzoquinone (18.5 mmol⋅L −1 ) + 2.0 mL methanol + 1.0 mL (100 mmol⋅L −1 ) sodium dodecyl sulphate, vortexed 1 min, with 3.0 mL and repeatedly with 2.0 mL hexane, vortexed 5 min, and centrifuged for 10 min [15,16]. The organic phases were collected and evaporated under gas nitrogen; the residue dissolved in 50 L of ethanol, and 20 L was injected on the column SGX C18 7 m (Tessek). ...
Article
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Oxidative stress, decreased antioxidant capacity, and impaired sperm mitochondrial function are the main factors contributing to male infertility. The goal of the present study was to assess the effect of the per os treatment with Carni-Q-Nol (440 mg L-carnitine fumarate + 30 mg ubiquinol + 75 IU vitamin E + 12 mg vitamin C in each softsule) in infertile men on sperm parameters, concentration of antioxidants (coenzyme , γ, and α-tocopherols), and oxidative stress in blood plasma and seminal fluid. Forty infertile men were supplemented daily with two or three Carni-Q-Nol softsules. After 3 and 6 months of treatment, improved sperm density was observed (by 48.9% and 80.9%, resp.) and after 3-month treatment the sperm pathology decreased by 25.8%. Concentrations of (ubiquinone + ubiquinol) and α-tocopherol were significantly increased and the oxidative stress was decreased. In conclusion, the effect of supplementary therapy with Carni-Q-Nol showed benefits on sperm function in men, resulting in 45% pregnancies of their women. We assume that assessment of oxidative stress, , and α-tocopherol in blood plasma and seminal fluid could be important metabolic biomarkers in both diagnosis and treatment of male infertility.
... Coenzyme Q10 levels show a significant correlation with sperm count and with sperm motility (Festa et al., 2014;Mancini et al., 1994). ...
... La concentration en coenzyme Q10 dans le plasma séminal serait directement corrélée avec le nombre et la mobilité des spermatozoïdes [116]. Une corrélation positive entre un niveau élevé de coenzyme Q10 séminal et la mobilité et le pouvoir fécondant des spermatozoïdes chez des hommes partenaires de couples en FIV a pu être observée [114]. ...
Article
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About 15% of couples in desire of child are affected by infertility. Oxidative stress has been involved in unexplained subfertility with a male factor. Thus, oral antioxidant supplementation has been prescribed. Antioxidants demonstrated their interest on sperm improvement in several studies, in particular in men with high levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in their sperm. However, in many cases, no beneficial effect was obtained after antioxidant supplementation. Negative effects could be observed in long-term treatment or with excessive doses. Actually, antioxidants are provided in diet or can be found in enriched food. The current revue analyzes the benefits and the risks related to oral antioxidant supplement in subfertile men.
... Coenzyme Q10 levels show a significant correlation with sperm count and with sperm motility (Festa et al., 2014;Mancini et al., 1994). ...
Article
Full-text available
Since sperm require high energy levels to perform their specialised function, it is vital that essential nutrients are available for spermatozoa when they develop, capacitate and acquire motility. However, they are vulnerable to a lack of energy and excess amounts of reactive oxygen species, which can impair sperm function, lead to immotility, acrosomal reaction impairment, DNA fragmentation and cell death. This monocentric, randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial investigated the effect of 6 months of supplementation with l-carnitine, acetyl-l-carnitine and other micronutrients on sperm quality in 104 subjects with oligo- and/or astheno- and/or teratozoospermia with or without varicocele. In 94 patients who completed the study, sperm concentration was significantly increased in supplemented patients compared to the placebo (p = .0186). Total sperm count also increased significantly (p = .0117) in the supplemented group as compared to the placebo group. Both, progressive and total motility were higher in supplemented patients (p = .0088 and p = .0120, respectively). Although pregnancy rate was not an endpoint of the study, of the 12 pregnancies that occurred during the follow-up, 10 were reported in the supplementation group. In general, all these changes were more evident in varicocele patients. In conclusion, supplementation with metabolic and antioxidant compounds could be efficacious when included in strategies to improve fertility.
... Coenzyme Q10 levels show a significant correlation with sperm count and with sperm motility (Festa et al., 2014;Mancini et al., 1994). ...
Article
OBJECTIVE: Varicocele has adverse effects on spermatogenesis and to date is considered as the first cause of male infertility. Many factors nega- tively affecting semen quality act through decreasing energy availability by mitochondrial dysfunction and sperm are also vulnerable to reactive oxy- gen species because their accumulation leads to membrane damage, insta- bility and functional alterations causing cell death. DESIGN: To evaluate, utilizing a randomized double-blind placebo controlled trial, the effect of supplementation with selected naturally com- pounds on pregnancy rate and sperm quality. The effect was evaluated in sub- jects with oligo or asthenoteratozoospermia, as well as with or without varicocele. MATERIALS AND METHODS: With a block randomization 104 patients were enrolled: 52 had grade I-III varicocele and 52 were not affected. Patients belonging to these 2 groups were further divided in two groups consisting of the supplementation arm and the placebo arm. The supplementation formu- lation consisted of 1g of L-carnitine, 725mg of fumarate, 500mg of acetyl-L- carnitine, 1g of fructose, 50mg of citric acid, 50mcg of selenium, 20mg of coenzyme Q10, 90mg of vitamin C, 10mg of zinc, 200mcg of folic acid & 1.5mcg of vitamin B12. Spermogram evaluation was done at the beginning of treatment and at the end. RESULTS: Adverse events occurred only in the treatment group: 4 pa- tients had nausea and 3 vertigo or headache. Twelve pregnancies occurred during follow-up time: 10 in supplementation group (9 non- varicocele and 1 varicocele) and 2 in placebo group (1 non-varicocele and 1 varicocele). One spontaneous abortion was reported in placebo arm. Mean changes of number of sperm (106 x mL) after treatment were 1.7 in the placebo group and 9.8 in the supplemented group (p1⁄40.0186). Mean changes of sperm concentration (106 x mL) after treatment were 13.0 in the placebo group and 46.9 in the supplemented group (p1⁄40.0117). Mean changes of progressive motility of sperm (%) were 1.7 in the placebo group and 5.9 in the supplement group (p1⁄40.0088). Mean changes of total motility of sperm (%) were 1.6 in the placebo group and 7.3 in the supplement group (p1⁄40.0120). Analyzing typical and atypical morphology there was, respectively, a difference of -6.1 and 5.9 in the placebo group while -6.7 and 3.6 in the supplement group. CONCLUSIONS: Oxidative stress is a cause of male infertility with significant negative effect on semen parameters and varicocele is an additional cause of poor sperm quality. The use of carnitines and other functional substances is an efficacious strategy to handle male infer- tility. All sperm parameters significantly increased in treated subjects, while a strong increase in pregnancy rate wa
... Patients with normal or pathological findings on standard semen analysis, CoQ10 content assayed in seminal plasma and seminal fluid (Mancini et al.,1994), a significant correlation was noted among sperm count, motility and the CoQ10 content in seminal fluid and patients with asthenospermia had low CoQ10 in seminal plasma. In addition, sperm cells, which are characterized by low motility and abnormal morphology, have low levels of CoQ10 (Balercia et al., 2002). ...
Thesis
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This study was designed to assess the effect of different concentrations of L-carnitine and Co enzyme Q10 (CoQ10) on the outcome of in vitro human sperm activation and to find out if there are any side effects of Lcarnitine and CoQ10 on the sperm deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) integrity using DNA fragmentation index test. Eighty seven samples of semen of infertile and fertile men were randomly collected at the High Institute for Infertility Diagnosis and Assisted Reproductive Technologies/Al- Nahrain University. The mean age of the men was (32.034 􀀂 0.57) years with mean duration of infertility (4.644 􀀂 0.25) years. Seminal fluid analyses were done involving macroscopic and microscopic examinations according to WHO criteria. Swim-up technique was dependent for in vitro sperm activation, the washed samples were divided before using centrifugation swim-up technique into 3 groups: control group (G1) without L-carnitine and CoQ10. While, in G2 and G3 two concentrations of L-carnitine (20μg, 40μg) and CoQ10 (20μg, 40μg) were used respectively. Moreover, all groups within post-activation enriched with SMART- Pro media. The sperm parameters were evaluated after the addition of L-carnitine and CoQ10. Data were analyzed statistically using complete randomized design (CRD) (one way ANOVA). Significant (P<0.05) differences were observed in the sperm parameters of post-activation when compared with the pre-activation. In G2 and G3, at doses of ( 20μg and 40μg) of L-carnitine and CoQ10, the results showed a significant (P<0.05) increase in the percentages of sperm motility, progressive sperm motility and sperm morphology, in spite of the increase in the percentages of sperm motility, progressive sperm motility and sperm morphology was seen in G3 compared to G2. There were no significant (P>0.05) differences between G2 and G3. A significant (P<0.05) decrease in PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com III fragmented sperm DNA percentage of post-activation was seen when compared with the pre-activation with non significant (P>0.05) differences between G2 and G3. Moreover, DNA fragmentation in the spermatozoa treated by 40μg L-carnitine and CoQ10 was the lowest among post-activation groups. From the results of this study, it can be concluded that the addition of 40 μg of L-carnitine and CoQ10 to washed sperms can improve sperm motility and sperm DNA integrity in vitro.
... Several other studies have reported similar positive effects on motility, count, morphology, and pregnancy rates, but whether these improvements are clinically significant remains to be established [44,47,48,50,70]. Mancini et al. found that CoQ 10 supplementation did little to improve sperm motility and quality in subfertile men with varicocele [91]. ...
... Antioxidant properties of CoQ10 have also been reported in humans, bulls, horses, and goat spermatozoa (Balercia et al., 2009;Safarinejad, 2009;Gualtieri et al., 2014;Yousefian et al., 2014Yousefian et al., , 2018. Notably, there is a positive correlation between CoQ10 concentration and sperm motility in men (Mancini et al., 1994) and patients with idiopathic asthenozoospermia are sometimes treated with CoQ10 (Balercia et al., 2009). In some studies, however it has been reported that some antioxidants such as hyaluronic acid and glutathione are harmful or ineffective for long-term storage or cryosurvival of spermatozoa in different spices (Salmani et al., 2013;Sharafi et al., 2015a;Manuel et al., 2018). ...
Article
The effects of coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) has not yet been assessed for cryopreservation of rooster semen. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of different concentrations of CoQ10 in Lake extender for cryopreservation of rooster semen. The viability and apoptosis status, DNA fragmentation, abnormal morphology, motion parameters, membrane functionality, mitochondrial activity, acrosome integrity, lipid peroxidation, and fertility potential were evaluated after the freeze-thaw process. Semen samples were collected from ten roosters, twice a week, and then diluted in extender contained different concentrations of CoQ10 as follows: Lake without CoQ10 (control, Q 0), Lake containing 1 μM (Q 1), 2 μM (Q 2), 5 μM (Q 5), and 10 μM (Q 10) CoQ10. Supplementation of Lake with 1 and 2 μM CoQ10 resulted in greater sperm viability, total motility, progressive motility, membrane functionality, mitochondrial activity, acrosome integrity, and fertility rate. Furthermore, the extent of lipid peroxidation in thawed spermatozoa treated with 1 and 2 μM CoQ10 was less than with the other groups. Different concentrations of CoQ10 had no effect on DNA fragmentation and sperm morphology. Results of the present study indicate that supplementation of Lake extender with 1 and 2 μM CoQ10 enhances the quality of rooster sperm after the freeze-thaw process.
... Although the positive effects of QH2 were observed, it was clear that it could not open all the doors as a magical key in treatment of idiopathic asthenozoospermia. The results of the study by Mancini et al. (15) attracts attention; in this study, the Co-Q10 levels in seminal plasma of 77 males with normal or impaired sperm parameters were investigated and revealed that in patients with asthenozoospermia, the Co-Q10 levels in seminal plasma were significantly lower than others. This finding was the basis of our thesis and we have reported the results of empirically treated patients as a complementary of their study. ...
Article
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Background: Considering all the couples willing and trying to get pregnant, the incidence of infertility is 15% of which approximately half of the cases are due to the male factors. Objectives: The aim of this study was the investigation of the effects of ubiquinol, reduced form of coenzyme Q10 (Co-Q10), an empiric treatment modality, on sperm parameters in idiopathic subfertility. Patients and methods: In this retrospective study, 62 patients who had received 100 mg ubiquinol twice a day for six months due to idiopathic infertility since January 2012 to January 2013 were included. Only infertile patients with astheno-teratozoospermia without any identified etiology and with a spermatozoa concentration of greater than 13 × 10(6)/mL were included. Results: The increase in mean values of concentration after the ubiquinol treatment was not statistically significant (P value = 0.065). However, the changes in morphology and motility (fast progressive [a] and a + slow progressive [b]) were statistically significant (P < 0.00). Conclusions: The weakness of the literature with regard to coenzyme Q10 is about its effects in patients with severely diminished sperm densities and the physiologic steps of morphologic improvements.
... Both the bioenergetic and the antioxidant role of CoQ 10 suggest a possible involvement in sperm biochemistry and male infertility [Mancini and Balercia, 2011]. CoQ 10 can be quantified in seminal fluid, where its concentration correlates with sperm count and motility [Mancini et al., 1994]. It was found that distribution of CoQ 10 between sperm cells and seminal plasma was altered in varicocele patients, who also presented a higher level of oxidative stress and lower total antioxidant capacity. ...
Article
Full-text available
For a number of years, coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) was known for its key role in mitochondrial bioenergetics; later studies demonstrated its presence in other subcellular fractions and in blood plasma, and extensively investigated its antioxidant role. These two functions constitute the basis for supporting the clinical use of CoQ10. Also at the inner mitochondrial membrane level, CoQ10 is recognized as an obligatory co-factor for the function of uncoupling proteins and a modulator of the mitochondrial transition pore. Furthermore, recent data indicate that CoQ10 affects expression of genes involved in human cell signalling, metabolism, and transport and some of the effects of CoQ10 supplementation may be due to this property. CoQ10 deficiencies are due to autosomal recessive mutations, mitochondrial diseases, ageing-related oxidative stress and carcinogenesis processes, and also statin treatment. Many neurodegenerative disorders, diabetes, cancer and muscular and cardiovascular diseases have been associated with low CoQ10 levels, as well as different ataxias and encephalomyopathies. CoQ10 treatment does not cause serious adverse effects in humans and new formulations have been developed that increase CoQ10 absorption and tissue distribution. Oral CoQ10 is a frequent antioxidant strategy in many diseases that may provide a significant symptomatic benefit.
... Several other studies have reported similar positive effects on motility, count, morphology, and pregnancy rates, but whether these improvements are clinically significant remains to be established [44,47,48,50,70]. Mancini et al. found that CoQ 10 supplementation did little to improve sperm motility and quality in subfertile men with varicocele [91]. ...
... Mancini and his-coworkers demonstrated high levels of CoQ10 in human seminal fluid that correlate positively with sperm count and motility (32) . In a clinical study, exogenous administration of CoQ10 was effective for improving sperm kinetic features in patients with idiopathic asthenozoospermia (33) . ...
Article
Full-text available
Back ground: Zygote produce from once a sperm fertilizes an egg cell. Then, the zygote (unicellular) will begin chain of cellular cleavages to produce multicellular mass, its embryo, the differentiated to different tissues and organism. The development of the embryo is called embryogenesis. Coenzyme Q10, is an antioxidant produced in the body. It boosts cellular energy and may enhance the immune system. CoQ10 is present and measurable in seminal fluid, the concentration of CoQ10 directly correlates with both sperm count and motility. It is beneficial in the prevention and treatment a wide range of health problems. Objectives: The present study was aimed to investigate the possibility of using coenzyme Q10 to improve in vitro fertilization (IVF), and early embryonic development (ED) in mice as a model for human being. Materials and Methods: Superovulation program was achieved to mature healthy female mice with age 10-12 weeks and weight 24-26 gm. After sacrificing female, oocytes were collected and incubated within CO 2 incubator for less than 1 hour. Sperm were collected from vas deference of males. Sperm parameters were assessed after 30 min. of incubation. Mature oocytes were divided into three groups according to the concentrations of CoQ10 including G1 (control group; SMART medium only), G2 (treated group; SMART medium enriched with 20 M CoQ10) and G3 (treated group; SMART medium enriched with 40 M CoQ10). IVF technique was performed for 3 groups, and assessment of IVF (%), embryonic development stage (%) and abnormal embryo morphology (%) for each embryo stage. Abstract 3 Results: Results of the present study appeared significant increment (P<0.05) in the percentages of IVF for both treated groups as compared to the control groups. Also, significant increase (P<0.0P) in the IVF (%) was observed when using 40 M CoQ10 as compared to 20 M CoQ10. Non significant differences (P>0.05%) in the 8-cells embryo stage were assessed among control and treated groups Conclusion: From the results of the present study it was concluded that the coenzyme Q10 (40µM) enriched to the culture medium improved percentage of in vitro fertilization and no effect on embryonic development. 4
... The same group of authors in a previous study failed to find any motility improvement in subfertile men with varicoceles treated with CoQ10. This could be the result of varicocele that might palliate the potential improvements from CoQ10 supplement [70]. ...
Article
Background Despite the limited evidence about the effect of micronutrient supplementation on the semen quality, many micronutrient supplements have been used to improve male fertility. Approximately, 40%-50% of male infertility cases in general and up to 80% in men with idiopathic infertility cases are caused by oxidative stress and decreased level of seminal total antioxidant capacity. Objective To investigate the beneficial effects of micronutrient supplementation on sperm concentration, motility and morphology. Methods A Pub Med, Google Scholar, Embase data, web of Science and Cochrane Library database extensive research of the randomized controlled studies utilizing micronutrient vitamins and supplements was performed. Results The existent international literature is rather heterogeneous and a definitive is difficult to be drawn. Several micronutrients have beneficial effects on sperm parameters. Rational use of micronutrients might be helpful for infertile patients. Conclusion Further randomized, controlled clinical trials are required to elucidate the efficacy and safety of micronutrients and propose proper protocols for their use. A well-rounded, balanced diet is more preferable than the widespread use of micronutrient supplements beyond the recommended doses. Future studies should concern the pregnancy rate as a primary outcome in their designs. Further research should be done to determine the appropriate antioxidant compounds, the duration of the treatment, as well as a certain dose of antioxidants in clinical practices. The pre-treatment evaluation of the seminal oxidative status is also an important parameter to proceed with micronutrient supplementation without the risk of reductive stress. Under these conditions, supplements could support the quality of sperm and help to alleviate male infertility.
... Mancini and his-coworkers demonstrated high levels of CoQ10 in human seminal fluid that correlate positively with sperm count and motility (32) . In a clinical study, exogenous administration of CoQ10 was effective for improving sperm kinetic features in patients with idiopathic asthenozoospermia (33) . ...
... Mancini and his-coworkers demonstrated high levels of CoQ10 in human seminal fluid that correlate positively with sperm count and motility (32) . In a clinical study, exogenous administration of CoQ10 was effective for improving sperm kinetic features in patients with idiopathic asthenozoospermia (33) . ...
... However, the sperm concentration and motility were not found to correlate with seminal CoQ-10 levels. In contrast to our findings, Mancini et al. reported that sperm concentration and motility were positively correlated with higher levels of CoQ-10 in seminal plasma [33]. CoQ-10 is found in the mitochondria in the midpiece region of the spermatozoa and is involved in energy production [7]. ...
Article
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In this case–control study, we aimed to evaluate the serum and seminal plasma levels of Selenium (Se), total antioxidant capacity (TAC), and Coenzyme Q10 (CoQ-10) and determine their relationship with sperm concentration, motility, and morphology in men with idiopathic infertility. A total of 59 subjects were enrolled in the study. Forty four patients were diagnosed with idiopathic male infertility and had abnormal sperm parameters, and 15 subjects had normal sperm parameters with proven fertility. Serum Se, semen Se, and semen TAC levels were significantly different in the fertile and infertile groups (p p p N = 59) (r = 0.46, p
... Surely, CoQ10 in the seminal fluid shows a direct correlation with semen parameters (22) .Mancini and his-coworkersproved high levels of CoQ10 in human seminal fluid that correlate positively with sperm count and motility (23) .In a clinical study, exogenous administrationof CoQ10 was effective for improving sperm kinetic features in patients with idiopathic asthenozoospermia (24) . ...
Article
Abstract Back ground: Once a sperm fertilizes an egg cell produce zygote. At that time, the zygote (unicellular) will begin chain of cellular cleavages to produce embryo, then differentiation to tissues and organism. This is called embryogenesis. Coenzyme Q10 beneficial in the prevention and treatment a wide range of health problems. It boosts cellular energy and may enhance the immune system. Produced in the body, it is an antioxidant. CoQ10 is present and measurable in seminal fluid, the concentration of CoQ10 straight correlates with both sperm count and motility. Objectives: This study was investigate the possibility of using coenzyme Q10 to progress in vitro fertilization (IVF), in mice as a model for human being . Materials and Methods: Superovulation program was performed to mature female mice . collected oocytes after sacrificing female, and incubated within CO2 (5%) incubator for less than 1 hour. Also, sperms were collected from male mice. Then sperm parameters were assessed after 30 min. of incubation. Mature oocytes were separated into three groups including control group; SMART medium only (G1), treated group; SMART medium enriched with 20 M CoQ10 (G2) and treated group; SMART medium enriched with 40 M CoQ10 (G3). IVF technique was achieved for 3 groups, and assessment of IVF (%). Results: In this study the results appeared significant increment (P<0.05) in the percentages of IVF for both treated groups as compared to the control groups. Similarly, significant increase (P<0.05) in the IVF (%) was observed when using 40 M CoQ10 as compared to 20 M CoQ10. Conclusion: From the results of the present study it was concluded that the coenzyme Q10 (40µM) enhanced to the culture medium improved percentage of in vitro fertilization.
... Both the bioenergetic and the antioxidant role of CoQ 10 suggest a possible involvement in sperm biochemistry and male infertility (108). CoQ 10 can be quantified in seminal fluid, where its concentration correlates with sperm count and motility (109). It was found that distribution of CoQ 10 between sperm cells and seminal plasma was altered in varicocele patients, who also presented a higher level of oxidative stress and lower total antioxidant capacity. ...
Article
Full-text available
Coenzyme Q₁₀ (Co Q₁₀) or ubiquinone was known for its key role in mitochondrial bioenergetics as electron and proton carrier; later studies demonstrated its presence in other cellular membranes and in blood plasma, and extensively investigated its antioxidant role. These two functions constitute the basis for supporting the clinical indication of Co Q₁₀. Furthermore, recent data indicate that Co Q₁₀ affects expression of genes involved in human cell signalling, metabolism and transport and some of the effects of Co Q₁₀ supplementation may be due to this property. Co Q₁₀ deficiencies are due to autosomal recessive mutations, mitochondrial diseases, ageing-related oxidative stress and carcinogenesis processes, and also a secondary effect of statin treatment. Many neurodegenerative disorders, diabetes, cancer, fibromyalgia, muscular and cardiovascular diseases have been associated with low Co Q₁₀ levels. Co Q₁₀ treatment does not cause serious adverse effects in humans and new formulations have been developed that increase Co Q₁₀ absorption and tissue distribution. Oral Co Q₁₀ treatment is a frequent mitochondrial energizer and antioxidant strategy in many diseases that may provide a significant symptomatic benefit.
... Micronutrients, such as coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) and L-carnitine have been found as components of the mitochondrial respiratory chain that plays a crucial role both in energy metabolism and as liposoluble chainbreaking antioxidants for cell membranes and lipoproteins. 9,10 CoQ10 biosynthesis is markedly active in testis, 11 and high levels are present in sperm, [12][13][14] suggesting a protective role as antioxidant. Some groups have demonstrated reduced levels of CoQ10 in seminal plasma and sperm cells of infertile men with idiopathic and varicocele-associated asthenoszoopermia. ...
Article
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Introduction To assess the effectiveness and safety of fixed dose combination (FDC) of antioxidants in treatment of idiopathic oligoasthenozoospermia. Materials and methods Placebo-controlled, Double-blind, randomized, Parallel three arm, Multicentric trial. Setting Fertility clinics of five centers across India. Patients One hundred and thirty-eight male subjects, aged between 21 and 50 years and subfertile for 1 year or more with the following baseline sperm selection criteria: Concentration <15 million/ml and total sperm motility <40%. Intervention(s) Eligible subjects were randomized to either of the three arms in a double-blind manner, i.e. arm 1 was given 2 tablets twice daily of FDC of antioxidants (coenzyme-Q10: 50 mg, L-carnitine: 500 mg, lycopene: 2.5 mg and zinc: 12.5 mg); arm 2 was given 1 tablet of FDC of antioxidants and one tablet of placebo twice daily and arm 3 was two tablets twice daily of matching placebo all for 180 days. Main outcome measure(s) The primary outcome measures were improvement in sperm count and sperm motility, whereas pregnancy rate was the secondary efficacy outcome. Results Compared to placebo, a statistically significant improvement was seen in sperm count (14.8-26.35 in arm 1 and 14.37-24.8 million/ml in arm 2, p < 0.0001), and sperm total motility (39.2-51.6% in arm 1 and 38.4-50.1% in arm 2, p < 0.0001), at 90 days, and treatment further improved these parameters at day 180. No intergroup difference was seen between arm 1 and arm 2. Mild adverse event of upper gastrointestinal discomfort by 8 subjects (three in arm 1; one in arm 2 and four subjects in arm 3) were reported. No serious adverse event was seen in the study. Conclusion Exogenous administration of fixed dose combination of antioxidants is a safe and effective therapy in improving the male subfertility. How to cite this article Gopinath PM, Kalra B, Saxena A, Malik S, Kochhar K, Kalra S, Zaveri H. Fixed Dose Combination Therapy of Antioxidants in Treatment of Idiopathic Oligoasthenozoospermia: Results of a Randomized, Doubleblind, Placebo-controlled Clinical Trial. Int J Infertility Fetal Med 2013;4(1):6-13.
Chapter
An excess of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and other oxidant radicals has been associated with male infertility. The total oxyradical scavenging capacity (TOSC) is a recently developed assay measuring the overall capability of biological fluids or cellular antioxidants to neutralize the toxicity of various oxyradicals. The TOSC assay can discriminate between different forms of ROS, allowing to identify the role of specific antioxidants, or their pathway of formation in the onset of toxicological or pathological processes. The previous application of TOSC assay in andrology led us to show a reduced antioxidant efficiency in seminal fluid of infertile men with a significant correlation between the scavenging capacity towards hydroxyl radicals and parameters of sperm cell motility. Despite the fact that oxidative stress is well recognized as a cause of male infertility, the use of antioxidants as a treatment is still debated, and it is considered as a “supplementation” therapy, rather than an etiological or physiopathological therapy, since no clear correlation has been investigated between a real deficiency of a specific antioxidant and the effect of oral supplementation. Various models have been introduced to explore the protective role of different antioxidants in vitro, and some differences can be discovered regarding the protective effects exerted by specific enzymatic or non-enzymatic molecules. We focus our attention on two main natural antioxidants, the efficacy of which has been supported by clinical trials: coenzyme Q10 and carnitine.
Data
Honey, a natual product ofhoncy bees, is traditionally consumed fo. enhancement of feiility and vitaliq, among males in some popularions. The decline in mate reproductive health and fedility for the pasr 30 years has been linked to environmental toxicanis. This has led to ihe increased interest ro investigate rhe possible beneficial effect ofhoney on male reproductive health. A few experimental studies have been done aod rhe aim of this review is to summarize and discuss these studies particularly rclared ro oxidative stress and cigarette smoke exposu.e. How€ver, more srudies are needed to investigate its exact mechanism ofaction and its poiential use as a natural antioxidant in protecting and lreating malc reproductive problerns.
Chapter
Full-text available
Honey, a natural product of honey bees, is traditionally consumed for enhancement of fertility and vitality among males in some populations. The decline in male reproductive health and fertility for the past 30 years has been linked to environmental toxicants. This has led to the increased interest to investigate the possible beneficial effect of honey on male reproductive health. A few experimental studies have been done and the aim of this review is to summarize and discuss these studies particularly related to oxidative stress and cigarette smoke exposure. However, more studies are needed to investigate its exact mechanism of action and its potential use as a natural antioxidant in protecting and treating male reproductive problems.
Article
Seminal quality has deteriorated rapidly over the past 50 years, making it an increasingly prevalent and relevant issue in unexplained male infertility (UMI). Researchers believe that the ever-changing environmental and lifestyle conditions to which the human body is exposed throughout an entire lifespan contribute greatly to this deterioration. Developments in industry and changes in modern lifestyle give rise to a range of different factors such as exposure to chemicals and toxins, harmful environmental agents and adverse lifestyle factors, all of which the body and consequently the reproductive system, has to cope with. Environmental insults during any phase (gestational, childhood and adulthood) of human development can mediate mechanisms disturbing the morphologic, hormonal, or oxidative aspects of testicular tissue and can have severe and irreversible effects on spermatogenesis in a subject or its offspring. This chapter aims to address some of the most prominent toxins and environmental factors affecting male infertility today, briefly discussing some of the possible effects that these toxins may have as the result of exposure of the male reproductive system to these adverse elements. Although the analyses of the results of evaluating the effects of environmental factors on the male reproductive system are not without their constraints, this chapter certainly provides enough compelling evidence to conclude that environmental and lifestyle factors play at least some role, if not a definitive one, in the development of UMI.
Article
Unlabelled: Male infertility is one of the most stressful factors of couples, being present in about 40% cases. It is usually caused by a low number of sperm (oligozoospermia) or poor sperm motility (asthenozoospermia). The sperm motility is used as an indicator of semen quality and male infertility. To the impairment of male reproduction health can contribute genetic, nutritional and environmental factors, smoking and drugs. It is well documented that excessive reactive oxygen species (ROS) production decreases sperm motility, impairs sperm function, damages the morphology of spermatozoa (1, 2). To the decreased sperm motility contribute also disturbances of sperm mitochondrial function and energy production, low levels of coenzyme Q10 and carnitine, as well as sperm mitochondrial deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) defects. The origin of sperm dysfunction, however, is not well understood. Background: Oxidative stress has been established as a major factor in the pathogenesis of male infertility. Low level of coenzyme Q10 contributes to the decreased sperm motility, which plays a vital role in sperm mitochondrial energy production and neutralization of reactive oxygen species (ROS).The aim of the present study was to find out, if an assessment of coenzyme Q10-TOTAL (CoQ10-TOTAL), α-tocopherol, γ-tocopherol and oxidative stress could contribute to the diagnosis of infertility in men. Subjects and methods: Two groups of infertile men, according to sperm motility (a+b and b+c) were included in the study. CoQ10-TOTAL, α-tocopherol, γ-tocopherol in plasma and seminal fluid, and parameter of oxidative stress (thiobarbituric acid reactive substances - TBARS) in plasma were determined. Results: Higher sperm density and decreased sperm pathology were found in group a+b vs b+c (class a and b - fast and weak forward motility, class c - nonprogressive motility). Concentrations of CoQ10-TOTAL and α-tocopherol were significantly increased in seminal fluid of groups a+b vs b+c, opposite results were estimated in plasma. Concentrations of γ-tocopherol in plasma and seminal fluid of both groups were similar. Plasmatic TBARS concentrations were increased in both groups of infertile men. Conclusion: We suppose that incorporation of oxidative stress assessment, CoQ10-TOTAL and α-tocopherol concentrations in seminal fluid and plasma into routine andrology can play an important role for the diagnosis and targeted therapy of male infertility (Tab. 1, Ref. 16).
Article
Supplements are becoming an increasingly important part of patients' approach to healthcare, and the field of male fertility is no exception. Antioxidants and micronutrients have been well studied for their ability to counteract many aspects of modern life that are deleterious to sperm function. By preventing cellular injury, or supporting the metabolic demands of sperm, these supplements are able to improve seminal parameters. Vitamins and minerals that are used in the treatment of male factor infertility include vitamins A, C, and E; selenium; zinc; glutathione; coenzyme Q10; folic acid; polyunsaturated fatty acids; arginine; lycopene; and carnitines. Multiple randomized controlled trials have evaluated the effectiveness of these agents and demonstrated improvements in seminal parameters as well as pregnancy rates.
Chapter
This chapter deals with the role of coenzyme Q10 in male infertility in the light of the increasing evidence of oxidative damage and antioxidant defence in sperm cells and seminal plasma. Reactive oxygen species have a key pathogenetic role in male infertility as well as a well-recognized physiological function. The involvement of coenzyme Q10 in mitochondrial bioenergetics and its antioxidant properties are at the basis of its role in seminal fluid. Therefore, in this chapter, we present the physiopathological basis linking coenzyme Q10 and its therapeutical properties. In addition, we provide an updated discussion of the clinical studies assessing the therapeutical effects of coenzyme Q10.
Chapter
The influence of reactive oxygen species (ROS) on sperm function and male fertility is well documented; in contrast, the role of the mitochondria in the generation of aberrant oxidative stress is a recent development. The mitochondria, comprised of complex machinery for energy production, are also equally complex in term of oxidative stress with multiple sites of ROS generation and multiple ­neutralizing enzymatic and nonenzymatic antioxidants. Knockout mouse models of enzymatic antioxidants do not lead to drastic changes in male fertility; however, increases susceptibility to external toxins and aging. Taking into account the ­numerous intrinsic and external factors that have been related to mitochondria ROS generation including fatty acids, apoptosis, cigarette smoking, and paternal age, it is likely that multiple risk factors will increase the likelihood of excessive mitochondria ROS generation in mammalian spermatozoa. A clinical focus on mitochondria-targeted antioxidant therapies and research may provide greater insight into oxidative stress-related male infertility and potential treatments.
Article
Sensitivity of rooster semen to stressful condition of cooling restricts the semen storage in commercial flocks for artificial insemination. This study was accomplished to investigate the effect of coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) addition to the Lake extender during chilled-storage on the parameters of sperm quality and fertility performance. Roosters’ pooled semen samples were assigned into equal parts and diluted with Lake extender supplemented with different concentrations of CoQ10 (0, 1, 2, 5 and 10 μM CoQ10). Then, semen samples were cooled to 5 °C and stored over 48 h. Total and progressive motilities, abnormal morphology, viability, membrane functionality, lipid peroxidation (LPO) and mitochondria active potential of diluted sperm were evaluated at 0, 24 and 48 h of cooling storage. Fertility performance of cooled stored semen was examined at 24 h of cooling storage. Although CoQ10 did not affect sperm quality at the starting time of cooling storage (0 h), extender supplementation with 5 μM of CoQ10 showed higher (P ≤ 0.05) sperm total and progressive motilities, membrane functionality, viability and mitochondria active potential at 24 h as well as total motility, viability and membrane functionality at 48 h in contrast with other groups. Moreover, lipid peroxidation was lower (P ≤ 0.05) in semen samples diluted with 5 μM CoQ10 at 24 and 48 h compared to others. After artificial insemination with 24 h chilled-stored sperm, fertility efficiency was higher (P ≤ 0.05) in treatments contained 5 μM CoQ10 compared to the control group. According to the results, using optimum dose of CoQ10 could be helpful to save rooster semen against chilled storage structural and functional damages.
Article
Oxidative stress owing to an imbalance between reactive oxygen species and antioxidants, such as coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10), is a major contributor to male infertility. We investigated the effects of the reduced form of CoQ10 (ubiquinol) supplementation on semen quality in dogs with poor semen quality. Three dogs received 100 mg of ubiquinol orally once daily for 12 weeks. Semen quality, serum testosterone, and seminal plasma superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity were examined at 2-week intervals from 2 weeks before ubiquinol supplementation to 4 weeks after the treatment. Ubiquinol improved sperm motility, reduced morphologically abnormal sperm, and increased seminal plasma SOD activity; however, it had no effect on testosterone level, semen volume, and sperm number. Ubiquinol supplementation could be used as a non-endocrine therapy for infertile dogs.
Article
Varicocele is a main cause of lower production of spermatozoon and infertility with multiple pathophysiological mechanisms. In the past decades, the use of dietary supplements has significantly increased due to both the modern lifestyle and the food shortages of the industrialised countries. The purpose of this review paper is to collect scientific evidences from basic and clinical studies which support the use of dietary supplements to define the clinical framework for patients with varicocele. In the present review, we used keywords such as dietary supplements, varicocele, male infertility, oxidative stress, DNA fragmentation, sperm parameters to find the proper articles. The standard search biomedical engines were used for seeking the papers. The use of dietary supplements such as minerals, vitamins and antioxidants has an essential role in the prevention and treatment of varicocele by increasing the levels of antioxidant enzymes (e.g. peroxidase, superoxide dismutase and catalase) and decreasing the levels of inflammatory markers (e.g. tumour necrosis factor‐α, interleukin‐6 and interleukin‐1) in testis. According to the results, the dietary supplements may alleviate the spermatogenesis in varicocele patients through different mechanisms such as suppression of stress oxidative and inflammation in testicular tissue.
Article
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of different concentrations of CoQ10 in soybean lecithin (SL) or egg yolk (EY) extenders on ram semen cryopreservation. Semen samples were collected from five rams, twice a week, then diluted in the extenders (SL and EY) containing different concentrations of CoQ10 as follows: extender containing SL: 0 μM (control, SL/Q0), 1 μM (SL/Q1), 2 μM (SL/Q2), 5 μM (SL/Q5) and 10 μM (SL/Q10) CoQ10; extender containing EY: 0 μM (control, EY/Q0), 1 μM (EY/Q1), 2 μM (EY/Q2), 5 μM (EY/Q5) and 10 μM (EY/Q10) CoQ10. Sperm motion characteristics, membrane integrity, abnormal morphology, viability, apoptotic-like changes, mitochondria active potential, acrosome integrity and lipid peroxidation were evaluated after freeze-thaw process. The SL/Q1, SL/Q2, EY/Q1 and EY/Q2 resulted in greater (P ≤ 0.05) sperm total motility, progressive motility, membrane integrity and mitochondria active potential compared to the other groups. Acrosome integrity in the SL/Q0, SL/Q1, SL/Q2, EY/Q0, EY/Q1 and EY/Q2 groups was greater (P ≤ 0.05) than in the SL/Q5, SL/Q10, EY/Q5 and EY/Q10 groups. The SL/Q2 and EY/Q2 treatment groups had greater (P ≤ 0.05) sperm viability rates and less apoptotic-like changes and lipid peroxidation. The CoQ10 compound could be explored as a novel potential antioxidant for cryopreservation of ram semen because with used of this compound in the present study there was an improved post-thawed sperm quality.
Article
Honey, a natural product of honey bees, is traditionally consumed for enhancement of fertility and vitality among males in some populations. The decline in male reproductive health and fertility for the past 30 years has been linked to environmental toxicants. This has led to the increased interest to investigate the possible beneficial effect of honey on male reproductive health. A few experimental studies have been done and the aim of this review is to summarize and discuss these studies particularly related to oxidative stress and cigarette smoke exposure. However, more studies are needed to investigate its exact mechanism of action and its potential use as a natural antioxidant in protecting and treating male reproductive problems.
Book
This book focuses on the use of various molecules with antioxidant properties in the treatment of major male genital tract disorders, especially male infertility, erectile dysfunction, and accessory gland infection. The coverage also includes discussion of pathophysiology, the molecular basis of male infertility, and the rationale for use of antioxidants, with particular attention to coenzyme Q10 and carnitine. Oxidative stress occurs when the production of reactive oxygen species, including free radicals, exceeds the body’s natural antioxidant defences, leading to cellular damage. Oxidative stress is present in about half of all infertile men, and reactive oxygen species can produce infertility both by damaging the sperm membrane, with consequences for sperm motility, and by altering the sperm DNA. There is consequently a clear rationale for the use of antioxidant treatments within andrology, and various in vitro and in vivo studies have indicated that many antioxidants indeed have beneficial impacts. In providing a detailed and up-to-date overview of the subject, this book will be of interest to both practitioners and researchers in andrology, endocrinology, and urology.
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The present study aimed to evaluate the effects of different concentrations of the antioxidant coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) on motility and motion parameters of goat spermatozoa following the freeze-thaw process. Semen was diluted into four equal aliquots of extender containing different concentrations of CoQ10 (0, 0.5, 1 and 1.5 µM), aspirated into 0.25 mL straws, and equilibrated at 5 ºC for 2 h. After equilibration, straws were frozen in liquid nitrogen vapor and plunged into liquid nitrogen for storage. Post-thaw, motility and motion parameters of sperm were assessed by CASA. Results of this experiment showed that addition of 1 µM of CoQ10 to the extender for freezing of goat semen can improve motility and progressive motility in compared to other extenders. In conclusion, between above-mentioned concentrations, 1 µM of CoQ10 could improve goat spermatozoa motility following the freeze-thaw process.
Article
The purpose of this experiment was to explore whether coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) improves the quality of sheep semen stored at room temperature by attenuating oxidative stress. Semen was diluted without (control group), and with antioxidants (5, 50, 250, and 500 μmol/L CoQ10). Sperm kinetic parameters and plasma membrane integrity were determined, and the reactive oxygen species (ROS), malondialdehyde (MDA), adenosine triphosphate (ATP), mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP), total antioxidant capacity (TAOC), catalase (CAT), and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity were evaluated on the fifth day of semen preservation. The results showed that compared with the control group, the progressive motility in the 50 μmol/L group was higher (p < 0.05) within 2–5 days, and the plasma membrane integrity of sperm was higher in the 50 μmol/L group. The ROS content in the 5 and 50 μmol/L groups was reduced. The MDA level was reduced in the CoQ10 supplementation groups (p < 0.05). Additionally, the CAT, SOD, TAOC, ATP and MMP levels in the 50 μmol/L group were higher than those in the control group (p < 0.05). In conclusion, CoQ10 improved the quality of ram semen by alleviating oxidative stress, and 50 μmol/L CoQ10 was the optimum concentration.
Chapter
Men with idiopathic infertility are usually treated with empirical therapies. Many over-the-counter (OTC) therapies have been historically used for male fertility, including herbs, vitamins, and nutritional supplements. Many studies demonstrate the positive effects of dietary supplementation on semen parameters and pregnancy outcomes. Conversely, many studies also demonstrate a lack of improvement and potential complications with supplementation. Oxidative stress has been a well-studied aetiology of abnormal semen parameters. Because of this, many of the current OTC therapies rely on antioxidant properties. The practice of prescribing oral antioxidant is supported by the lack of serious side effects related to this therapy, although few studies have carefully evaluated the risk of overtreatment. The most commonly studied dietary supplements include vitamin E, vitamin C, carnitines, lycopene, glutathione, selenium, omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids, zinc, arginine, and coenzyme-Q10.
Article
Full-text available
We had previously demonstrated that Coenzyme Q10 [(CoQ10) also commonly called ubiquinone]is present in well-measurable levels in human seminal fluid, where it probably exerts important metabolic and antioxidant functions; seminal CoQ10 concentrations show a direct correlation with seminal parameters (count and motility). Alterations of CoQ10 content were also shown in conditions associated with male infertility, such as asthenozoospermia and varicocele (VAR). The physiological role of this molecule was further clarified by inquiring into its variations in concentrations induced by different medical or surgical procedures used in male infertility treatment. We therefore evaluated CoQ10 concentration and distribution between seminal plasma and spermatozoa in VAR, before and after surgical treatment, and in infertile patients after recombinant human FSH therapy. The effect of CoQ10 on sperm motility and function had been addressed only through some in vitro experiments. In two distinct studies conducted by our group, 22 and 60 patients affected by idiopathic asthenozoospermia were enrolled, respectively. CoQ10 and its reduced form, ubiquinol, increased significantly both in seminal plasma and sperm cells after treatment, as well as spermatozoa motility. A weak linear dependence among the relative variations, at baseline and after treatment, of seminal plasma or intracellular CoQ10, ubiquinol levels and kinetic parameters was found in the treated group. Patients with lower baseline value of motility and CoQ10 levels had a statistically significant higher probability to be responders to the treatment. In conclusion, the exogenous administration of CoQ10 increases both ubiquinone and ubiquinol levels in semen and can be effective in improving sperm kinetic features in patients affected by idiopathic asthenozoospermia
Article
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BACKGROUND: Nowadays, Coenzyme Q10 is used in male infertility treatment as an oral or injectable supplement. The main role of coenzyme Q10 is presence in the electron transport chain during cellular respiration process to produce energy in the mitochondrial membrane. OBJECTIVES: The purpose of the current study was to evaluate the effects of Coenzyme Q10 on morphological characteristics of the testis and histological features of seminiferous tubules in ostrich. METHODS: 18 male ostriches, 6 months old, from South African breed (struthio camelus australis) were selected and divided into three groups of 6. Group one (control) was fed only by maintenance ration. The second group received 10 mg/kg and the third one, 20mg/kg of Coenzyme Q10 in their food. Coenzyme was given orally and once daily. After two months, the birds were slaughtered and gonadosomatic index (GSI), weight, height and diagonal of testis, diameter of the seminiferous tubules as well as lumen diameter, the height of their epithelium and also the number of spermatogonial cells, primary spermatocyte, Sertoli and Leydig cells were compared in the control and experimental groups. At the beginning and on 30th and 60th days of the experiment, blood samples were taken from the birds for endocrinology investigations and the plasma was separated for measuring the plasma concentration of testosterone and cholesterol. RESULTS:After feeding ostriches with Coenzyme Q10, weight, height, diagonal and testicular gonadosomatic index increased significantly in the experimental groups compared to control group (p≤0.05). The histometric surveys also showed a significant increase of seminiferous tubules diameter, lumen diameter, height of epithelium and there was also a significant increase in the number of spermatogonial cells, primary spermatocytes, sertoli and leidig cells (p≤0.05). The endocrinology evaluations revealed the increase of plasma concentration of testosterone in treatment groups in comparison to the control group; however this increase was not significant for cholesterol level. CONCLUSIONS: Oral Coenzyme Q10 may have favorable effects on reproductive characteristic of the male ostriches.
Article
In order to investigate antioxidant systems in varicocele (VAR), we studied the correlation between non-enzymatic total antioxidant capacity (TAC) and seminal parameters and subsequently the effect of supplementation of antioxidant, coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10). TAC was determined in seminal plasma of 27 VAR patients (10 oligospermic and 17 normospermic) and 24 non-VAR controls (7 with idiopathic oligospermia and 17 normospermic). We measured the interaction of system H2O2-metamyoglobin with chromogen ABTS, whose radical cation is spectroscopically detectable. The length of latency phase (Lag) in ABTS accumulation is proportional to antioxidant concentration. Lag was significantly greater in all VAR vs. control subjects; a multivariate analysis indicated a very high inverse correlation between FSH and the percentage of motile progressive cells, which was not further modified by addition of Lag length to the statistical model. CoQ10 treatment (100 mg/daily for 3 months) significantly increased the Lag phase. We maintain that greater FSH levels, achieved by inducing a more efficient utilisation of antioxidants by spermatozoa, may counterbalance VAR-induced spermatozoa deficit.
Article
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We examined the damaging effects on spermatozoa of endogenous phospholipid peroxidation brought about by aerobic incubation at 37 degrees C in the presence of 0-5 mM-ascorbic acid and 0-5 mM-FeSO4. As well as becoming immotile, such peroxidized spermatozoa also lost, through leakage, certain intracellular enzymes into the surrounding medium, on a scale resembling that produced by cold shocking non-peroxidized spermatozoa. Morphological observations revealed that peroxidation damaged the plasma membrane, particularly in the region of the acrosome. Further experiments showed that lipid peroxidation irreversibly abolished the fructolytic and respiratory activity of spermatozoa. The susceptibility of spermatozoa to peroxidation was greater when the cells were damaged before incubation with ascorbic acid and FeSO4. To some extent, peroxidation could be prevented, but not reversed, by the addition to sperm suspensions of dialysed egg yolk or dialysed bull seminal plasma. However, dialysed seminal plasma from ram, stallion or man had no protective effect.
Article
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Ubiquinol-10 (CoQH2, the reduced form of coenzyme Q10) is a potent antioxidant present in human low-density lipoprotein (LDL). Supplementation of humans with ubiquinone-10 (CoQ, the oxidized coenzyme) increased the concentrations of CoQH2 in plasma and in all of its lipoproteins. Intake of a single oral dose of 100 or 200 mg CoQ increased the total plasma coenzyme content by 80 or 150%, respectively, within 6 h. Long-term supplementation (three times 100 mg CoQ/day) resulted in 4-fold enrichment of CoQH2 in plasma and LDL with the latter containing 2.8 CoQH2 molecules per LDL particle (on day 11). Approx. 80% of the coenzyme was present as CoQH2 and the CoQH2/CoQ ratio was unaffected by supplementation, indicating that the redox state of coenzyme Q10 is tightly controlled in the blood. Oxidation of LDL containing various [CoQH2] by a mild, steady flux of aqueous peroxyl radicals resulted immediately in very slow formation of lipid hydroperoxides. However, in each case the rate of lipid oxidation increased markedly with the disappearance of 80-90% CoQH2. Moreover, the cumulative radical dose required to reach this 'break point' in lipid oxidation was proportional to the amount of CoQH2 incorporated in vivo into the LDL. Thus, oral supplementation with CoQ increases CoQH2 in the plasma and all lipoproteins thereby increasing the resistance of LDL to radical oxidation.
Article
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The properties and distribution of nonaprenyl-4-hydroxybenzoate transferase in rat liver were investigated with subcellular fractions, liver perfusion, and in vivo labeling with [3H]solanesyl-PP. In addition to some ubiquinone-9, only one labeled intermediate, i.e. nonaprenyl-4-hydroxybenzoate, was obtained. In the total microsomal fraction, the enzyme had a pH optimum of 7.5 and was completely inhibited by Triton X-100 and deoxycholate, but not by taurodeoxycholate and beta-octyl glucoside. Liver, kidney, and spleen demonstrated the highest activities of nonaprenyl-4-hydroxybenzoate transferase. Upon subcellular fractionation, high specific activities were found in smooth II microsomes and Golgi III vesicles. The enzyme was also found in lysosomes and plasma membranes, but only at low levels in rough and smooth I microsomes and mitochondria and not at all in peroxisomes and cytosol. When the product of the transferase reaction was used as a substrate in vitro and in a perfusion system, the only product obtained was end product ubiquinone-9. Although the transferase reaction was associated with the inner, luminal surface of microsomal vesicles, the terminal reaction(s) for ubiquinone-9 synthesis are found at the outer cytoplasmic surface. The results suggest that the major site for ubiquinone synthesis is the endoplasmic reticulum-Golgi system, which also participates in the distribution of ubiquinone-9 to other cellular membranes.
Article
Coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) occurs in the mitochondria of human cells. It is 2,3-dimethoxy-5-methyl-6-decaprenyl-l,4-benzoquinone and functions as a cofactor in several enzyme systems related to energy conversion. As such, it is essential for human life to exist. Since mitochondria are very abundant in myocardial cells and because of their huge energy needs, a deficiency of CoQ10 could have a particularly severe effect on myocardial function.In 1981 we chose cardiomyopathy for clinical study because it has been a disease of unknown cause, which has been apparently limited to the myocardium and has been without effective treatment. A short-term doubleblind cross-over study of 19 patients with cardiomyopathy (New York Heart Association classes III and IV) was completed in 1982. Control subjects' CoQ10 levels that were in the deficiency range were increased into the normal range by oral replacement therapy. This paralleled significant improvement in myocardial function and clinical status. There was no intolerance of the treatment.1A long-term open-label study was begun in November 1982 with the goal of determining if tolerance of CoQ10 and clinical improvement were maintained over long periods of time. From our observations with untreated control subjects in the short-term study and those of Mortensen et al,2 we thought it improper to use untreated control subjects in a long-term study. Myocardial function entails active energy input in both the contracting and relaxing phases, which may not be equally involved in clinical heart disease. Since precise measurement of each phase of myocardial function remains developmental, long-term survival figures could be finite and meaningful.
Article
Summary— The Doppler technique has been used to evaluate venous reflux in the spermatic cord. Valsalva-induced reflux occurred on the left side in 83% and on the right side in 59% of 118 patients without clinical varicoceles and there was no difference in incidence between fertile and infertile men. The significance of Valsalva-induced reflux should be questioned. Greater importance should be attributed to the spontaneous venous reflux that occurred during quiet respiration in the majority of patients with varicoceles. Seven velocity waveform patterns are described and these are thought to represent increasing degrees of internal spermatic vein reflux and provide a basis on which it is possible to grade varicoceles. The Doppler grades correlated with the size of the varicocele, and with the internal spermatic vein diameter and testosterone concentrations.
Article
Ubiquinone (coenzyme Q), in addition to its function as an electron and proton carrier in mitochondrial and bacterial electron transport linked to ATP synthesis, acts in its reduced form (ubiquinol) as an antioxidant, preventing the initiation and/or propagation of lipid peroxidation in biological membranes and in serum low-density lipoprotein. The antioxidant activity of ubiquinol is independent of the effect of vitamin E, which acts as a chain-breaking antioxidant inhibiting the propagation of lipid peroxidation. In addition, ubiquinol can efficiently sustain the effect of vitamin E by regenerating the vitamin from the tocopheroxyl radical, which otherwise must rely on water-soluble agents such as ascorbate (vitamin C). Ubiquinol is the only known lipid-soluble antioxidant that animal cells can synthesize de novo, and for which there exist enzymic mechanisms that can regenerate the antioxidant from its oxidized form resulting from its inhibitory effect of lipid peroxidation. These features, together with its high degree of hydrophobicity and its widespread occurrence in biological membranes and in low-density lipoprotein, suggest an important role of ubiquinol in cellular defense against oxidative damage. Degenerative diseases and aging may bc 1 manifestations of a decreased capacity to maintain adequate ubiquinol levels.
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