Cytotoxic T lymphocytes lyse target cells after T-cell-receptor-mediated recognition of class I major histocompatibility complex molecules presenting peptides. Antigenic peptides are generated in the cytoplasm by proteasomes and translocated into the lumen of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) by peptide transporters (TAP). Herpes simplex virus (HSV) expresses a cytoplasmic protein, ICP47, which seems to interfere with such immune surveillance by mediating retention of 'empty' class I molecules in the ER. By expressing ICP47 in HeLa cells under an inducible promoter, we show that ICP47 efficiently inhibits peptide transport across the ER membrane such that nascent class I molecules fail to acquire antigenic peptides. This inhibition was overcome by transfecting murine TAP. Further, we demonstrate that ICP47 colocalizes and physically associates with TAP within the cell. Inhibition of peptide translocation by a viral protein indicates a previously undocumented potential mechanism for viral immune evasion.
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"Hence, Cif is the first identified bacterial immune evasin that directly targets TAP and hence the MHC I antigen presentation pathway. The immediate-early gene product ICP47 of herpes simplex virus (HSV) type 1 and type 2 functions as a competitive inhibitor of peptide binding to TAP, whereas ATP binding by the transporter remains unaffected    . This small cytosolic protein (HSV-1 ICP47: 88 amino acids) binds to a site that includes the peptide-binding region of TAP with nanomolar affinity and induces a conformation that is distinct from the peptide-bound state of the transporter . "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Protein homeostasis results in a steady supply of peptides, which are further degraded to fuel protein synthesis or metabolic needs of the cell. In higher vertebrates, a small fraction of the resulting peptidome, however, is translocated into the ER lumen by the transporter associated with antigen processing (TAP). Antigenic peptides are guided to major histocompatibility complex class I (MHC I) molecules and are finally displayed on the cell surface, where they mount an adaptive immune response against viral infected or malignantly transformed cells. Here, we review the structural organization and the molecular mechanism of this specialized antigen translocon. We discuss how the ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter TAP communicates and cooperates within the multi-component peptide-loading machinery, mediating the proper assembly and editing of kinetically stable peptide/MHC I complexes. In light of its important role within the MHC I antigen processing pathway, TAP is a prime target for viral immune evasion strategies, and we summarize how this antigen translocation machinery is sabotaged by viral factors. Finally, we compare TAP with other ABC systems that facilitate peptide translocation.
"Amongst many other cellular components, special and unwanted cargos are represented by viruses, especially those, like retroviruses and herpesviruses, which must reach the nucleus to complete their replication cycles. As widely acknowledged, viruses are able to efficiently exploit physiological functions (e.g. S phase induction ; blockage of MHC-I maturation , ) through the activity of specialized proteins that specifically target cellular factors. Conversely, viral proteins may be seen as tools to both decipher cellular functions and re-program them for different purposes. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Reaching the right destination is of vital importance for molecules, proteins, organelles, and cargoes. Thus, intracellular traffic is continuously controlled and regulated by several proteins taking part in the process. Viruses exploit this machinery, and viral proteins regulating intracellular transport have been identified as they represent valuable tools to understand and possibly direct molecules targeting and delivery. Deciphering the molecular features of viral proteins contributing to (or determining) this dynamic phenotype can eventually lead to a virus-independent approach to control cellular transport and delivery. From this virus-independent perspective we looked at US9, a virion component of Herpes Simplex Virus involved in anterograde transport of the virus inside neurons of the infected host. As the natural cargo of US9-related vesicles is the virus (or its parts), defining its autonomous, virus-independent role in vesicles transport represents a prerequisite to make US9 a valuable molecular tool to study and possibly direct cellular transport. To assess the extent of this autonomous role in vesicles transport, we analyzed US9 behavior in the absence of viral infection. Based on our studies, Us9 behavior appears similar in different cell types; however, as expected, the data we obtained in neurons best represent the virus-independent properties of US9. In these primary cells, transfected US9 mostly recapitulates the behavior of US9 expressed from the viral genome. Additionally, ablation of two major phosphorylation sites (i.e. Y32Y33 and S34ES36) have no effect on protein incorporation on vesicles and on its localization on both proximal and distal regions of the cells. These results support the idea that, while US9 post-translational modification may be important to regulate cargo loading and, consequently, virion export and delivery, no additional viral functions are required for US9 role in intracellular transport.
"The immediate early gene product ICP47 (86-88 aa) encoded by Herpes simplex virus (HSV-1/2) binds from the cytosol to TAP with nanomolar affinity and thereby abrogates peptide binding and transport, while ATP binding is unaffected   . ATP hydrolysis as well as trapping of the TAP transporter with ATP and beryllium fluoride is blocked , suggesting that ICP47 arrests TAP in an inward-facing, NBD open conformation. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background:
ABC transporters ubiquitously found in all kingdoms of life move a broad range of solutes across membranes. Crystal structures of four distinct types of ABC transport systems have been solved, shedding light on different conformational states within the transport process. Briefly, ATP-dependent flipping between inward- and outward-facing conformations allows directional transport of various solutes.
Scope of review:
The heterodimeric transporter associated with antigen processing TAP1/2 (ABCB2/3) is a crucial element of the adaptive immune system. The ABC transport complex shuttles proteasomal degradation products into the endoplasmic reticulum. These antigenic peptides are loaded onto major histocompatibility complex class I molecules and presented on the cell surface. We detail the functional modules of TAP, its ATPase and transport cycle, and its interaction with and modulation by other cellular components. In particular, we emphasize how viral factors inhibit TAP activity and thereby prevent detection of the infected host cell by cytotoxic T-cells.
Merging functional details on TAP with structural insights from related ABC transporters refines the understanding of solute transport. Although human ABC transporters are extremely diverse, they still may employ conceptually related transport mechanisms. Appropriately, we delineate a working model of the transport cycle and how viral factors arrest TAP in distinct conformations.
Deciphering the transport cycle of human ABC proteins is the major issue in the field. The defined peptidic substrate, various inhibitory viral factors, and its role in adaptive immunity provide unique tools for the investigation of TAP, making it an ideal model system for ABC transporters in general. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled Structural biochemistry and biophysics of membrane proteins.
Full-text · Article · Jun 2014 · Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA) - General Subjects