Factitial panniculitis induced by cupping and acupuncture
Department of Dermatology, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea.Cutis; cutaneous medicine for the practitioner (Impact Factor: 0.72). 05/1995; 55(4):217-8.
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- "Among 28 studies, there were three single case studies, twelve case studies, six case controlled trials (CCTs), two surveys, one qualitative research and four RCTs. Finally, 16 studies, including two cross-sectional surveys  , one prospective audit , nine single-case studies and one case series          , as well as three RCTs (or quasi-RCTs)   , were included in the final review (Fig. 1). "
ABSTRACT: Aims To assess the adverse events (AEs) related to cupping therapy identified from studies conducted in Korea. Methods Four Korean databases were searched from their inception to April 2013. We also searched PubMed and the Cochrane Library for literature from Korea. Regardless of the patient's condition, disease status, and study design, all studies were included in this review if they reported any AEs related to cupping therapy. If a case study was identified, causality was assessed through the WHO-UMC causality scale. In addition, if any randomized controlled trials (RCTs) were located, the quality of the reporting of AEs was evaluated. Results Abstracts were retrieved for the 572 articles identified through the searches as having a relevant title which could be included in the review. Among them, a total of 16 studies were included in this review. Articles included various study designs; cross-sectional surveys, a prospective audit, case studies or series, and RCTs (or quasi-RCTs). Anemia (n = 5), factitial panniculitis (n = 2), and herpes viral infection (n = 2) were the most frequently reported AEs in the observational studies. The results from the RCTs indicated that AEs related to cupping were infrequent. Conclusions Various AEs related to cupping therapy were reported but were rare. Most of the AEs were avoidable, if trained personnel provided the treatment. Cupping should be administered by qualified medical experts and in compliance with safety guidelines. In addition, future clinical trials using cupping should pay more attention to recording AEs directly related to cupping to identify potential risks.
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ABSTRACT: The second part of our review of panniculitis summarizes the clinicopathologic features of the mostly lobular panniculitides. Erythema induratum of Bazin (nodular vasculitis) represents the most common variant of lobular panniculitis with vasculitis, although controversy persists about the nature of the involved vessels. Mostly lobular panniculitides without vasculitis comprise a series of disparate disorders. These include sclerosing panniculitis that results from chronic venous insufficiency of the lower extremities; panniculitis with calcification of the vessel walls such as calciphylaxis and oxalosis; and inflammatory diseases with crystals within the adipocytes such as sclerema neonatorum, subcutaneous fat necrosis of the newborn, and poststeroid panniculitis. Connective tissue diseases, such as systemic lupus erythematosus and dermatomyositis, pancreatic diseases, and alpha (1)-a ntitrypsin deficiency may also show a mostly lobular panniculitis with characteristic histopathologic features. Lobular panniculitis may also be an expression of infections, trauma, or factitial causes involving the subcutaneous fat. Lipoatrophy refers to a loss of subcutaneous fat due to a previous inflammatory process involving the subcutis, and it may be the late-stage lesion of several types of panniculitis. In contrast, lipodystrophy means an absence of subcutaneous fat with no evidence of inflammation and often the process is associated with endocrinologic, metabolic, or autoimmune diseases. Finally, cytophagic histiocytic panniculitis is the term that has been used to describe two different processes: one is inflammatory, a lobular panniculitis, and the other one is neoplastic, a subcutaneous T-cell lymphoma. The only common feature of these two different processes is the presence of cytophagocytosis in the lesions.
Article: Panniculitis[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The classification of inflammatory disorders of the subcutaneous tissue has mystified dermatologists for decades. Overlapping clinical and histologic features, and a lack of specific treatments have added to the confusion. This article initially classifies the various panniculititides by their primary histopathologic pattern: (1) septal panniculitis without vasculitis, (2) septal panniculitis with vasculitis, (3) lobular panniculitis without vasculitis, and (4) lobular panniculitis with vasculitis. Subsequently, we describe the key clinical findings in the most important forms of panniculitis. We begin with the most common form of panniculitis, erythema nodosum. Indeed, in many patients suspected of having panniculitis, a worthwhile question to consider initially might be, "Is this, or is this not, erythema nodosum?" before engaging in an elaborate (and expensive) exercise in differential diagnosis.
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