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High-fat foods overcome the energy expenditure induced by high-intensity cycling or running

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Abstract

To examine the effects of two types of vigorous exercise [cycling (CYC) and running (RUN)] and diet composition on appetite control. Two studies using separate groups of subjects were used for the two forms of exercise. The studies used a 2 x 2 design with the factors being exercise and diet composition. Therefore both studies had four treatment conditions and used a repeated measures design. Both studies took place in the Human Appetite Research Unit at Leeds University. Twenty-four lean, healthy males were recruited from the student staff population of Leeds University. For both studies a control (no-exercise) and a vigorous exercise session (70% VO2 max) was followed by a free-selection lunch comprising high-fat/low-carbohydrate foods or low-fat/high-carbohydrate foods, during which energy and macronutrient intake was monitored. Motivation to eat was measured by visual analogue scales and by the latency to volitional onset of eating. Energy intake for the remainder of the day (outside of laboratory) was monitored by providing the subjects with airline-style food boxes. Both CYC and RUN produced similar effects on appetite responses. Both CYC and RUN induced a transitory suppression of hunger (P < 0.01 and P < 0.05) and a delay to the onset of eating (P < 0.001). Exercise (whether CYC or RUN) had no significant effect on the total amount of food eaten, but there was a significant effect of lunch type. When provided with the high-fat/low-carbohydrate foods energy intake was significantly elevated (CYC: P < 0.001; and RUN: P < 0.0001). Both types of exercise induced a short-term negative energy balance when followed by the low-fat/high-carbohydrate foods (P < 0.001), which was completely reversed (positive energy balance) when subjects ate from the high-fat/low carbohydrate foods. These results indicate that eating high-fat foods can prevent exercise inducing any (short-term) negative energy balance. Therefore, in order for exercise to have a significant impact on weight control, it is important to consider the energy density of the accompanying diet. Despite the different physiological aspects of cycling and running, they did not display different effects on appetite.
... The impact of strenuous exercise on subsequent EI has been more largely studied. Vigorous activity has been found to significantly decrease hunger (J. A. King, Miyashita et al., 2010;N. A. King & Blundell, 1995;N. A. King et al., 1994;Thompson et al., 1988), a phenomenon that was called "exercise-induced anorexia" (N. A. King & Blundell, 1995;N. A. King et al., 1994). However this feeling is temporary (J. A. King, Miyashita et al., 2010;N. A. King & Blundell, 1995;N. A. King et al., 1994;N. A. King, Snell, Smith, & Blundell, 1996;Kissileff et a ...
... A. King & Blundell, 1995;N. A. King et al., 1994;Thompson et al., 1988), a phenomenon that was called "exercise-induced anorexia" (N. A. King & Blundell, 1995;N. A. King et al., 1994). ...
... ctivity has been found to significantly decrease hunger (J. A. King, Miyashita et al., 2010;N. A. King & Blundell, 1995;N. A. King et al., 1994;Thompson et al., 1988), a phenomenon that was called "exercise-induced anorexia" (N. A. King & Blundell, 1995;N. A. King et al., 1994). However this feeling is temporary (J. A. King, Miyashita et al., 2010;N. A. King & Blundell, 1995;N. A. King et al., 1994;N. A. King, Snell, Smith, & Blundell, 1996;Kissileff et al., 1990;Thompson et al., 1988;Westerterp-Plantenga, Verwegen, Ijedema, Wijckmans, & Saris, 1997) and may thus alter EI only at the short term (Bellisle, 1999). If most of the actual literature agrees on the effects of high intensity on hunger the exact cons ...
Thesis
Physical activity programs and dietary restrictions are commonly used to favor weight-loss in overweight and obese patients, by reducing energy balance. Such programs suffer of a low adherence and high drop-out due to the difficulties met by patients to concomitantly support exercise and energy restriction. Physical exercise has been proposed as a potential indirect energy intake modulator, which could be interesting in terms of obesity treatment. The impact of exercise on subsequent energy balance (intake and expenditure) and appetite has been mainly questioned among lean adults but few data are available in obese populations, particularly pediatrics. The first aim of this work was then to determine whether or not an acute bout of exercise could affect subsequent energy balance and appetite in obese adolescents (STUDY I). Then the importance of the prescribed exercise intensity (Low vs High intensity) on those energy balance and appetite modifications has been investigated (STUDY II). The results demonstrate that an intensive exercise (>70%VO2max) realized by the end of the morning favors a reduced energy balance by mainly decreasing energy intake. The induced energy intake decrease was observed within minutes after the exercise (30 minutes, lunch time), with the onset being experienced about 7 hours after, during dinner time. Data remain however contradictive concerning the post exercise macronutrient intake, and further investigations are required. No gender difference was observed in terms of post exercise energy balance and appetite adaptations. The observed energy intake adaptations were not accompanied by appetite sensation modifications, suggesting that obese adolescents are not at risk for food frustration. Within 24-h, obese adolescents’ energy balance can be reduced thanks to both elevated energy expenditure and decreased energy intake when an intensive exercise is performed by the end of the morning. Such results need to be questioned as part of chronic interventions to know whether or not intensive exercise can provide a great tool to induced long term energy balance reduction (by dually affecting energy expenditure and intake) and then weight loss.
... Most studies have assessed appetite using scales to rate sensations, such as hunger, gastric fullness, or satiety. Most reported no change in appetite scores, but some reported a small and transient (0 to 60 min, depending on the studies) decrease in appetite scores after the exercise relative to the rest session (King et al. 1994;King and Blundell 1995;Broom et al. 2007;Burns et al. 2007;Douglas et al. 2017). Results comparing HII ex and MIC ex sessions showed that the postexercise reduction in hunger after HII ex was either not observed (Deighton et al. 2013), greater than after MIC ex (Williams et al. 2013), or similar (Howe et al. 2016). ...
... This is an important shortcoming, because the time between 2 meals spontaneously initiated has been shown to be a major determinant of food intake in animals (Le Magnen and Devos 1970; Larue-Achagiotis and Le Magnen 1980) and the first variable of eating pattern modified in response of an energy challenge (Davies 1977;Strubbe and van Dijk 2002). MIC ex was reported to delay the initiation of a meal when participants were exposed to food (King et al. 1994King and Blundell 1995). However, the effect of HII ex on such latency has never been explored. ...
... The few studies that allowed participants to spontaneously initiate eating after an exercise session also reported that the latency of meal initiation was the only component of eating behavior to be altered. A small (ϳ5 min) but significant delayed eating onset was reported after continuous running or cycling exercises at moderate to vigorous intensity (70% to 77% V O 2max ) for 26 to 60 min, depending on the procedures (King et al. 1994;King and Blundell 1995). This effect on latency to eat was, however, not found after low-intensity (ϳ36% V O 2max ) continuous exercises (King et al. 1994). ...
Article
High-intensity interval exercises (HIIex) have gained popularity but their effects on eating behavior are poorly known. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether the effects of HIIex on the three main components of eating behavior (appetite, intake, and latency to eat) differ from those of moderate-intensity continuous exercises (MICex) matched for energy expenditure. Fifteen young normal-weight males completed three sessions in a counterbalanced order: HIIex (30-s bouts at 90% of V̇O2max interceded with 60-s bouts at 35% of V̇O2max for 20 min), MICex (42% of V̇O2max for 40 min), and a resting session (REST). Trials were scheduled 80 and 100 min after a standard breakfast for MICex and HIIex, respectively. At 120 min, participants were isolated until they asked for lunch. Appetite was rated on four visual analog scales (hunger, desire to eat, fullness, and prospective consumption) every 15 min until meal request. Results showed that the mean latency of requesting lunch was significantly longer after HIIex than after REST (+17.3 ± 4.3 min, P = 0.004), but not after MICex (P = 0.686). Energy intake was not different between conditions, leading to a negative energy balance in the two exercise sessions. Thus, the effects of HIIex on eating behavior are likely primarily mediated through the latency of meal initiation. However, inter-individual variability was large and further studies are needed to identify the predictive factors of this response.
... In fact, negative EB is not always generated on the day of exercise. For example, the choice of a highly energy-dense food after exercise is often associated with a positive EB [32][33][34], and ad libitum feeding is also likely to lead to overconsumption [35]. Thus, acute energy deficit from increased PA would only be achieved when the daily meal pattern is considered without high energy dense food or the buffet meal. ...
... A number of previous studies have reported that people feel less hungry during and soon after a bout of exercise, especially if the exercise intensity is equivalent to >60% of maximal oxygen uptake [22,33,37]. In the present study, the exercise intensity on the High-PA day was 53.7% ± 10.4% of www.mdpi.com/journal/nutrients ...
Article
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We aimed to investigate the effects of a wide range of daily physical activity (PA) levels on energy balance (EB), energy intake (EI), and appetite. Nine young men completed three different PA levels in a metabolic chamber in a random order: (1) no exercise (Low-PA); (2) 25 min walking seven times (Mid-PA); and (3) 25 min running seven times (High-PA) within a 24 h period. Interval exercise (25 min exercise and 35 min rest) was performed three times in the morning and four times in the afternoon. The exercise intensities were 21.6% and 53.7% V ˙ O₂ peak for the Mid-PA and High-PA days, respectively. Participants were served three standardized meals and a buffet for dinner. The 24 h EB was calculated as 24 h energy expenditure (EE) minus 24 h EI. The 24 h EEs for the Low-PA, Mid-PA, and High-PA days were 1907 ± 200, 2232 ± 240, and 3224 ± 426 kcal, respectively, with significant differences observed among the three conditions (p < 0.01 for Low-PA vs. Mid-PA, Low-PA vs. High-PA, and Mid-PA vs. High-PA, respectively). The 24 h EIs for the Low-PA, Mid-PA, and High-PA days were 3232 ± 528, 2991 ± 617, and 3337 ± 684 kcal, and were unaffected by PA levels (p = 0.115). The 24 h EBs were 1324 ± 441 kcal (Low-PA), 759 ± 543 kcal (Mid-PA), and 113 ± 430 kcal (High-PA), with significant differences observed between Low-PA vs. Mid-PA (p = 0.0496), Low-PA vs. High-PA (p ≤ 0.01), and Mid-PA vs. High-PA (p = 0.017) conditions. The EB in the Low-PA group was the highest of the three conditions. Appetite perception did not differ among the study days, however there was an interaction trend (p = 0.078, time × condition). Thus, significantly different daily PA did not affect 24 h EI, however markedly affected 24 h EB, implying that EB is not automatically matched during a single day.
... This is supported by an increase in GLP-1 levels with increasing energy flux (i.e., a higher EE with correspondingly higher EI) at a concomitant decrease in ghrelin levels [24]. The beneficial effects of exercise on energy balance can be fully prevented under conditions of a high-fat, energy-dense diet [22,41,42]. Likewise, under controlled conditions in a metabolic chamber, we found that a high PA level of 1.76 at low-intensity was needed for spontaneous maintenance of energy balance under ad libitum access to an energy-dense Western diet [24]. ...
Article
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Coupling energy intake (EI) to increases in energy expenditure (EE) may be adaptively, compensatorily, or maladaptively leading to weight gain. This narrative review examines if functioning of the homeostatic responses depends on the type of physiological perturbations in EE (e.g., due to exercise, sleep, temperature, or growth), or if it is influenced by protein intake, or the extent, duration, timing, and frequency of EE. As different measures to increase EE could convey discrepant neuronal or humoral signals that help to control food intake, the coupling of EI to EE could be tight or loose, which implies that some ways to increase EE may have advantages for body weight regulation. Exercise, physical activity, heat exposure, and a high protein intake favor weight loss, whereas an increase in EE due to cold exposure or sleep loss likely contributes to an overcompensation of EI, especially in vulnerable thrifty phenotypes, as well as under obesogenic environmental conditions, such as energy dense high fat—high carbohydrate diets. Irrespective of the type of EE, transient elevations in the metabolic rate seem to be general risk factors for weight gain, because a subsequent decrease in energy requirement is not compensated by an adequate adaptation of appetite and EI.
... Fat is the most energy dense nutrient and is highly palatable; factors which together promote overconsumption of energy when high fat foods are available (Gerstein et al., 2004). Increasing the energy density of rations by increasing fat content may therefore help overcome some appetite suppression induced by operational stressors (King & Blundell, 1995). Thus, the implications of increasing ration energy density for reducing energy deficits (e.g. by incorporating up to ∼40% total energy as fat) and assessing associated physical/cognitive performance effects are contemporary focus areas in military nutrition research. ...
Article
The importance of diet and nutrition to military readiness and performance has been recognized for centuries as dietary nutrients sustain health, protect against illness, and promote resilience, performance and recovery. Contemporary military nutrition research is increasingly inter-disciplinary with emphasis often placed on the broad topics of: 1) determining operational nutrition requirements in all environments, 2) characterizing nutritional practices of military personnel relative to the required (role/environment) standards, and 3) developing strategies for improving nutrient delivery and individual choices. This review discusses contemporary issues shared internationally by military nutrition research programs, and highlights emerging topics likely to influence future military nutrition research and policy. Contemporary issues include improving the diet quality of military personnel, optimizing operational rations, and increasing understanding of biological factors influencing nutrient requirements. Emerging areas include the burgeoning field of precision nutrition and its technological enablers.
... Higher energy density meals and diets consistently result in higher energy intakes, usually without affecting perceived appetite (69) , and despite postprandial appetite-mediating hormone responses that track energy intake (70) . Higher-fat diets (50-60 % v. 30-35 % of energy) and meals have also been shown to mitigate exercise-induced energy deficits (71)(72)(73)(74) and contribute to increased energy intake in military field training environments (75) . Increasing fat content and energy density of foods (e.g. military rations) consumed during sustained periods of prolonged low-to-moderate intensity physical activity may therefore warrant consideration in future research as possible strategies for attenuating energy deficit. ...
Article
Energy deficit is common during prolonged periods of strenuous physical activity and limited sleep, but the extent to which appetite suppression contributes is unclear. The aim of this randomized crossover study was to determine the effects of energy balance on appetite and physiologic mediators of appetite during a 72-hr period of high physical activity energy expenditure (PAEE, ˜2300kcal/d) and limited sleep designed to simulate military operations (SUSOPS). Ten men consumed an energy-balanced diet while sedentary for 1d (REST) followed by energy balanced (BAL) and energy deficient (DEF) controlled diets during SUSOPS. Appetite ratings, gastric emptying time (GET), and appetite-mediating hormone concentrations were measured. Energy balance was positive during BAL (18±20%) and negative during DEF (-43±9%). Relative to REST, hunger, desire to eat and prospective consumption ratings were all higher during DEF (26±40%, 56±71%, 28±34%, respectively), and lower during BAL (-55±25%, -52±27%, -54±21%, respectively; P condition <0.05). Fullness ratings did not differ from REST during DEF, but were 65±61% higher during BAL (P condition <0.05). Regression analyses predicted hunger and prospective consumption would be reduced and fullness increased if energy balance were maintained during SUSOPS, and energy deficits of ≥25% would be required to elicit increases in appetite. Between-condition differences in GET and appetite-mediating hormones identified slowed gastric emptying, increased anorexigenic hormone concentrations, and decreased fasting acylated ghrelin concentrations as potential mechanisms of appetite suppression. Findings suggest that physiologic responses that suppress appetite may deter energy balance from being achieved during prolonged periods of strenuous activity and limited sleep.
... Sex-based differences in the metabolic response to exercise in humans has also been reported (e.g. transient suppression of hunger after exercise in men but not women exposed to the same exercise regimen) [21,120,122]. However, less is known about the sex-dependent effects of exercise-induced synaptic rewiring of POMC, NPY/AgRP, and other neuronal populations, which warrants further investigation. ...
Article
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Dysfunction in neurophysiological systems that regulate food intake and metabolism are at least partly responsible for obesity and related comorbidities. An important component of this process is the hypothalamic melanocortin system, where an imbalance can result in severe obesity and deficits in glucose metabolism. Exercise offers many health benefits related to cardiovascular improvements, hunger control, and blood glucose homeostasis. However, the molecular mechanism underlying the exercise-induced improvements to the melanocortin system remain undefined. Here, we review the role of the melanocortin system to sense hormonal, nutrient, and neuronal signals of energy status. This information is then relayed onto secondary neurons in order to regulate physiological parameters, which promote proper energy and glucose balance. We also provide an overview on the effects of physical exercise to induce biophysical changes in the melanocortin circuit which may regulate food intake, glucose metabolism and improve overall metabolic health.
... Diversas pesquisas procuram mostrar a relação entre o exercício físico de endurance e o consumo alimentar. Estudos realizados com ciclistas e maratonistas descrevem uma redução no consumo alimentar, por um fenômeno descrito como "anorexia induzida pelo exercício físico" [26][27][28]. Entretanto, a literatura afirma não haver alterações crônicas geradas pelo exercício físico de endurance em relação ao aumento do consumo alimentar [29][30][31]. ocorrendo então, apenas uma ação temporária do exercício sobre o consumo energético [2]. ...
Article
O exercício físico é responsável por gerar diversas adaptações morfofuncionais, endócrinas, metabólicas e neurais. Dentre elas, destaca-se a melhora na sensibilidade à ação de hormônios como a insulina e a leptina, bem como a modulação nas concentrações plasmáticas dos hormônios GH, IGF-1, testosterona e cortisol, responsáveis pela homeostase energética. A insulina é um importante estimulante na secreção de leptina, ambos exercem papel central na homeostase energética e controle do consumo alimentar no núcleo arqueado do hipotálamo, controlando a secreção de neuropeptídios responsáveis pelo consumo alimentar, tais como: NPY, AgRP, CART e POMC. Esta revisão objetiva elucidar algumas ações do exercício físico relacionadas ao metabolismo e ao consumo alimentar, descrevendo algumas vias metabólicas que ocorrem nos tecidos musculoesquelético, hepático e, principalmente, hipotalâmico, ativadas por hormônios.Palavras-chave: exercício físico, hormônios, vias metabólicas, consumo alimentar.
... (13) High fat diet with exercise prevents negative energy balance, thus energy content of diet is one of the most important factors in weight control. (16) Exercise burns calories and its combination with caloric restriction is necessity for weight loss. Exercise without caloric restriction slightly reduces weight. ...
Article
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Purpose: Obesity is one of the most common problems in the world. Imbalance between energy consumption and expenditure is a main factor in weight disorder. Exercise helps losing weight by increasing energy expenditure and modulation of the energy intake. The present study examined protective effects of daily moderate aerobic exercise on preventing weight gain in high fat diet rats. Materials and Methods: Male wistar rats weighing 200 ± 20 grams were randomly divided into 4 groups of five rats as follow: Normal (cont), Normal and exercise (Ex), sedentary and high fat diet (HFD/sed) and exercise and high fat diet (HFD/Ex). High fat diet (HFD) was made by adding 10% animal oil to the standard rodent chow. Exercise protocol consisted of swimming for 1 hr/day, 5 days/week for a period of 8 weeks. Weight gain was calculated according to weight of each rat in the initiation of exercise and food intake was measured in a certain day each week. Results: Moderate swimming exercise increased the food intake in control group, which was significant in the first (P = 001), third, fourth, fifth (P = .05) and eighth weeks (P = .001). Moderate swimming exercise decreased the food intake in HFD/Ex group, which was significant in the first and third weeks (P = .001). HFD decreased the food intake in the first, second, third, (P = .001) fourth and fifth weeks (P = .05) in comparison with the control group. There was a gradual increment of weight gain in all groups during the experiment without any significant difference. Conclusion: Findings of this study indicated that moderate swimming exercise without any calorie restrictions was not sufficient to prevent weight gain.
... The mechanisms of this absence of efficient energy compensation is still unclear but the involvement of gut peptides, specially GLP-1, PP and PYY [106] and also acylated ghrelin [107,108] has received some experimental support. Importantly, when individuals are free to initiate their meal following an exercise session, an increased IMI has been reported [109][110][111]. The post-exercise increase in FFA disposal may contribute to this effect [112], notably through increased SNS activity during exercise [113] and an improved catecholamine response in the WAT [114]. ...
Article
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The aim of this review is to discuss the physiology of energy homeostasis (EH), which is a debated concept. Thus, we will see that the set-point theory is highly challenged and that other models integrating an anticipative component, such as energy allostasis, seem more relevant to experimental reports and life preservation. Moreover, the current obesity epidemic suggests that EH is poorly efficient in the modern human dietary environment. Non-homeostatic phenomena linked to hedonism and reward seem to profoundly impair EH. In this review, the apparent failed homeostatic responses to energy challenges such as exercise, cafeteria diet, overfeeding and diet-induced weight loss, as well as their putative determinants, are analyzed to highlight the mechanisms of EH. Then, the hormonal, neuronal, and metabolic factors of energy intake or energy expenditure are briefly presented. Last, this review focuses on the contributions of two of the most pivotal and often overlooked determinants of EH: the availability of endogenous energy and the pattern of energy intake. A glucoadipostatic loop model is finally proposed to link energy stored in adipose tissue to EH through changes in eating behavior via leptin and sympathetic nervous system activity.
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