Nonphotic stimuli alter a day-night rhythm of allograft rejection in gulf killifish
The influence of environmental stimuli on a daily rhythm of immune activity during scale allograft rejection was investigated in gulf killifish, Fundulus grandis. Although melanophore destruction in the grafts is largely restricted to the scotophases in killifish held on 12 h daily photoperiods (LD 12:12), timed daily netting (tank-transfer "stress"), thermoperiods (from 20 degrees to 30 degrees C for 4 or 12 h), and feeding altered the expression of this rhythm. Melanophore breakdown peaked 0-12 h after netting or thermoperiod onset and 12-24 h after feeding, whether the fish were exposed to these nonphotic daily stimuli at the onset or offset of 12-h photoperiods. In fish held under continuous light and pretreated with these daily stimuli, 24-h immune activity rhythms persisted in the altered phases for several days after the daily treatments were stopped. These findings suggest that a daily rhythm of immune activity may have adaptive significance in fish.
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