Psychophysiologic responses of mechanically ventilated patients to music: a pilot study
Although mechanically ventilated patients experience numerous stressors, they have not been included in music therapy stress reduction and relaxation studies. To examine selected psychophysiologic responses of mechanically ventilated patients to music. A two-group experimental design with pretest, posttest, and repeated measures was used. Twenty mechanically ventilated patients were randomized to a music-listening group or a nonmusic (headphones only) group. Physiologic dependent measures--heart rate and rhythm, respiratory rate, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, oxygen saturation, and airway pressure--were collected at timed intervals. Psychologic data were collected before and after intervention using the Profile of Mood States. Using repeated measures analysis of variance, results for heart rate and respiratory rate over time and over time between groups were significant. Between-group differences were significant for respiratory rate. Significant differences were found via t test for the music group's Profile of Mood States scores. No adverse cardiovascular responses were noted for either group. Data indicated that music listening decreased heart rate, respiratory rate, and Profile of Mood States scores, indicating relaxation and mood improvement.