Cytogenetic findings in malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors
Clonal chromosome aberrations were detected in 8 short-term cultured malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors (MPNST). Seven had a near-triploid chromosome number and I was in the hyperhaploid-hypodiploid range. No recurrent structural rearrangements were found; the bands most frequently involved (3 tumors) were 7p11, 12p13 and 14q11. The most common numerical changes were loss of a sex chromosome (all tumors) and loss of at least 1 copy of chromosomes 8, 16 and 22 (4 tumors). Pooling our data with those on the 20 previously published MPNST with abnormal karyotypes, we found that the chromosome number has often been in the triploid range (12 tumors), with stem line variation between 34 and 270. All chromosome arms, except 22p and the Y chromosome, were involved in recombinations. The most frequently rearranged bands were 7p22 (6 tumors) and 1p21, 7p11 and 14q11 (5 tumors each). Most numerical and unbalanced structural aberrations have led to loss of genetic material, in particular from Xq26-qter (13 tumors); 11q22-qter and 13p (12 tumors); 9p22-pter, 11p13-pter, 17p and 17q11-21 (11 tumors); 1p22-32 and 1p34-pter (10 tumors) and 6q25-qter and chromosome 16 (9 tumors).
[Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors (MPNSTs) are soft-tissue sarcomas that can arise either sporadically or in association with neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1). These aggressive malignancies confer poor survival, with no effective therapy available. We present the generation and characterization of five distinct MPNST orthoxenograft models for preclinical testing and personalized medicine. Four of the models are patient-derived tumor xenografts (PDTX), two independent MPNSTs from the same NF1 patient and two from different sporadic patients. The fifth model is an orthoxenograft derived from an NF1-related MPNST cell line. All MPNST orthoxenografts were generated by tumor implantation, or cell line injection, next to the sciatic nerve of nude mice, and were perpetuated by 7–10 mouse-to-mouse passages. The models reliably recapitulate the histopathological properties of their parental primary tumors. They also mimic distal dissemination properties in mice. Human stroma was rapidly lost after MPNST engraftment and replaced by murine stroma, which facilitated genomic tumor characterization. Compatible with an origin in a catastrophic event and subsequent genome stabilization, MPNST contained highly altered genomes that remained remarkably stable in orthoxenograft establishment and along passages. Mutational frequency and type of somatic point mutations were highly variable among the different MPNSTs modeled, but very consistent when comparing primary tumors with matched orthoxenografts generated. Unsupervised cluster analysis and principal component analysis (PCA) using an MPNST expression signature of ~1,000 genes grouped together all primary tumor–orthoxenograft pairs. Our work points to differences in the engraftment process of primary tumors compared with the engraftment of established cell lines. Following standardization and extensive characterization and validation, the orthoxenograft models were used for initial preclinical drug testing. Sorafenib (a BRAF inhibitor), in combination with doxorubicin or rapamycin, was found to be the most effective treatment for reducing MPNST growth. The development of genomically well-characterized preclinical models for MPNST allowed the evaluation of novel therapeutic strategies for personalized medicine.0Comments 1Citation
- "MPNSTs are characteristically composed of tumor cells containing highly altered genomes at a structural level (Forus et al, 1995; Mertens et al, 1995 Mertens et al, , 2000 Mechtersheimer et al, 1999; Mantripragada et al, 2008 Mantripragada et al, , 2009 Beert et al, 2011). Accordingly, we characterized the somatic copy number alterations (SCNAs) and allelic imbalances (AIs) present in primary tumors and paired orthoxenografts and performed an exhaustive comparison. "
[Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Benign peripheral nerve sheath tumors (PNSTs) are a characteristic feature of neurofibromatosis type I (NF1) patients. NF1 individuals have an 8-13% lifetime risk of developing a malignant PNST (MPNST). Atypical neurofibromas are symptomatic, hypercellular PNSTs, composed of cells with hyperchromatic nuclei in the absence of mitoses. Little is known about the origin and nature of atypical neurofibromas in NF1 patients. In this study, we classified the atypical neurofibromas in the spectrum of NF1-associated PNSTs by analyzing 65 tumor samples from 48 NF1 patients. We compared tumor-specific chromosomal copy number alterations between benign neurofibromas, atypical neurofibromas, and MPNSTs (low-, intermediate-, and high-grade) by karyotyping and microarray-based comparative genome hybridization (aCGH). In 15 benign neurofibromas (4 subcutaneous and 11 plexiform), no copy number alterations were found, except a single event in a plexiform neurofibroma. One highly significant recurrent aberration (15/16) was identified in the atypical neurofibromas, namely a deletion with a minimal overlapping region (MOR) in chromosome band 9p21.3, including CDKN2A and CDKN2B. Copy number loss of the CDKN2A/B gene locus was one of the most common events in the group of MPNSTs, with deletions in low-, intermediate-, and high-grade MPNSTs. In one tumor, we observed a clear transition from a benign-atypical neurofibroma toward an intermediate-grade MPNST, confirmed by both histopathology and aCGH analysis. These data support the hypothesis that atypical neurofibromas are premalignant tumors, with the CDKN2A/B deletion as the first step in the progression toward MPNST.0Comments 48Citations
- "Like most sarcomas, MPNSTs have a complex and variable karyotype with multiple chromosomal gains and losses (Glover et al., 1991). Recurrent copy number gains are found on chromosomes 7, 8q, 15q, and 17q and losses on 1p, 9p, 11, 12p, 14q, 17q, 18, 22q, X, and Y (Mertens et al., 1995Mertens et al., , 2000 Lothe et al., 1996; Schmidt et al., 2000 Schmidt et al., , 2001 Storlazzi et al., 2006; Mantripragada et al., 2009). The spectrum of PNSTs ranges from benign to high-grade malignant. "
[Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Neurofibromas are benign tumors of peripheral nerve that occur sporadically or in patients with the autosomal dominant tumor predisposition syndrome neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1). Multiple neurofibroma subtypes exist which differ in their site of occurrence, their association with NF1, and their tendency to undergo transformation to become malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors (MPNSTs), the most common malignancy associated with NF1. Most NF1 patients carry a constitutional mutation of the NF1 tumor suppressor gene. Neurofibromas develop in these patients when an unknown cell type in the Schwann cell lineage loses its remaining functional NF1 gene and initiates a complex series of interactions with other cell types; these interactions may be influenced by aberrant expression of growth factors and growth factor receptors and the action of modifier genes. Cells within certain neurofibroma subtypes subsequently accumulate additional mutations affecting the p19(ARF)-MDM2-TP53 and p16INK4A-Rb signaling cascades, mutations of other as yet unidentified genes, and amplification of growth factor receptor genes, resulting in their transformation into MPNSTs. These observations have been validated using a variety of transgenic and knockout mouse models that recapitulate neurofibroma and MPNST pathogenesis. A new generation of mouse models is also providing important new insights into the identity of the cell type in the Schwann cell lineage that gives rise to neurofibromas. Our improving understanding of the mechanisms underlying the pathogenesis of neurofibromas and MPNSTs raises intriguing new questions about the origin and pathogenesis of these neoplasms and establishes models for the development of new therapies targeting these neoplasms.0Comments 70Citations
- "Like most sarcomas, chromosomal gains, losses and rearrangements in MPNSTs are highly variable (Wallace et al., 2000). These neoplasms commonly have hypodiploid or near-triploid karyotypes, with gains evident on chromosome 7, 8q and 15q and losses that affect multiple chromosomal regions (1p, 9p, 11, 12p, 14q, 17q, 18, 22q, X and Y) (Forus et al., 1995;Lothe et al., 1996;Mechtersheimer et al., 1999;Mertens et al., 1995;Mertens et al., 2000;Plaat et al., 1999;Schmidt et al., 1999;Schmidt et al., 2000;Schmidt et al., 2001). Although some of the affected chromosomal regions encode tumor suppressors previously implicated in MPNST tumorigenesis [e.g., the NF1 locus (17q) and the CDKN2A gene (9p)], others do not, suggesting that we have not yet fully delineated the oncogenes and tumor suppressors relevant to MPNST pathogenesis. "