Auditory P300 event-related potentials and neuropsychological performance in schizophrenia and bipolar affective disorder. Biol Psychiatry

ArticleinBiological Psychiatry 37(5):300-10 · April 1995with18 Reads
Impact Factor: 10.26 · DOI: 10.1016/0006-3223(94)00131-L · Source: PubMed

The auditory P300 event-related potential (ERP) and performance on neuropsychological tests were evaluated in 26 subjects with schizophrenia, 19 with bipolar affective disorder, and 27 controls. The schizophrenic and the bipolar groups were similar in having prolonged P300 latency recorded from central and temporal leads. The P300 was significantly reduced in amplitude in the schizophrenic group at midline leads and the left temporal lead but was not significantly reduced in amplitude at any electrode site when the bipolar group was compared to controls. Schizophrenics performed significantly less well than bipolars and controls on tests of verbal fluency and, within this group, a significant correlation was found between the latency of P300 and verbal fluency test scores. While the bipolar group of patients was similar to the schizophrenic group in having prolonged P300 latency, these groups differed in P300 amplitude, performance on verbal fluency tests, and the relationship between the physiological and neuropsychological variables.

    • "Here, we aim to make a proper and full binary classification between HC and SZ subjects, trying to achieve good enough results so as to be potentially able to apply it as a real diagnostic help tool for psychiatrists in near future. To that end, we will assume that the AOD evoked P3b wave has enough discriminant power to discriminate between both groups, as previously proven in the literature, [7], [8], [15]. Starting from that hypothesis, we aim to carry out an optimal pattern classification system so as to achieve maximum performance in the diagnosis of this illness. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Abstract—Objective: To design a Computer-Aided Diagnosis (CAD) system using an optimized methodology over the P3b wave in order to objectively and accurately discriminate between Healthy Controls (HC) and Schizophrenic subjects (SZ). Methods: We train, test, analyze and compare various machine learning classification approaches optimized in terms of the Correct Classification Rate (CCR), the Degenerated Youden’s Index (DYI) and the Area Under the receiver operating Curve (AUC). CAD system comprises five stages: electroencephalography (EEG) pre-processing, feature extraction, 7 electrode groupings, discriminant feature selection and binary classification. Results: With two optimal combinations of electrode grouping, filtering, feature selection algorithm and classification machine, we get either a mean CCR=93.42%, specificity=0.9673, sensitivity=0.8727, DYI=0.9188, and AUC=0.9567 (Total-15HzJ5-MLP), or a mean CCR=92.23%, specificity=0.9499, sensitivity=0.8838, DYI=0.9162, and AUC=0.9807 (Right Hemisphere35Hz-J5-SVM), which to our knowledge are higher than those available to date. Conclusions: We have verified that a more restrictive low-pass filtering achieves higher CCR as compared to others at higher frequencies in the P3b wave. In addition, results validate previous hypothesis about the importance of the Parietal-Temporal region, associated with memory processing, allowing us to identify powerful {feature,electrode} pairs in the diagnosis of schizophrenia, achieving higher CCR and AUC in classification of both Right and Left Hemispheres, and ParietalTemporal EEG signals, like for instance the {PSE,P4} pair (J5 and MIFS). Significance: Diagnosis of schizophrenia is made thoroughly by psychiatrists but as any human-based decision has a subjective component. This CAD system provides the human expert with an objective complimentary measure to help him in diagnosing schizophrenia. Index Terms—area under curve, auditory odd-ball, classification, diagnosis, electroencephalography, machine learning, P3b wave, receiver operating characteristic, schizophrenia, sensitivity, specificity.
    Full-text · Article · Jan 2016 · IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering
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    • "Decreased P300 amplitude has been suggested to be one of the most reliable biomarkers of schizophrenia due to the robustness and universality of this finding (Ford, 1999; Turetsky et al., 2007). P300 reductions in schizophrenia have been correlated with performance on tasks assessing long-term memory (Fabiani, Karis, & Donchin, 1986; Kim et al., 2003; Nieman et al., 2002; Shajahan, O'Carroll, Glabus, Ebmeier, & Blackwood, 1997; Souza et al., 1995; Vianin et al., 2002) and attention (Ford, 1999; Nieman et al., 2002; Turetsky et al., 2009). Although not as numerous, increases in P300 latency have also been reported in schizophrenia (O'Donnell et al., 1995). "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Schizophrenia is associated with by severe disruptions in thought, cognition, emotion, and behavior. Patients show a marked increase in rates of smoking and nicotine dependence relative to nonaffected individuals, a finding commonly ascribed to the potential ameliorative effects of nicotine on symptom severity and cognitive impairment. Indeed, many studies have demonstrated improvement in patients following the administration of nicotine. Such findings have led to an increased emphasis on the development of therapeutic agents to target the nicotinic system as well as increasing the impetus to understand the genetic basis for nicotinic dysfunction in schizophrenia. The goal of this review article is to provide a critical summary of evidence for the role of the nicotinic system in schizophrenia. The first part will review the role of nicotine in normalization of primary dysfunctions and endophenotypical changes found in schizophrenia. The second part will provide a summary of genetic evidence linking polymorphisms in nicotinic receptor genes to smoking and schizophrenia. The third part will summarize attempts to treat schizophrenia using agents specifically targeting nicotinic and nicotinic receptor subtypes. Although currently available antipsychotic treatments are generally able to manage some aspects of schizophrenia (e.g., positive symptoms) they fail to address several other critically effected aspects of the disease. As such, the search for novel mechanisms to treat this disease is necessary.
    No preview · Chapter · Dec 2015
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    • "These authors also indicated delayed P300 latency at midline sites to be associated with familial risk for psychotic BD. Cognitive demands during task processing have an influence on P300 (Muir et al., 1991; Salisbury et al., 1999; Souza et al., 1995; Schulze et al., 2008; O'Donnell, 2004; Pierson et al., 2000). HC presented higher amplitude than BP for the Fz, Cz and Pz electrodes , which are typically responsible electrodes for P300 potential . "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Bipolar disorder (BD) is characterized by an alternated occurrence between acute mania episodes and depression or remission moments. The objective of this study is to analyze the information processing changes in BP (Bipolar Patients) (euthymia, depression and mania) during the oddball paradigm, focusing on the P300 component, an electric potential of the cerebral cortex generated in response to external sensorial stimuli, which involves more complex neurophysiological processes related to stimulus interpretation. Twenty-eight bipolar disorder patients (BP) (17 women and 11 men with average age of 32.5, SD: 9.5) and eleven healthy controls (HC) (7 women and 4 men with average age of 29.78, SD: 6.89) were enrolled in this study. The bipolar patients were divided into 3 major groups (i.e., euthymic, depressive and maniac) according to the score on the Clinical Global Impression - Bipolar Version (CGI-BP). The subjects performed the oddball paradigm simultaneously to the EEG record. EEG data were also recorded before and after the execution of the task. A one-way ANOVA was applied to compare the P300 component among the groups. After observing P300 and the subcomponents P3a and P3b, a similarity of amplitude and latency between euthymic and depressive patients was observed, as well as small amplitude in the pre-frontal cortex and reduced P3a response. This can be evidence of impaired information processing, cognitive flexibility, working memory, executive functions and ability to shift the attention and processing to the target and away from distracting stimuli in BD. Such neuropsychological impairments are related to different BD symptoms, which should be known and considered, in order to develop effective clinical treatment strategies.
    Full-text · Article · Nov 2015 · Journal of Psychiatric Research
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