Article

Individual Differences in Need for Cognitive Closure

Authors:
To read the full-text of this research, you can request a copy directly from the authors.

Abstract

This article introduces an individual-difference measure of the need for cognitive closure. As a dispositional construct, the need for cognitive closure is presently treated as a latent variable manifested through several different aspects, namely, desire for predictability, preference for order and structure, discomfort with ambiguity, decisiveness, and close-mindedness. This article presents psychometric work on the measure as well as several validation studies including (a) a "known-groups" discrimination between populations assumed to differ in their need for closure, (b) discriminant and convergent validation with respect to related personality measures, and (c) replication of effects obtained with situational inductions of the need for closure. The present findings suggest that the Need for Closure Scale is a reliable and valid instrument of considerable potential utility in future "motivated social cognition" research.

No full-text available

Request Full-text Paper PDF

To read the full-text of this research,
you can request a copy directly from the authors.

... Benzer şekilde, yukarıda da belirtildiği gibi Ahlaki Temeller Kuramı perspektifinden pek çok süreç incelenmiş olmasına rağmen; ahlaki temellerin, epistemik ihtiyaçlar ile ilişkilerinin de alan yazında yeterince temsil edilmediği görülmektedir. Az sayıda çalışma belirsiz durumlarda hızlıca epistemik kesinliğe ulaşmak olarak tanımlanan bilişsel kapalılık ihtiyacının (need for closure; Webster ve Kruglanski, 1994;Webster ve Kruglanski, 1997;Kruglanski, 2004) ahlaki yargılamalar ile ilişkilerini incelemiştir (ör., Dugas ve ark. 2018;Federico, Ekstrom, Tagar ve Williams, 2016;Giacomantonio, Pierro, Baldner ve Kruglanski, 2017). ...
... 2018;Federico, Ekstrom, Tagar ve Williams, 2016;Giacomantonio, Pierro, Baldner ve Kruglanski, 2017). Bilişsel kapalılık ihtiyacı, bireyin kesin cevaplar arama ve belirsizlikten kaçınma isteği olarak tanımlanmaktadır (Kruglanski, 2004;Webster ve Kruglanski, 1994;Webster ve Kruglanski, 1997). Tanımdaki kapalılık ihtiyacı bir güdü yerine bilişsel bir süreçtir. ...
... Mevcut bilgilerini değiştirmeye direnç gösterirler ve kendi yargılarına daha çok güvenirler. Sıralanan bu özellikler nedeniyle bilişsel kapalılık ihtiyacı yüksek bireyler, bilişsel kapalılık ihtiyacı düşük olanlara kıyasla, belirsizlik halinde daha fazla rahatsızlık hissederler (Webster ve Kruglanski, 1994). Bu doğrultuda yüksek düzeyde bilişsel kapalılık ihtiyacının belirsizliği artıracak bilgilerden kaçınma (Sweeney Melnyk, Miller ve Shepperd, 2010) ve karar verdikten sonra daha az bilgi aramaya eğilimi (Kruglanski, Peri ve Zakai, 1991;Kruglanski, Webster ve Klem, 1993;Van Heil ve Mervielde, 2002) ile ilişkili olduğu gösterilmiştir. ...
Article
Full-text available
Epistemik ihtiyaçlarımızın ahlaki yargılamalarımızı nasıl etkilediği, alan yazında henüz yeterince temsil edilmemiştir. Bu doğrultuda şimdiki çalışmada, belirsizlik durumlarında epistemik bir kesinliğe ulaşma arzusu olarak tanımlanan bilişsel kapalılık ihtiyacının, Ahlaki Temeller Kuramı’nın önerdiği bireyselleştirici ve birleştirici ahlaki temelleri yordamaya etkisi, politik yönelim ve dindarlığın düzenleyici etkisi incelenmiştir. Veriler gönüllü 489 katılımcıdan toplanmıştır ve Process Macro programı aracılığıyla düzenleyici regresyon analizi yürütülmüştür. Bulgular, katılımcıların kendilerini sağ kanat politik yönelimine sahip veya dindar biri olarak tanımladıklarında; bilişsel kapalılık ihtiyacının, bireylerin haklarını ve iyi oluşlarını koruma ile ilişkilendirilen bireyselleştirici ahlaki temelleri desteklemeyi yordama gücünün arttığını göstermiştir. Diğer yandan bilişsel kapalılık ihtiyacının, iç grubun ihtiyaçlarının karşılanması ve grup içi uyumla ilişkilendirilen birleştirici ahlaki temelleri desteklemeyi yordamasında dindarlık ya da politik yönelimin düzenleyici etkisinin olmadığı bulunmuştur. Bulgular “muhafazakârlığın güdülenmiş bir sosyal bir biliş olduğu” görüşü perspektifinden tartışılmıştır.
... A person's thinking motivation is reflected in how far he needs certainty of answers to the problems he faces. Webster and Kruglanski (1994) refer to it as the need for closure (NFC). NFC is defined as a person's desire to answer a question and his aversion towards ambiguity. ...
... In Holland's theory, there are various personality types in the professional world. The two personality types that Weber and Kruglanski (1994) assessed as opposing each other in the NFC spectrum are the conventional personality (liking the explicit, structured, and regularity thing) and the artistic personality (liking the implicit, exploratory, and freedom). The measurement results showed that students majoring in art have a lower need for closure than students majoring in accounting. ...
... The relationship between motivation to think and art in this study, also in webster and Kruglanski's previous research (1994) implies that a person's motivation for thinking can be intervened through art. (Webster & Kruglanski, 1994) and critical thinking habits (Facione, 2015). We predict that the need for closure (NFC) will decrease after participants join the MBS program. ...
Article
Full-text available
Political provocation on governor election in Jakarta had its spill-over effect on youths' increased prejudice in a national scale. With this concern, stakeholders initiated an intervention program named "Let's Share the Art" for high school students to facilitate discussions that promote cognitive flexibilities. The program was held once per week in 7 meetings. It was expected that the program will lower the need for closure (NFC) and raise the critical thinking mindset (CTM) scores of the beneficiaries. Two high schools that partnered with the program initiator were selected, with a total of 82 students participated in the research. Contrary to the hypotheses, we found no significant change in both measurements from both schools. However, separated analysis showed that there are some indications of changes regarding to certain situational and contextual matters. Notwithstanding the fact that the result could not be generalized on Indonesian youth, but the subtle impact of art activities on cognitive flexibility for teenagers was discussed, with the additional notes on how to implement such program in the future.
... Though the term "closed-mindedness" evokes negative associations, we acknowledge that being high on said dimensions is not inherently positive or negative in its consequences. 1 Yet, research generally shows that closed-minded individuals perceive ambiguous situations as threatening, avoid change in their beliefs and behav iors, and are motivated by cognitive clarity and simplicity (Berenbaum et al., 2008;Frenkel-Brunswik, 1949a, 1949bKruglanski, 1989;Webster & Kruglanski, 1994). As a result, people who are closed-minded utilize various behavioral and cognitive strategies to reduce ambiguity and increase perceived structure (Stanley Budner, 1962). ...
... One dimension of CM is the need for cognitive closure. People scoring high on this dimension are likely to seize and freeze on information over time; exhibiting a 1) Research by Dijksterhuis et al. (1996) argued that individuals high in need for closure effectively ignore information that does not jibe with preexisting expectations (see also Kruglanski et al., 1991;Webster & Kruglanski, 1994). However, Kemmelmeier (2015a) found that there are circumstances under which those high in need for structure are highly sensitive to information that is incompatible with prior beliefs. ...
... The author claimed that greater commitment to one's preexisting expectations allowed people to be more likely to notice any discrepancies between evidence and prior expectations. strong desire to maintain existing beliefs and circumstances while actively avoiding changes (Kruglanski et al., 2007;Webster & Kruglanski, 1994). These motivations are akin to the conservative valuation of maintaining norms and traditions (i.e., avoiding change). ...
Article
Full-text available
Evidence suggests that politically right-leaning individuals are more likely to be closed-minded. Whether this association is inherent or subject to change has been the subject of debate, yet has not been formally tested. Through a meta-analysis, we find evidence of a changing association between conservatism and facets of closed-mindedness in the U.S. and international context using 341 unique samples, over 200,000 participants, and 920 estimates over 71 years. In the U.S., data ranging from 1948 to 2019 revealed a linear decline in the association between social conservatism (SC) and closed-mindedness, though economic conservatism (EC) did not vary in its association with closed-mindedness over time. Internationally across 18 countries, excluding the U.S., we observed a curvilinear decline in the association between SC and closed-mindedness over that same time, but no change in ECs association. We also tested variation over time for attitudinal measures of conservatism ranging between 1987 to 2018. In the U.S., we observed a linear increase in the association between right-wing authoritarianism (RWA) and closed-mindedness, with a similar linear increase in the association between social dominance orientation (SDO) and closed-mindedness. Internationally, there was a curvilinear increase in the association between RWA and closed-mindedness, but no change in the association with SDO. We discuss the changes to the political landscape that might explain our findings.
... Low CRT scores have been shown to predict crowd misalignment with experts [5,50,51]. While previous research utilizing crowds to identify misinformation has used CRT as its main metric for measuring cognitive style, we build on this work by evaluating the impact of other variables related to cognitive style and information assessment that have not been examined in a crowd assessment context such as Need for Cognitive Closure (NFCC) [64] and Big Five Inventory (BFI) conscientiousness [30]. Due to reported associations between NFCC and misinformation susceptibility [4,46] and negative correlations between BFI conscientiousness and misinformation spreading behaviors [1,38], we seek to explore these relevant cognitive factors in the context of crowdsourcing. ...
... Need for Cognitive Closure (NFCC) [64] assesses ones desire for predictability, preference for order, and discomfort with ambiguity. While previous work shows no moderation effect between NFCC and one's inclination to believe false information after multiple exposures, also referred to as the illusory truth effect [15], other research suggests that NFCC could be related to other cognitive processes associated with misinformation susceptibility. ...
... Number of correct answers corresponds to higher CRT[20].• Need for Cognitive Closure: One 15-item abridged scale[49] based on the original 42-item scale[64] used for measuring need for cognitive closure. • Political Orientation: A question asking respondents to select where their political beliefs best fall under, with 1 = Very Liberal to 6 = Very Conservative. ...
Article
Full-text available
Misinformation runs rampant on social media and has been tied to adverse health behaviors such as vaccine hesitancy. Crowdsourcing can be a means to detect and impede the spread of misinformation online. However, past studies have not deeply examined the individual characteristics - such as cognitive factors and biases - that predict crowdworker accuracy at identifying misinformation. In our study (n = 265), Amazon Mechanical Turk (MTurk) workers and university students assessed the truthfulness and sentiment of COVID-19 related tweets as well as answered several surveys on personal characteristics. Results support the viability of crowdsourcing for assessing misinformation and content stance (i.e., sentiment) related to ongoing and politically-charged topics like the COVID-19 pandemic, however, alignment with experts depends on who is in the crowd. Specifically, we find that respondents with high Cognitive Reflection Test (CRT) scores, conscientiousness, and trust in medical scientists are more aligned with experts while respondents with high Need for Cognitive Closure (NFCC) and those who lean politically conservative are less aligned with experts. We see differences between recruitment platforms as well, as our data shows university students are on average more aligned with experts than MTurk workers, most likely due to overall differences in participant characteristics on each platform. Results offer transparency into how crowd composition affects misinformation and stance assessment and have implications on future crowd recruitment and filtering practices.
... Consequently, there are numbers of the factors involved in the analysis and synthesis of information-whether it is reliable or inaccurate or completely false-about the coronavirus. In this context, epistemic motivation [19,20] and belief in conspiracy theories [21,22] may be significant predictors when it comes to the perception of coronavirus information and, as a consequence, may predict the fear of this infectious disease. ...
... The need for closure [19] is related to the search for and possession of clear, certain, and definitive knowledge to reduce the tension resulting from cognitive uncertainty. The intensity of this need determines the individual's attitude to new data, as well as their method of processing the information [19,20]. The need for cognitive closure also affects the perception of the social world and the individual's functioning in it [19,29]. ...
... The short version of the Need for Closure Scale [20,63], in a Polish adaptation by Kossowska, Hanusz, and Trejtowicz [64], was used to assess the need for cognitive closure dimensions. The scale consisted of 15 items. ...
Article
Full-text available
This study investigated the relationship between fear of the coronavirus, belief in COVID-19 conspiracy theories, and dimensions of the need for cognitive closure. As there is evidence of associations between these variables, we hypothesized that the relationship between the need for closure dimensions and coronavirus fear may be mediated by conspiracy beliefs about COVID-19. We analyzed the results from 380 individuals who completed online versions of three scales: the Fear of COVID-19 Scale: a short version of the Need for Closure Scale: and—designed for this study—the Conspiracy Theories about the Coronavirus Scale. The results showed that belief in COVID-19 conspiracy theories fully mediated the relationship between the fear of the coronavirus and avoidance of ambiguity, as well as closed-mindedness. The findings provided evidence that beliefs in conspiracy theories may play a significant role in reducing the level of coronavirus fear in people with high levels of these traits. In addition, a partial mediation between the fear of the coronavirus and the need for predictability was found. The limitations and implications of the research are discussed.
... People may not only believe, but need to believe in these worldviews to make sense of their lives; these worldviews can help to manage uncertainty, reduce anxiety and promote social ties (Hennes et al., 2012). For example, to varying degrees people espouse a belief in a just world (Lerner & Miller, 1978), a fair political system (Jost & Banaji, 1994), and in valid hierarchies (Pratto et al., 1994), as well as a preference for neat and simple accounts of the world (or "need for closure"; Webster & Kruglanski, 1994), and of other people (via essentialized views of their traits; Bastian & Haslam, 2006). ...
... As a result, we predict that the serial rapist model may appeal widely, but will resonate more with some people. Specifically, the serial rapist model's account of rapists as "bad" people distinct from "normal" people would satisfy the individuals' need for closure (Webster & Kruglanski, 1994), and reinforce the belief that people have a core essence that defines them (Bastian & Haslam, 2006). Also, people with relatively stronger beliefs in a just world (Lerner & Miller, 1978), a fair system (Jost & Banaji, 1994), and a valid hierarchy (Pratto et al., 1994) should also be more attracted to an explanation in which bad people are the ones who do bad things without calling into question the larger system and existing hierarchy of individuals and institutions in that society. ...
... Study 1 measured whether individuals who are high in need for closure (Webster & Kruglanski, 1994), essentialism (Bastian & Haslam, 2006), belief in a just world (Lerner & Miller, 1978), social dominance orientation (Sidanius & Pratto, 2001) and system justification (Jost et al., 2004) were more likely to support the serial rapist model. To test whether endorsement of the serial rapist model was specific to our hypothesized constructs, we tested for discriminant validity in two ways. ...
Article
Full-text available
The serial rapist model claims that a small number of intentional, repeat offenders are responsible for the majority of sexual assaults on college campuses. The model has formed the dominant argument for some of the most popular forms of campus intervention programs and is cited by high profile advocates and policymakers. Despite enthusiasm for the serial rapist model, it is not empirically well-supported and is contradicted by recent robust data. In this article, we ask: why does the serial rapist model have such broad and enduring appeal? In two US-based samples, one convenience and one representative, we find that people's endorsement of the serial rapist model correlates with worldviews that cohere around ideas of a just and good status quo, and a preference for simple stories. Specifically, we find a positive relationship between endorsement of the serial rapist model and belief in a just world, system justification, social dominance orientation, need for closure and essentialism.
... As a result, perceivers may behave like judges. Judges evaluate the evidence at hand, come to conclusions, achieve resolutions, and get closure (see Dijksterhuis et al., 1996;Webster & Kruglanski, 1994, for more on the need for cognitive closure). In short, they pass judgment. ...
... Perhaps, those high in personality traits like neuroticism or conscientiousness would be less likely to terminate their attempts, worrying that they might make mistakes about the SPT target. Relatedly, dispositions like the need for cognition or need for closure (Cacioppo & Petty, 1982;Webster & Kruglanski, 1994) seem likely to influence perceivers' evaluations of their SPT attempt and when to terminate the attempt. ...
Article
Social perspective taking—the process through which perceivers discern the thoughts, feelings, and motivations of a target—is foundational for navigating social interactions, building relationships, maintaining mental health, promoting well-being, and a wide array of other desired outcomes. Despite its importance, little is known about how discrete social perspective taking attempts unfold. We propose a theory that the social perspective taking process consists of up to four distinguishable phases: perception of the target, motivation to engage in social perspective taking, strategy selection, and evaluation of the attempt. Scholars have emphasized two proximal outcomes of this process—social perspective taking effort and accuracy. We review the literature in support of these phases, noting the relative maturity of each area of research. In doing so, we hope this theory provides a framework for contextualizing how existing studies relate to one another across different subfields of psychology, facilitates testable predictions, prioritizes future investigations, and guides applied research designed to improve real-world social perspective taking.
... Мотивация к избеганию негативных чувств побуждает к действиям, направленным на достижение закрытия, и, следовательно, смещает выбор и предпочтения человека в сторону мотивации, связанной с когнитивным закрытием [25]. Для оценки уровня NFCL A. Kruglanski и D. Webster [26] разработали и валидизировали Шкалу потребности в закрытости (Need for Closure Scale, NFCS), которая включает пять субшкал: ...
... 1. Шкала потребности в закрытости (NFCS), разработанная A. Kruglanski и D. Webster [26]. Использовалась русскоязычная адаптация М.И. ...
Article
p style="text-align: justify;">A comparative study of the relationship between the need for cognitive closure, social anxiety, and cognitive strategies for regulating emotions in social phobia was carried out. We examined 135 people (57.8% female; Mage=32.8±11.3 years) with a diagnosis of "Social phobia" (F40.1, ICD-10), combined with other mental disorders (mean disorder duration — 13.1±8.1 years). The comparison group was represented by 100 people without mental disorders (53% female; Mage=35.2±6.5 years). Tools used: Need for Closure Scale by A. Kruglanski and D. Webster adapted by M.I. Yasin; Cognitive Emotional Regulation Questionnaire by N. Garnefski et al., adapted by E.I. Rasskazova et al.; Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale in the adaptation of I.V. Grigorieva and S.N. Enikolopov. It has been established that the clinical manifestations of social phobia are characterized by a high need for cognitive closure and the used dysfunctional cognitive strategies for regulating the emotional sphere are reflected in the inability to achieve cognitive closure, the impossibility of reducing the level of social anxiety, which increases the motivation for social avoidance.</p
... Moreover, situational threats (e.g., enhanced salience of intergroup threat due to migrants) might affect the extent to which individuals proceed in exploration processes, for instance enhancing the individuals' need for cognitive closure ; see also Albarello et al., 2022), leading -in turn -to enhanced negative attitudes towards migrants. Thus, it could be expected that the salience of intergroup threat (realistic or symbolic) reduces individuals' in-depth exploration of identity in the educational domain to maintain certain, secure knowledge (Webster and Kruglanski, 1994) on individuals' views about oneself and own educational choices. ...
... Future contributions should tackle more directly the sources of such exploration processes. In this vein, in-depth exploration of identity might be associated with epistemic quests, like the one characterizing the seizing phase of individual's need for cognitive closure (Webster and Kruglanski, 1994). Epistemic quest starts when individuals are confronted with a question to which they do not have an answer and stops when the answer is found. ...
... To add to this evidence, and most importantly, the study considered an additional individual level motivation that can play a role in the relation between enhanced concern with COVID-19, desire for tighter cultural norms, and negative attitudes towards immigrants, that is, the individual's need for cognitive closure (Kruglanski et al., 2002;Webster & Kruglanski, 1994). As expected, the study's findings revealed that individuals with higher concern with COVID-19 threat were also those with higher need for cognitive closure (see also Bianco et al., 2021). ...
... As expected, the study's findings revealed that individuals with higher concern with COVID-19 threat were also those with higher need for cognitive closure (see also Bianco et al., 2021). This is coherent with available theorization on the need for cognitive closure, since we know that people high in need for cognitive closure prefer cognitive stability and quest for epistemic certainty Webster & Kruglanski, 1994). Ecological threats thus enhance the need to have certain knowledge, refusing ambiguity. ...
Article
The link between threat and anti-immigrant prejudice is well-established. Relatedly, recent research has also shown that situational threats (such as concern with COVID-19 threat) increase anti-immigrant prejudice through the mediating role of desire for cultural tightness. This study aims to further our understanding of the psychological processes underlying the relation between concern with COVID-19 threat and increased negative attitudes towards immigrants by considering the mediational role of an individual epistemic motivation (i.e., the need for cognitive closure). A study was conducted on a large sample of Italian respondents covering all the Italian regions. Findings revealed that high concern with COVID-19 threat led to increased negative attitudes towards immigrants through the sequential mediating role of higher need for cognitive closure, leading in turn to higher desire for cultural tightness. Implications of these findings for a timely contextualized study of anti-immigrant prejudice will be highlighted.
... Moreover, situational threats (e.g., enhanced salience of intergroup threat due to migrants) might affect the extent to which individuals proceed in exploration processes, for instance enhancing the individuals' need for cognitive closure ; see also Albarello et al., 2022), leading -in turn -to enhanced negative attitudes towards migrants. Thus, it could be expected that the salience of intergroup threat (realistic or symbolic) reduces individuals' in-depth exploration of identity in the educational domain to maintain certain, secure knowledge (Webster and Kruglanski, 1994) on individuals' views about oneself and own educational choices. ...
... Future contributions should tackle more directly the sources of such exploration processes. In this vein, in-depth exploration of identity might be associated with epistemic quests, like the one characterizing the seizing phase of individual's need for cognitive closure (Webster and Kruglanski, 1994). Epistemic quest starts when individuals are confronted with a question to which they do not have an answer and stops when the answer is found. ...
Article
Full-text available
Introduction This study ( N = 141, M age = 20.15) aimed at deepening knowledge on the factors that can lead young adults to deny the inalienability of human rights to migrants by examining whether, under realistic and symbolic intergroup threat (versus no-threat), the denial of human rights to migrants increases. In doing so, the role of fraternalistic relative deprivation in mediating this relation was examined. Also, two potential positive factors were considered: in-depth exploration of personal identity in the educational domain and identification with the human group. Intergroup threat was expected to enhance perceived relative deprivation, thus reducing the attribution of human rights to migrants. Such relation was expected to be mediated by those factors expressing complex views of self and others (in-depth exploration of identity in the educational domain and identification with the human group). Method Realistic and symbolic threat were experimentally manipulated through a written scenario. In the no-threat condition, no scenario was presented. Results Showed significant effects of intergroup threat on the attribution of human rights to migrants, on perceived fraternalistic relative deprivation, on in-depth exploration of identity in the educational domain and identification with the human group. More specifically, intergroup realistic threat, but not symbolic threat, reduced the attribution of human rights to migrants and identification with the human group. Symbolic threat, but not realistic threat, increased the perception of fraternalistic relative deprivation, whereas both realistic and symbolic threat reduced in-depth exploration of identity in the educational domain, and identification with the human group. As shown by the sequential mediation analysis, and as expected, the effect of intergroup threat in reducing attribution of human rights to migrants was mediated by in-depth exploration of identity in the educational domain, identification with the human group, and fraternalistic relative deprivation. Implications of findings concerning the processes underlying identification with the human group and its beneficial effects in terms of humanization of a stigmatized outgroup were highlighted by stressing the intertwined nature of personal identity and social identity processes. The importance of complex views of self and others in helping to create inclusive generations of adults was also highlighted.
... A central construct in this theory is the need for nonspecific cognitive closure, which refers to the desire for any firm belief on a given topic, as opposed to further ambiguity. Though need for closure may vary as a function of the situation (e.g., Kruglanski & Webster, 1991;Kruglanski, Webster & Klem, 1993), it also represents a dimension of stable individual differences (Webster & Kruglanski, 1994). According to Kruglanski (1989), the need for closure might spring from various sources. ...
... According to Kruglanski (1989), the need for closure might spring from various sources. In particular, five facets are assumed to represent the universe of the construct (Webster & Kruglanski, 1994). Persons with a high need for closure would (1) desire order and structure in their lives, (2) prefer predictable situations, (3) experience a desire to reach closure which is reflected in the decisiveness of judgments and choices, (4) experience ambiguous situations devoid of closure as aversive, and (5) be unwilling to have one's knowledge and beliefs confronted and hence rendered insecure by inconsistent evidence or alternative opinions. ...
Article
Full-text available
Recently, Fontaine, Duriez, Luyten and Hutsebaut (2003) have shown that the Post-Critical Belief Scale (PCBS; Duriez, Fontaine & Hutsebaut, 2000) captures the two orthogonal bipolar dimensions of Exclusion versus Inclusion of Transcendence and Literal versus Symbolic along which Wulff (1991, 1997) organized the various possible approaches to religion. This chapter outlines the original and valuable contribution of the PCBS to the field of the psychology of religion by showing how the PCBS sheds a new light on several hotly debated topics within he psychology of religion.
... Need for closure. Participants also completed the short version of the Need for Closure (NFC) scale [33] (which is based on the full NFC scale [30]). The scale includes five items representing various ways in which NFC is expressed. ...
... The Need for Closure concept was introduced to develop a theoretical framework for this cognitive-motivational aspects of decision making [28,29]. Webster and Kruglanski [30] proposed a five-dimension taxonomy of the "need for closure" trait including (1) the need for order, the preference for structure and avoidance of disorder. (2) the need for predictability, as the preference for secure and stable knowledge. ...
Article
Full-text available
Facing robotic agents, we cannot help but ascribe them anthropomorphic characteristics. While this cognitive process has been extensively studied, numerous questions remain about how the tendency to anthropomorphize is related to individual differences and personality traits (i.e. phenotypes). Understanding what generates inter-individual differences is crucial since these differences can explain an important part of the representations and therefore behaviors towards robots. In two studies we aimed to evaluate the idea that anthropomorphism and appraisal of robots can be related to individual phenotypes. We also investigated the relationship between personality traits and anthropomorphic phenotypes. Our results support the idea that anthropomorphism can be considered a phenotype with clear individual differences in anthropomorphic tendencies based on a 2 × 2 anthropomorphism tendency/appraisal matrix.
... The first module assessed quantitative reasoning in contexts. The second and third modules measured two individual differences related to numbers and statistics: mathematical anxiety and the "need for (cognitive) closure" (Webster and Kruglanski 1994), which is a measure of uncertainty tolerance. We do not assume that these will moderate quantitative reasoning skill, but include them as covariates to account for any effect that may be present. ...
Article
Full-text available
Because people are constantly confronted with numbers and mathematical concepts in the news, we have embarked on a project to create journalism that can support news users’ number skills. But doing so requires understanding (1) journalists’ ability to reason with numbers, (2) other adults’ ability to do so, and (3) the attributes and affordances of news. In this paper, we focus on the relationship between adults’ news habits and their quantitative reasoning skills. We collected data from a sample of 1,200 US adults, testing their ability to interpret statistical results and asking them to report their news habits. The assessment we developed differentiated the skills of adults in our sample and conformed to the theoretical and statistical assumption that such skills are normally distributed in the population overall. We also found that respondents could be clustered into six distinct groups on the basis of news repertoires (overall patterns of usage, including frequency of news use overall and choice of news outlets). As often assumed in the literature on quantitative reasoning, these news repertoires predicted quantitative reasoning skills better than the amount of quantification in the outlets, but they still predicted only a small fraction of the variance. These results may suggest that news habits may play a smaller or less direct role in quantitative reasoning than has previously been assumed. We speculate that the presence (or absence) of quantification in everyday activities – namely work and hobbies – may be a better predictor of adults’ quantitative reasoning, as may additional dimensions of news habits and affective responses to numbers.
... Second, we included two psychological factors. The Need for Closure Scale (Webster and Kruglanski, 1994;Pierro and Kruglanski, 2008;Roets and Van Hiel, 2011) measured a latent construct including items assessing tendencies to: prefer predictability, order, and structure; feel discomfort with ambiguity; and be decisive and close-minded. The short-form UCLA Loneliness Scale (ULS-8) was used to assess the frequency with which participants experienced subjective feelings of loneliness (Hays and DiMatteo, 1987). ...
Article
Full-text available
Importance During the pandemic, the number of United States adults reporting clinically significant symptoms of anxiety and depression sky-rocketed, up from 11% in 2020 to more than 40% in 2021. Our current mental healthcare system cannot adequately accommodate the current crisis; it is therefore important to identify opportunities for public mental health interventions. Objective Assess whether modifiable emotional factors may offer a point of intervention for the mental health crisis. Design, setting, and participants From January 13 to 15, 2022, adults living in the United States were recruited via Amazon Mechanical Turk to complete an anonymous survey. Main outcomes and measures Linear regressions tested whether the primary outcomes during the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic (depressive and anxiety symptoms, burnout) were associated with hypothesized modifiable risk factors (loneliness and need for closure) and hypothesized modifiable protective factors (the ability to perceive emotions and connect with others emotionally; emotion-regulation efficacy; and resilience, or the ability to “bounce back” after negative events). Results The sample included 1,323 adults (mean [SD] age 41.42 [12.52] years; 636 women [48%]), almost half of whom reported clinically significant depressive (29%) and/or anxiety (15%) symptoms. Approximately 90% of participants indicated feeling burned out at least once a year and nearly half of participants (45%) felt burned out once a week or more. In separate analyses, depressive symptoms (Model A), anxiety symptoms (Model B), and burnout (Model C) were statistically significantly associated with loneliness (βModel A, 0.38; 95% CI, 0.33–0.43; βModel B, 0.30; 95% CI, 0.26–0.36; βModel C, 0.34; 95% CI, 0.28–0.41), need for closure (βModel A, 0.09; 95% CI, 1.03–1.06; βModel B, 0.13; 95% CI, 0.97–0.17; βModel C, 0.11; 95% CI, 0.07–0.16), recent stressful life events (βModel A, 0.14; 95% CI, 0.10–0.17; βModel B, 0.14; 95% CI, 0.11–0.18; βModel C, 0.10; 95% CI, 0.06–0.15), and resilience (βModel A, −0.10; 95% CI, −0.15 to −0.05; βModel B, −0.18; 95% CI, −0.23 to −0.13; βModel C, −0.11; 95% CI, −0.17 to −0.05). In addition, depressive and anxiety symptoms were associated with emotional self-efficacy (βModel A, −0.17; 95% CI, −0.22 to −0.12; βModel B, −0.11; 95% CI, −0.17 to −0.06), and beliefs about the malleability of emotions (βModel A, −0.08; 95% CI, −0.12 to −0.03; βModel B, −0.09; 95% CI, −0.13 to −0.04). Associations between loneliness and symptoms were weaker among those with more emotional self-efficacy, more endorsement of emotion malleability beliefs, and greater resilience, in separate models. Analyses controlled for recent stressful life events, optimism, and social desirability. Conclusion and relevance Public mental health interventions that teach resilience in response to negative events, emotional self-efficacy, and emotion-regulation efficacy may protect against the development of depressive symptoms, anxiety, and burnout, particularly in the context of a collective trauma. Emotional self-efficacy and regulation efficacy may mitigate the association between loneliness and mental health, but loneliness prevention research is also needed to address the current mental health crisis.
... Celem niniejszego artykułu jest wprowadzenie tej zmiennej do polskiej literatury, próba dookreślenia zjawiska poprzez przywołanie opisów i definicji z oryginalnych opracowań oraz porównanie z pokrewnymi konstruktami, takimi jak: refleksyjność (Frederick, 2005;Szydłowski, 2015), potrzeba poznawczego domknięcia (Kossowska, 2003;Webster, Kruglanski, 1994), potrzeba poznania (Cacioppo, Petty, 1982;Matusz, Tkaczyk, Gąsiorowska, 2011) czy nastawienie na elastyczność (Sassenberg i in., 2021). jednocześnie nie sposób nie odwołać się do polskiej tradycji badań nad myśleniem przekraczającym egocentryczną perspektywę widzenia świata (jarymowicz, 2002). ...
... Recent research on strategic thinking from this perspective (Halevy, Alzahawi & Dannals, 2020) has shown that these four strategic orientations are distinct from other epistemic processes and preferences, including need for cognition (Cacioppo & Petty, 1982), need for cognitive closure (Webster & Kruglanski, 1994), and tendencies for cognitive reflection (Frederick, 2005). It has also shown that these four strategic orientations are distinct from social motives (e.g., power and benevolence values: Schwartz, 1992) and interpersonal tendencies to engage with others cognitively and emotionally (i.e., perspective-taking and empathetic concern: Davis, 1983). ...
Article
Full-text available
This paper introduces a novel theoretical model and measure of strategic thinking in social decision making. The model distinguishes four strategic orientations: egocentric (thinking about how one’s actions shape one’s outcomes), impact (thinking about how one’s actions shapes others’ outcomes), dependency (thinking about how others’ actions shape one’s outcomes), and altercentric (thinking about how others’ actions shape their outcomes). Applying this model to explain social behavior in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic, an exploratory study finds that the more people think about how their actions shape others’ outcomes, the more likely they are to: (a) comply with social distancing restrictions designed to curb the spread of the virus, and (b) donate money they received in the study to charitable organizations. These findings advance understanding of the multifaceted nature of strategic thinking and highlight the usefulness of the Strategic Thinking Scale for explaining social behavior.
... Kekurangan (Scarcity) Apabila terdapat sesuatu yang sukar didapati dan tidak mencukupi, individu akan lebih menghargainya dan memutuskan untuk memilikinya (Webster & Kruglanski, 1994). ...
Article
Full-text available
The current global pandemic requires higher learning institutions in Malaysia to change their learning and teaching methods from face-to-face to online. One of the e-learning systems used in Malaysia is the Open Learning (OL) system. This OL system is an e-learning system with the concept of Massive Open Online Courses (MOOCs). Previous studies have stated that student involvement in MOOCs is low. To increase student involvement in using the OL system, this study has implemented one of the principles of persuasive design outlined in the Persuasive Design Development (PSD) Model, which is the reminder principle. The persuasive reminder features include heuristic and systematic reminder e-mails. Two assignments on the subject of Jihad, according to Al-Quran and Al-Sunnah, were used in the user experiment. One assignment used persuasive reminder e-mails, while another did not use persuasive reminder e-mails. A total of 57 respondents were involved in evaluating persuasive reminder features. The number of views and comments were the two indicators chosen to measure student engagement. The results showed an increase of more than 80% in the number of views indicating an increase in the level of student involvement in assignments that use persuasive reminder e-mails. Some respondents were interviewed to obtain responses related to persuasive reminder e-mails. The interviews found that combining heuristic and systematic reminder e-mail elements can change students' attitudes towards using the OL system.
... Main factors for participants who refuse to face covering in the cultural institutions (such as museums, theaters, opera house, etc.) were as follows: age, social approval, need for predictability and preference for order (both are the part of the broader psychological construct: need for cognition) [40]. Individuals aged 24 or younger, with a low need for predictability and not a very high need for social approval, are the people least likely to cover their faces while visiting the cultural institutions. ...
The risk of contracting COVID-19 was a very specific situation of uncertainty and ambi-guity, and of course, cognitively interesting for psychologists studying the determinants of behaviors of different personality types. In this study, we set our sights on trying to find a correlation between adherence to wearing masks and receiving vaccinations and having certain character traits that we thought might influence preventive behavior or not. We focused on the Dark Triad—psychopathy, Machiavellianism and narcissism—as well as social approval and the need for cognition closure, as these traits have previously been linked to heightened conspiracy mentalities. We recruited 159 subjects in the experiment, including 53 male and 106 female participants over the age of 18 to take part in an online survey investigating personality and COVID-19 information. The results confirmed our hypothesis that age, empathy, the need for social approval and other psychological traits are the factors that differentiates people who wear face masks from those who do not. However, it seems impossible to define one set of features that would predispose people to not wear face masks. In our study, the importance of psychological features differed depending on the category of public places. We discuss possible implications of these findings and provide direction for future research. Keywords: COVID-19; Dark Triad; social approval; need for cognitive closure; mask wearing; vaccination; empathy
... It draws upon the numerous research findings covering framing effects (see Steiger, & Kühberger, 2018), models of persuasion (Albarracin, & Shavitt, 2018), as well as the emotional, personality and cognitive moderators of persuasion (e.g. Need for Cognition, Petty et al., 2009; Need for Closure, Webster & Kruglanski, 1994). Hence, Cognitive fit can be achieved in many ways. ...
Preprint
Full-text available
Although pervasive in our history and modern ecology, propaganda has yet to be formally described by social psychological science. The field has extensively documented the principles of persuasion and social influence, but no integrative synthesis has been attempted to describe the mechanisms of propagandist persuasion. In this paper, we propose to formalize a Fitness-Validation Model (FVM) of propagandist persuasion. This synthetic model assumes that, in essence, influence is proportional to the degree of fit between message characteristics (social content, prescriptive content, descriptive content, framing) and recipients' (group identity, attitudes, knowledge, cognitive makeup). Fitness on these four characteristics then shapes perceptions of thought validity regarding the message, and ultimately behavior change. Thus, we propose that propaganda attempts to maximize fitness between message and recipient characteristics and self-validation in the direction of the message. From the FVM, we then derive five main pathways for propagandist persuasion and dissuasion, which we label the 5D: Deceive social intuition, Divert resistant attitudes, Disrupt information processing, Decoy reasoning and Disturb meta-cognition. The 5D are mutually inclusive and can be seen as the "building blocks" of real-world propaganda. We discuss the theoretical implications of the FVM and conclude the model should be used to craft more effective liberal democratic (counter)propaganda.
... The study was introduced as a "questionnaire to learn about the personal experiences and opinions of different aspects of social life of Spanish citizens" and was administrated one week before the local elections that were held in March 2015 in Andalusia. First, participants completed the Need for Closure Scale [29], which was not included in the analyses (see Appendix 2 in the S1 File), and then they completed the manipulation and answered the variables as described below. ...
Article
Full-text available
People desire agentic representations of their personal and collective selves, such as their own nation. When national agency is put into question, this should increase their inclination to restore it, particularly when they simultaneously lack perceptions of personal control. In this article, we test this hypothesis of group-based control in the context of political elections occurring during socio-economic crises. We propose that people who are reminded of low (vs. high) personal control will have an increased tendency to reject traditional political parties that stand for the maintenance of a non-agentic political system. We experimentally manipulated the salience of low vs. high personal control in five studies and measured participants’ intentions to support traditional and new political parties. Across four of five studies, in line with the predictions, low personal control reduced support for the main traditional conservative party (e.g., Partido Popular (PP) in Spain, the Republicans in France). These results appeared in contexts of national economic and/or political crisis, and were most pronounced when low (vs. high) national agency was made salient in Studies 4 and 5. The findings support the notion that rejecting the stability of the national political system can serve as a means to maintain a sense of control through the collective self.
... Research in social and political psychology has suggested that an individual's degree of faith in intuition may, in turn, shape their political cognition and behavior, leading them to endorse more conservative political positions, particularly on social and cultural issues. For example, conservatives (particularly social conservatives) routinely score higher on measures of faith in intuition (e.g., Sterling et al., 2016) and closely conceptually related traits such as need for closure (a desire for a rapid answer to a question or problem, versus extended deliberation; Webster & Kruglanski, 1994) and lower on antonymous traits like need for cognition (for a review, see Jost, 2017). Similarly, situational factors and experimental manipulations that lead an individual to rely more on intuition (versus deliberative cognition)-such as time pressure, cognitive load, and alcohol intoxication-have all been shown to lead people to endorse more conservative political positions (e.g., Eidelman et al., 2012). ...
Article
Full-text available
The stark divide between the political right and left is rooted in conflicting beliefs, values, and personality—and, recent research suggests, perhaps even lower-level physiological differences between individuals. In this registered report, we investigated a novel domain of ideological differences in physiological processes: interoceptive sensitivity—that is, a person’s attunement to their own internal bodily states and signals (e.g., physiological arousal, pain, and respiration). We conducted two studies testing the hypothesis that greater interoceptive sensitivity would be associated with greater conservatism: one laboratory study in the Netherlands using a physiological heartbeat detection task and one large-scale online study in the United States employing an innovative webcam-based measure of interoceptive sensitivity. Contrary to our predictions, we found evidence that interoceptive sensitivity may instead predict greater political liberalism (versus conservatism), although this association was primarily limited to the American sample. We discuss implications for our understanding of the physiological underpinnings of political ideology.
... Finally, we treated the ambiguity of intolerance in the context of the need for closure using the discomfort with ambiguity subscale of the Need for Closure questionnaire. Even if that subscale correlates with other questionnaires measuring ambiguity intolerance (e.g., Webster and Kruglanski, 1994), we should be cautious in generalizing the results. Third, we did not differentiate among different sources of stress. ...
Preprint
Full-text available
Background. Individuals under quarantine, such as the one caused by SARS-CoV-2, experience severe distress. The present research aimed to test a model of relations to ascertain the determinants of distress. Worry, perceived utility of the lockdown, and health-related information seeking were mediators in the relationships between COVID-19 exposure, risk aversion, and intolerance for ambiguity, on one side, and distress on the other. Method. The study was conducted in Italy during the mandatory lockdown for the COVID-19 pandemic on 240 individuals (age range 18-76). Results. COVID-19 exposure was positively associated with worry about COVID-19 and health-related information seeking; risk aversion was positively associated with health-related information seeking and perceived utility of the lockdown to contain the spread of the virus. Worry and health-related information seeking were positively associated with distress, while the perceived utility of the lockdown was negatively associated with distress. Intolerance for ambiguity was directly linked to distress with a positive sign. Conclusions. Our evidence suggests that risk aversion represents both a risk factor and a protective factor based on what kind of variable mediates the relationship with distress. However, intolerance to ambiguity is a risk factor for buster distress.
... C) Need for cognitive closure, understood as the motivation to find an answer to an ambiguous situation as compared to confusion and uncertainty, was measured through the Need for Cognitive Closure Scale (NFCS). 33,34 This scale includes 42 items that provide answers on a 6-point rating scale from 1 (strongly disagree) to 6 (strongly agree), and in this study, the overall Cronbach's alpha was 0.72. The questionnaire also includes the following 5 subscales: Desire for predictability, Preference for order and structure, Discomfort with ambiguity, Decisiveness, Close-mindedness. ...
Article
Full-text available
Purpose: Patients with chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) who present a sustained deep molecular response (DMR) for a stable period of time might benefit from discontinuing tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs). A significant number of patients seem able to reach this stage due to the availability of TKIs. However, many patients remain reluctant about TKI discontinuation and may refuse treatment interruption. The purpose of this study was to explore the clinical and psycho-cognitive factors that may influence the decision to discontinue TKI therapy, thereby gaining a better understanding of patients' viewpoints on TKI discontinuation. Patients and methods: One hundred and nineteen patients diagnosed with CML aged between 34 and 69 were enrolled (67 males and 52 females). Different clinical information and psycho-cognitive aspects such as attitude toward risk behaviours, risk preferences, need for cognitive closure, and tendency to resist to changes were assessed through the administration of a battery of questionnaires. Results: A higher tendency toward risk behaviours and the tendency to focus on possible gain in the short term rather than on losses might represent important predictors for the willingness to accept TKI discontinuation. Possible relapses following interruption of the therapy are the most common reason for concern. Furthermore, lower levels of resistance to change and having previously experienced the desire to interrupt the therapy might lead patients to accept a higher probability of relapse risk when facing such a decision. Conclusion: TKI discontinuation appears appealing and challenging at the same time for many CML patients, and different factors may influence this decision. Psychology plays a crucial role in assisting physician-patient communication and informed decision-making.
... Paralleled by a scarcity of academic research literature on the subject, this difficulty is acute in complex higher education environments in which digitalization gives rise to volatility, uncertainty, complexity, and ambiguity (VUCA), with significant challenges for leadership [117]. Tolerance of risk and failure, flexibility of mind and adaptive speed are essential in uncertain situations [118]. Yet little surety exists about rapid digitalization processes such as lecture capture, an example of unreflective top-down digital change involving ethical and legal concerns that generate new uncertainties [70], in themselves signalling a lack of mature leadership. ...
Article
Digital leadership in higher education is a sub-field of research that rapidly evolved from e-leadership studies. The practice of effective digital leadership in higher education is urgently needed to keep up with changing demands and opportunities. Yet limited knowledge exists of how it is defined, how it operates and relates to institutional leadership, including both administration and teaching. An updated review of prior empirical studies is overdue, given system-wide digitalization. This article systematically reviews empirical studies on digital leadership in higher education between 1999-2022, its value, focus and the research methods involved. The review combined descriptive synthesis and textual narrative synthesis, applying a data-based convergent synthesis design adhering to PRISMA and ENTREQ reporting guidelines. From 231 records, 36 studies remained following application of exclusion criteria. Research has increased, but is still limited in theory, maturity, and evidence. Definitions and theories of digital leadership are varied in scope and how far they are considered in the reviewed studies. Functional rather than critical perspectives predominate. The quality of most research is low, lacking rigour in research questions and methods, rendering findings inconclusive. The review recommends a digital leadership research maturity framework and further research on theoretical definitions and digitalization to address gaps in the literature identified in the review.
... People who are high in dispositional need for closure tend to seize upon immediate answers and freeze to maintain them (Kruglanski & Webster, 1996). Because people with a high need for closure feel a sense of urgency in making decisions and judgements (Webster & Kruglanski, 1994), studies have demonstrated their general pattern in intuitive, effortless and biased information processing. This includes behaviours such as selecting decision-supportive information (Hart et al., 2012), relying on heuristics (de Dreu et al., 1999) and engaging in stereotypical thinking (Burke et al., 2017;Roets & Van Hiel, 2011a). ...
Article
Whether and how interpersonal experiences predispose people to show superstitious tendencies have been largely unexamined by past studies. By adopting a multimethod approach, three studies tested (a) whether ostracism increases superstitious tendencies through thwarted perceived control, (b) whether the dispositional need for closure moderates the effect of ostracism on superstitious tendencies and (c) whether restoring ostracized people's thwarted control weakens their superstitious tendencies. The results revealed that ostracized participants had higher superstitious tendencies than nonostracized participants did (Studies 1-3). Moreover, thwarted control mediated the effect of ostracism on superstitious tendencies (Study 2). In addition, the dispositional need for closure moderated the effect of ostracism on superstitious tendencies, such that the effect was stronger among participants with a high need for closure (Studies 1-2). Finally, restoring ostracized participants' perceived control weakened the effect of ostracism on superstitious tendencies (Study 3). Altogether, these findings feature the essential role of thwarted perceived control in understanding the link between ostracism and superstitious tendencies and the implication of control restoration in weakening the link. They also highlight the importance of dispositional characteristics in moderating people's responses to superstitions following ostracism and related forms of interpersonal maltreatment.
... The need for cognitive closure was measured with the brief Need for Closure scale developed by Roets and Van Hiel (2011a), which is a reduced version of the Need for Closure Scale (NFC, Webster & Kruglanski, 1994). This short scale includes 15 items rated on a 6-point Likert scale (from 0 = strongly disagree; 5 = strongly agree). ...
Article
Previous research on the antecedents of sexism against women have not considered simultaneously the effects of sex, personality, and cognitive variables (need for closure and critical thinking disposition) in relation to sexism. We evaluated whether in adolescence, these indicators could predict sexist attitudes towards women using structural models. The sample comprised 709 Spanish high-school students (mean age = 16.79). 51.5% were female. Sex (being male), need for closure and critical thinking were the most relevant predictors of sexism. The disposition to think critically is as relevant as the motivational dimension of cognition (need for closure) to predict sexism. Multi-group structural models by sex were estimated, and a moderator effect was found between openness to experience and sexism. We suggest future lines of research to disentangle the effects of personality and cognition on sexism and to guide intervention programs to reduce sexist attitudes among adolescents.
... Motywacją do poszukiwania logicznych uzasadnień jest między innymi podświadoma wizja przyszłych korzyści, takich jak wzrost zdolności do przewidywania zdarzeń czy pewności siebie w podejmowaniu decyzji. [Webster & Kruglanski, 1994]. Reprezentacje poznawcze same w sobie są uproszczonym odzwierciedleniem rzeczywistości, swego rodzaju modelem. ...
Chapter
Full-text available
Nowadays, one can observe a disturbing phenomenon of the increasing dissemination of false information, hereinafter referred to as fake news. In this article, we attempt to analyze the causes and effects of this situation. Using examples of popular fake news and pseudoscientific theories, we discuss the methods of their classification, as well as consider the cognitive foundations of creating and transmitting false information. We are looking for links between youth education and critical thinking skills. We consider the need to redesign the education system to meet the needs of a changing world and emphasize the key role of teachers in the process of shaping an informed, conscious society resistant to fake news.
... Specifically, we tested whether and how the motivational strength of issue-specific moral conviction may interact with general NFC (measured in Study 1 and manipulated in Study 2), on perceived immigrant threat and pro-immigrant collective action intentions. We reasoned that the conceptualization of the US-Mexico border wall as a solution to security concerns can fit well with the core tenets of NFC which advocate security for the ingroup and preference for stability over change (Kruglanski, 2004;Webster & Kruglanski, 1994). ...
Article
Full-text available
This research aimed at explaining immigrant threat perceptions and pro‐immigrant collective action intentions through moral conviction regarding the construction of the US–Mexico border wall and general need for closure (NFC). Among independent samples of Democrats and Republicans, we found that NFC (measured in Study 1, manipulated in Study 2) was negatively related to pro‐immigrant collective action intentions through enhanced immigrant threat perceptions when moral conviction was low. Instead, when moral conviction was high, Democrats were more motivated to act collectively to support immigrants through reduced immigrant threat perceptions, independent of NFC, whereas Republicans were less motivated to act collectively to support immigrants through enhanced immigrant threat perceptions, independent of NFC. These results suggest that moral conviction offers a powerful moral and issue‐specific motivation that can psychologically buffer against the negative influences of general NFC. We discuss how these results complement and advance the literature and open up new research avenues.
Article
Author profiling, or classifying user generated content based on demographic or other personal attributes, is a key task in social media-based research. Whilst high-accuracy has been achieved on many attributes, most studies tend to train and test models on a single domain only, ignoring cross-domain performance and research shows that models often transfer poorly into new domains as they tend to depend heavily on topic-specific (i.e., lexical) features. Knowledge specific to the field (e.g., Psychology, Political Science) is often ignored, with a reliance on data driven algorithms for feature development and selection. Focusing on political affiliation, we evaluate an approach that selects stylistic features according to known psychological correlates (personality traits) of this attribute. Training data was collected from Reddit posts made by regular users of the political subreddits of r/republican and r/democrat. A second, non-political dataset, was created by collecting posts by the same users but in different subreddits. Our results show that introducing domain specific knowledge in the form of psychologically informed stylistic features resulted in better out of training domain performance than lexical or more commonly used stylistic features.
Article
Ghosting—the act of ending a relationship by ceasing communication without explanation—is a type of ostracism that threatens a person’s basic psychological needs for belonging, self-esteem, meaningful existence, and control. The experience of ghosting creates uncertainty within the relationship and may vary based on individual differences in the need for closure, which is the desire to avoid ambiguity. Across three preregistered studies with emerging adults, we predicted that a greater need for closure would be associated with lower intentions to use ghosting (Studies 1 and 2) and lower needs satisfaction after being ghosted (Study 3). Results from Study 1 ( N = 553) and Study 2 ( N = 411) were inconsistent, but together indicate that a higher need for closure is not negatively associated—and may be positively associated—with ghosting intentions. In Study 3 ( N = 545), participants who recalled a time when they were ghosted reported lower needs satisfaction than included and directly rejected participants. Further, a higher need for closure was associated with lower needs satisfaction after being ghosted and after being directly rejected, but with greater needs satisfaction after being included. Overall, these findings suggest that the need for closure is less influential when deciding how to end a relationship, but it appears to play an important role in amplifying both positive and negative experiences within a relationship.
Article
Multiethnic group countries are distinctive in that ethnic identification/loyalty and national identification/loyalty sometimes contend. In addition, the different ethnic groups that make up these countries though interdependent compete for relevance. Such a mode of social relationship creates uncertainty and heightens the consciousness of group survival. These characteristics make African countries rich sites for the investigation of intergroup relations. Given this context, the need for closure and cultural intelligence were examined in relation to ethnic identification. Data were collected via the use of questionnaires from a sample of undergraduate students drawn from different ethnic groups. Findings show that the need for closure and cultural intelligence are directly related to ethnic identification. Also, cultural intelligence was a significant moderator of the relationship between need for closure and ethnic identification. Findings suggest that cultural intelligence may encourage an open-mindedness which could help promote successful social interactions in multigroup countries. In addition, the results of this study support theoretical and empirical positions that have advanced group interdependence as a potent tool for intergroup cooperation.
Article
Full-text available
For two decades, researchers have investigated the correlates and consequences of individual differences in maximizing , the tendency to pursue the goal of making the best possible choice by extensively seeking out and comparing alternatives. In this time, many different conceptualizations of maximizing have been proposed, including several that incorporate a construct called “decision difficulty.” We propose that including decision difficulty in measures of maximizing is problematic because the tendency to experience difficulty when making decisions is a separate individual difference construct already studied independently of maximizing — namely, indecisiveness . Across two studies (total N = 639), we find that scales measuring decision difficulty and indecisiveness are strongly correlated ( r ’s ≥ .85), load on the same component in a principal component analysis, and show a very similar pattern of correlations with related variables. Moreover, decision difficulty and indecisiveness scales both show a divergent pattern of correlations when compared to measures of maximizing. We argue that decision difficulty scales are best interpreted as tapping the same underlying tendency as indecisiveness scales, and conclude that the tendency to experience difficulty in decision making is best conceptualized not as a component of maximizing, but rather a cause or consequence of it.
Article
In the wake of profound social changes, which have been accelerated due to a global pandemic, educators reconsider the role and goals of education, and subsequently, how its pragmatic expression should look like in a VUCA-world. We address this challenge by offering basic tenets of education and principles that are tailored to the current reality. We concentrate primarily on the merits of embracing dualities, dilemmas and tensions, for engaging in deep learning and personal development. Jon Wergin’s theory of ‘deep learning’ and aspects of Etienne Wenger’s theory of ‘communities of practice’ provide a fertile framework for this endeavor. Arnett’s concept of ‘emerging adulthood’ provides an additional theoretical resource for connecting principles of education to a timely perception of personal development. Based on the notion of ‘emerging adulthood’, we offer four principles of education, articulated in the form of dualities, along with examples of how to implement these principles at college-level education.
Article
We propose that deviancy aversion—people’s domain-general discomfort toward the distortion of patterns (repeated forms or models)—contributes to the strength and prevalence of social norms in society. Five studies ( N = 2,390) supported this hypothesis. In Study 1, individuals’ deviancy aversion, for instance, their aversion toward broken patterns of simple geometric shapes, predicted negative affect toward norm violations (affect), greater self-reported norm following (behavior), and judging norms as more valuable (belief). Supporting generalizability, deviancy aversion additionally predicted greater conformity on accuracy-orientated estimation tasks (Study 2), adherence to physical distancing norms during COVID-19 (Study 3), and increased following of fairness norms (Study 4). Finally, experimentally heightening deviancy aversion increased participants’ negative affect toward norm violations and self-reported norm behavior, but did not convincingly heighten belief-based norm judgments (Study 5). We conclude that a human sensitivity to pattern distortion functions as a low-level affective process that promotes and maintains social norms in society
Article
Conspiracy beliefs are commonly seen during times of uncertainty. This study examined whether a chatbot offering counter-conspiracy information can mitigate conspiracy beliefs and the role of chatbot empathy on its effectiveness. We conducted an online experiment in two different contexts (climate change vs. Covid-19) (N = 189). The results showed that as for Covid-19, participants who interacted with the chatbot with less empathetic expressions showed fewer changes in conspiracy beliefs than those who read the scientific news article. Regarding climate change, a chatbot with more empathetic expressions was more effective in changing conspiracy beliefs than an article, but only for people who can tolerate ambiguity.
Article
In this study we explore how endorsing binding moral foundations and the perception of realistic and symbolic threat mediate the relationship between need for cognitive closure (NCC) and prejudice against migrants in Italy. We hypothesized that individuals with a high NCC are more prone to endorse binding moral foundations and also to perceive high realistic and symbolic threats and, consequently, they are more prejudiced against migrants. Data were collected through a questionnaire (N = 351). Results explain the relationship between need for cognitive closure and prejudice against migrants through a complex sequence of mediation effects of binding moral foundations and perceived threats.
Article
In this chapter, I review current research on the relationship between personality and political preferences, with an eye to its complexities and the ways in which it is conditioned on other variables – including the contextual factors mentioned at the outset. To provide context, I briefly review research on the structure of political preferences. Next, I summarise a now-substantial body of work suggesting a relationship between rigidity in personality and right-wing political preferences, and then describe moderators of and boundary conditions to this relationship. Finally, in an effort to reconcile increasingly varied findings on political differences in cognition and motivation, I offer an integrative perspective on when the relationship between rigidity and political differences will be ideologically asymmetric and when it will be symmetric.
Article
Full-text available
The rigidity-of-the-right hypothesis (RRH), which posits that cognitive, motivational, and ideological rigidity resonate with political conservatism, is an influential but controversial psychological account of political ideology. Here, we leverage several methodological and theoretical sources of this controversy to conduct an extensive quantitative review—with the dual aims of probing the RRH’s basic assumptions and parsing the RRH literature’s heterogeneity. Using multi-level meta-analyses of relations between varieties of rigidity and ideology measures alongside a bevy of potential moderators (s = 329, k = 708, N = 187,612), we find that associations between conservatism and rigidity are tremendously heterogeneous, suggesting a complex—yet conceptually fertile—network of relations between these constructs. Most notably, whereas social conservatism was robustly associated with rigidity, associations between economic conservatism and rigidity indicators were inconsistent, small, and not statistically significant outside of the United States. Moderator analyses revealed that non-representative sampling, criterion contamination, and disproportionate use of American samples have yielded over-estimates of associations between rigidity-related constructs and conservatism in past research. We resolve that drilling into this complexity, thereby moving beyond the question of if conservatives are essentially rigid to when and why they might or might not be, will help provide a more realistic account of the psychological underpinnings of political ideology.
Chapter
Beliefs play a central role in our lives. They lie at the heart of what makes us human, they shape the organization and functioning of our minds, they define the boundaries of our culture, and they guide our motivation and behavior. Given their central importance, researchers across a number of disciplines have studied beliefs, leading to results and literatures that do not always interact. The Cognitive Science of Belief aims to integrate these disconnected lines of research to start a broader dialogue on the nature, role, and consequences of beliefs. It tackles timeless questions, as well as applications of beliefs that speak to current social issues. This multidisciplinary approach to beliefs will benefit graduate students and researchers in cognitive science, psychology, philosophy, political science, economics, and religious studies.
Chapter
Beliefs play a central role in our lives. They lie at the heart of what makes us human, they shape the organization and functioning of our minds, they define the boundaries of our culture, and they guide our motivation and behavior. Given their central importance, researchers across a number of disciplines have studied beliefs, leading to results and literatures that do not always interact. The Cognitive Science of Belief aims to integrate these disconnected lines of research to start a broader dialogue on the nature, role, and consequences of beliefs. It tackles timeless questions, as well as applications of beliefs that speak to current social issues. This multidisciplinary approach to beliefs will benefit graduate students and researchers in cognitive science, psychology, philosophy, political science, economics, and religious studies.
Book
Trust in International Cooperation challenges conventional wisdoms concerning the part which trust plays in international cooperation and the origins of American multilateralism. Brian C. Rathbun questions rational institutionalist arguments, demonstrating that trust precedes rather than follows the creation of international organizations. Drawing on social psychology, he shows that individuals placed in the same structural circumstances show markedly different propensities to cooperate based on their beliefs about the trustworthiness of others. Linking this finding to political psychology, Rathbun explains why liberals generally pursue a more multilateral foreign policy than conservatives, evident in the Democratic Party's greater support for a genuinely multilateral League of Nations, United Nations and North Atlantic Treaty Organization. Rathbun argues that the post-World War Two bipartisan consensus on multilateralism is a myth, and differences between the parties are growing continually starker.
Article
Drawing on people’s motivation to whet their curiosity, we tested a previously unexplored solution to reconciling want/should conflicts. Past work has shown that people are motivated to satisfy their curiosity and find enjoyment in doing so. Our work shows that piquing people’s curiosity can be leveraged to influence their choices, by steering them away from tempting “want” options (e.g., choosing unhealthy foods, watching lowbrow films, taking the elevator), and toward less-than-tempting, though normatively desirable “should” options. In two lab and two field studies, we created curiosity lures—incentives that pique people’s curiosity and deliver its closure on the condition people choose the “should” option over the “want” option. In all, our nudges were successful and highlight the external validity of our research. Notably, we observed a 9.8% increase in stairwell-use, and a 10% increase in fruit-and-vegetable purchases when we tested curiosity lures in large-scale field experiments totaling over 100,000 observations.
Article
Despite the centrality of differences as a driver of conflict, most of the empirical research on group conflict has focused on the group as a whole, paying little attention to the differing experiences of individuals during conflict—that is, the ways individuals perceive, make sense of, and emotionally experience a conflict episode. Although people process information about a conflict using the same general cognitive and emotional mechanisms, their personal characteristics (e.g., personality, cultural background), beliefs and motives (e.g., orientation toward conflict), and past experiences will influence how they make sense of what is occurring and their subsequent conflict behavior. Building on recent work that has taken a multi-level approach to understanding team conflict and drawing from related literature in social, cognitive, and personality psychology, we explicate an individual’s psychological experience of a conflict episode as a process by which individuals make sense of and emotionally experience what is happening, develop attitudes towards others in the group, and exchange and integrate knowledge about the conflict and others involved. We argue that a more nuanced understanding of the intraindividual experience of conflict generates important insight into understanding individual conflict behavior, helping us predict how people will behave in conflict situations and how conflict episodes will unfold. We conclude with implications for how to intervene to promote cooperative behavior and positive team outcomes, along with an agenda for future research.
Article
Forensic engineering assessments of tornado damage have consistently shown that inadequate or absence of anchorage of mobile and manufactured homes (MMHs) has been the primary cause of structure failure, leading to high tornado fatality rates in the Southeast United States. Therefore, it is important to determine whether these residents have anchored their homes and their underlying motivations. This research quantitatively explored various factors influencing Southeast US MMH residents’ current anchorage decisions and qualitatively explored other contextual factors for these decisions, including general mitigation knowledge and financial means. Results showed age, insurance, community shelter access, and self-efficacy perceptions reliably distinguished those who have already anchored their homes from those who have not and have no intentions to do so. On the other hand, among those who have not already anchored their homes, only tornado risk perceptions marginally distinguished those with intentions to anchor from those without. Also, those not already anchored were least likely to believe in the five tested myths and were potentially willing to spend $500–$999 on general mitigation, though few had ever considered fortifying their MMH and cost was the most cited barrier to doing so. The majority of participants knew nothing about the wind resistance of their home and only half of the sample knew the mitigation term, “manufactured home tie-down.” The knowledge gained here can help various public-facing communication entities design effective outreach materials to facilitate this population better protecting themselves from tornadoes by way of strengthening their vulnerable homes.
Chapter
Der Beitrag trägt aus kommunikationswissenschaftlicher Perspektive klassische Theorien sowie neuere Ansätze und Befunde zur rezipierenden Nutzung politischer Inhalte durch Bürger*innen zusammen. Dabei werden (1) demokratietheoretisch-normative, (2) individuell-funktionale, (3) strukturelle und (4) angebotsbasierte Ansätze unterschieden und diskutiert.
Article
Second-generation Muslims who follow their faith and feel discriminated against tend to maintain their heritage culture and distance themselves from the culture of the country where they grew up, setting the conditions for psychosocial maladjustment. Yet some second generation do find ways to adopt the mainstream culture while remaining attached to their heritage culture. To explain these contradictory observations, we investigated how second-generation Muslims manage to be part of both mainstream and heritage culture although their religion is commonly regarded as incompatible with Western values. To do this, we examined the role of flexibility in existential quest (EQ) in the acculturation of second-generation Muslims. Our hypothesis was that second generation integration is fostered by their ability to be flexible on EQ, which allows them to reflect on cultural and religious issues and to create a safe psychological place where they can practice their faith without feeling they need to withdraw from mainstream society. Two samples of second-generation Muslims, one from Italy (N = 240) and one from Belgium (N = 209), completed an online questionnaire. A multi-group structural equation model was tested. Religiosity, perceived discrimination, and sociodemographic variables were also considered. We noted a positive association between EQ and mainstream culture only for the Italian sample. Our findings suggest that flexibility on EQ is one aspect of the acculturation of second-generation Muslims and that it can provide a resource for coping with the challenge of growing up under dual cultural pressures.
Article
Full-text available
Person perception includes three sequential processes: categorization (what is the actor doing?), characterization (what trait does the action imply?), and correction (what situational constraints may have caused the action?). We argue that correction is less automatic (i.e., more easily disrupted) than either categorization or characterization. In Experiment 1, subjects observed a target behave anxiously in an anxiety-provoking situation. In Experiment 2, subjects listened to a target read a political speech that he had been constrained to write. In both experiments, control subjects used information about situational constraints when drawing inferences about the target, but cognitively busy subjects (who performed an additional cognitive task during encoding) did not. The results (a) suggest that person perception is a combination of lower and higher order processes that differ in their susceptibility to disruption and (b) highlight the fundamental differences between active and passive perceivers. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Full-text available
Developed and validated the Need for Cognition Scale (NCS). In Study 1, a pool of items was administered to 96 faculty members (high-need-for-cognition group) and assembly line workers (low-need-for-cognition group). Ambiguity, irrelevance, and internal consistency were used to select items for subsequent studies. Factor analysis yielded one major factor. In Study 2, the NCS and the Group Embedded Figures Test were administered to 419 undergraduates to validate the factor structure and to determine whether the NCS tapped a construct distinct from test anxiety and cognitive style. The factor structure was replicated, and responses to the NCS were weakly related to cognitive style and unrelated to test anxiety. In Study 3, 104 undergraduates completed the NCS, the Marlowe-Crowne Social Desirability Scale, and a dogmatism scale. Results indicate that need for cognition was related weakly and negatively to being closeminded, unrelated to social desirability, and positively correlated with general intelligence. Study 4 (97 undergraduates) furnished evidence of the predictive validity of the NCS. (32 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Full-text available
Studied the relation among need for cognition (NFC), message processing, and persuasion. 57 pairs of undergraduates holding approximately the same attitude toward instituting senior comprehensive exams but differing widely in their scores on a NFC scale participated in Exp I. Ss read a set of either strong or weak arguments supporting the recommendation that senior comprehensive exams be instituted. Results reveal that argument quality had a greater impact on the message evaluations and source impressions provided by Ss high than by those low in NFC and that Ss high in NFC reported expending more cognitive effort and recalled more message arguments regardless of argument quality. The findings from Exp I were replicated in Exp II (110 female undergraduates) with a different topic (i.e., raising student tuition) and cover story. The inclusion of a postcommunication attitude measure revealed that the attitudes of Ss high in NFC were more affected by argument quality than those of Ss low in NFC. These studies document a reliable difference among individuals in their tendency to derive information from and elaborate on externally provided message arguments. (39 ref)
Article
Full-text available
Frequently, considerable knowledge of the attributes of decision alternatives is available in memory so as to permit a thoughtful and deliberate choice. However, in many instances, individuals neglect to use such knowledge and instead rely on "attitude-based" strategy to make a memory-based decision. The findings from two experiments suggest that as to the motivation to make a correct decision or the opportunity to use the available attribute knowledge decreases, the likelihood that attitudes will guide a memory-based decision increases. The findings illustrate the functional role attitudes play in guiding decisions and behavior. By providing a ready means of evaluating choice alternatives, attitudes enable an individual to make a decision relatively quickly and effortlessly.
Article
Full-text available
Two or more dimensions unintentionally varied simultaneously are said to be confounded, but several theories in personality intentionally combine 3 or more distinct qualities. Researchers using these theories sum the qualities before testing predictions. How wise is this practice? The practice appears to derive from 2 distinct lines of reasoning. One of them assumes that the component dimensions converge on a single underlying quality (latent variable) that each reflects imperfectly. The other assumes a synergy among dimensions. Issues arising from each line of reasoning are illustrated by examining self-monitoring, attributional style, and hardiness. Conclusions are that (a) information is lost whenever a latent variable theory is tested solely by a composite and (b) a synergistic theory can be tested only through a statistical interaction.
Article
Full-text available
Four experiments were executed to test the effects of different epistemic motivations on subjects' tendency to compare with agreeing or disagreeing others. We found that under high (vs. low) fear of invalidity, subjects tend more to compare with disagreeing (vs. agreeing) others. By contrast, under high (vs. low) need for self-confirmation or a high (vs. low) need for cognitive structure, subjects tended more to compare with agreeing others. These results are discussed in reference to social comparison formulations (Festinger, 1954; Goethals & Darley, 1977) and the theory of lay epistemology (Kruglanski & Ajzen, 1983; Kruglanski & Freund, 1983).
Article
Full-text available
Do people infer personality dispositions automatically when they encode behavior? Tulving's encoding-specificity paradigm was adapted to test three operational indicants of automatism: absence of intention, of interference from other mental activity, and of awareness. Recruited for a digit-recall study, subjects read sentences describing actions during the retention interval of either an easy or a difficult digit recall task. Later, sentence recall was cued by (a) disposition cues, (b) strong semantic associates to the sentence actor, or (c) words representing the gist of the sentence, or (d) sentence recall was not cued. Awareness was measured immediately after the last sentence was read. Disposition-cued recall was higher than (b) or (d) and was unaffected by digit recall difficulty. Awareness of making dispositional inferences was only weakly correlated with disposition-cued recall. Results suggest that disposition inferences occurred at encoding, without intention, without interference by differential drain on processing capacity, and with little awareness. Thus, making dispositional inferences seems to be largely, but not entirely, automatic.
Article
Full-text available
Do people make trait inferences, even without intentions or instructions, at the encoding stage of processing behavioral information? Tulving's encoding specificity paradigm (Tulving & Thomson, 1973) was adapted for two recall experiments. Under memory instructions only, subjects read sentences describing people performing actions that implied traits. Later, subjects recalled each sentence under one of three cuing conditions: (a) a dispositional cue (e.g., generous), (b) a strong, nondispositional semantic associate to an important sentence word; or (c) no cue. Recall was best when cued by the disposition words. Subjects were unaware of having made trait inferences. Interpreted in terms of encoding specificity, these results indicate that subjects unintentionally made trait inferences at encoding. This suggests that attributions may be made spontaneously, as part of the routine comprehension of social events.
Chapter
The concept of cognitive complexity stands at the junction of two converging streams of theoretical activity in contemporary personality theory. One of these streams is the concern with cognitive structural variables in behavior, emerging from such varied sources as the work of Bartlett, Piaget, Lewin, and Tolman, among others. In more recent years this stream has been fed by the productive headwaters of psychoanalytic ego psychology, as in the work of Klein and his colleagues, and by the developmentally based research of Witkin. An underlying assumption of much of this work has been that the person’s encounters with the world about him are mediated by the operation of cognitive structures which have been variously labelled as schema, controls, or styles. The invocation of such cognitive mediational constructs has not been restricted to the theoretical sources mentioned above, but rather has ranged over the entire conceptual spectrum from more purely cognitive theories (Kelly, 1955) to more basically associational approaches (Mandler, 1962).
Article
Three experiments investigated whether the need to have (or avoid) cognitive closure affects observers' tendency to display attributional bias. Results of each experiment indicate that the over-attribution bias was magnified under high need for cognitive closure and attenuated under high need to avoid closure. In Experiments 1 and 3, the relevant motivational state was manipulated situationally, whereas in Experiment 2 an individual-differences measure of the closure motivation was used. These divergent operationalizations yielded convergent results. Furthermore, when in Experiment 3 the task consisted of attributions to the situation, high need for closure augmented. and high need to avoid closure reduced, situational rather than dispositional overattributions. The results imply general motivational boundary conditions for inferential biases across judgmental contents.
Article
Individual differences in the desire for simple structure may influence how people understand, experience, and interact with their worlds. Studies 1 and 2 revealed that the Personal Need for Structure (PNS) scale (M. Thompson, M. Naccarato, & K. Parker, 1989,1992) possesses sufficient reliability and convergent and discriminant validity In Studies 3-5, Ss high in PNS were especially likely to organize social and nonsocial information in less complex ways, stereotype others, and complete their research requirements on time. These data suggest that people differ in their chronic desire for simple structure and that this difference can have important social-cognitive and behavioral implications. A consideration of chronic information-processing motives may facilitate the theoretical integration of social cognition, affect, motivation, and personality
Chapter
This chapter presents an integrated understanding of various impression formation processes. The chapter introduces a model of impression formation that integrates social cognition research on stereotyping with traditional research on person perception. According to this model, people form impressions of others through a variety of processes that lie on a continuum reflecting the extent to that the perceiver utilizes a target's particular attributes. The continuum implies that the distinctions among these processes are matters of degree, rather than discrete shifts. The chapter examines the evidence for the five main premises of the model, it is helpful to discuss some related models that raise issues for additional consideration. The chapter discusses the research that supports each of the five basic premises, competing models, and hypotheses for further research. The chapter concludes that one of the model's fundamental purposes is to integrate diverse perspectives on impression formation, as indicated by the opening quotation. It is also designed to generate predictions about basic impression formation processes and to help generate interventions that can reduce the impact of stereotypes on impression formation.
Article
Two experiments tested the hypothesis that need for closure interacts with initial confidence in determining the extent of information seeking. Specifically, we predicted that when initial confidence is high, the higher the need for closure the weaker the information seeking tendency. In contrast, when initial confidence is low, the higher the need for closure the stronger the information seeking tendency. The two studies described in this report differed in how they operationalized the need for closure. In Experiment 1, the relatively high need for closure assumed to be engendered by an unfamiliar task was lowered in one condition through instructions stressing the costs of inaccurate judgments. In Experiment 2, the need for closure was lowered in one condition through provision of a detailed guidance for task execution. In both studies initial confidence was manipulated via the number of choice alternatives presented to subjects. This number was two in the high confidence condition and four in the low c...
Article
"Construct validation was introduced in order to specify types of research required in developing tests for which the conventional views on validation are inappropriate. Personality tests, and some tests of ability, are interpreted in terms of attributes for which there is no adequate criterion. This paper indicates what sorts of evidence can substantiate such an interpretation, and how such evidence is to be interpreted." 60 references. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2006 APA, all rights reserved).
Article
Epistemic, freezing, operationalized as impressional primacy, was examined as a function of situationally induced need for cognitive closure (manipulated by varying time pressure) and dispositional introversion-extroversion. Fifty-eight subjects under high or low time pressure predicted the success of a job candidate. Overalll the tendency to use early information in predicting job success increased when time pressure was high. Consistent with predictions, introverts used early information in forming judgments to a greater extent then extraverts when time pressure was high. No significant differences were found between introverts and extraverts when time pressure was low. The results suggest that introverts may be particularly sensitive to situations requiring cognitive closure.
Article
Three constructive replications were executed to test the hypotheses that primary effects in impression formation are more pronounced when the individual feels (1) high versus low need for cognitive structure and (2) low versus high fear of invalidity. The experiments differed partially among themselves in the particular operational definitions of the structure and validity needs. In the first experiment need for structure was manipulated via demands for unidimensional (hence, global and undifferentiated) versus multidimensional judgments; and the fear of invalidity, via potential costs to the target person of subject's judgmental mistake. In the second experiment fear of invalidity was manipulated as in the first experiment and need for structure, via degrees of time pressure. In the third experiment need for structure was manipulated as in the first experiment and fear of invalidity, via degrees of evaluation apprehension. The research hypotheses were strongly confirmed in all three experiments. These results crossvalidate the findings of Kruglanski and Freund (1983) in which need for structure was operationalized via time pressure, and fear of invalidity, via evaluation apprehension.
Article
It has often been suggested that vigilant information-seeking helps reduce uncertainty and coping with stress. The present paper argues that additional information can resolve uncertainty only to the extent that it is adequately structured or categorized. However, people may differ in their ability to achieve cognitive structure (AACS) and therefore in their ability to achieve certainty. This postulate may shed new light on Miller's (1987) findings that high monitors suffer from greater distress than low monitors. It is suggested that when high monitors have high AACS they will suffer from less psychological distress than low monitors. This interaction will not be found when blunting is involved. To examine these hypotheses, both AACS and information-seeking behavior of 77 rheumatoid arthritis patients were assessed. The two hypotheses were confirmed even after discounting the effect of subjective health perception and number of years subjects suffered from the disease.
Article
Three experiments were conducted within the framework of correspondent inference theory. In each of the experiments the subjects were instructed to estimate the “true” attitude of a target person after having either read or listened to a speech by him expressing opinions on a controversial topic. Independent variables included position of speech (pro, anti, or equivocal), choice of position vs. assignment of position, and reference group of target person. The major hypothesis (which was confirmed with varying strength in all three experiments) was that choice would make a greater difference when there was a low prior probability of someone taking the position expressed in the speech. Other findings of interest were: (1) a tendency to attribute attitude in line with behavior, even in no-choice conditions; (2) increased inter-individual variability in conditions where low probability opinions were expressed in a constraining context; (3) that this variability was partly a function of the subjects' own attitudes on the issue; (4) that equivocation in no-choice conditions leads to the attribution that the equivocator opposes the assigned position. The main conclusion suggested is that perceivers do take account of prior probabilities and situational constraints when attributing private attitude, but perhaps do not weight these factors as heavily as would be expected by a rational analysis.
Article
A theory of lay epistemics is described and applied to a range of topics within social-cognitive psychology. The theory addresses the process whereby human knowledge is formed and modified, and it highlights the epistemic functions of hypothesis generation and validation. Hypothesis generation is assumed to depend on knowers' cognitive capability and their epistemic motivations. Hypothesis validation is assumed to be based on preexisting inference rules that, in the knower's mind, connect given categories of evidence with given hypotheses. The same knowledge-acquisition process is assumed to underlie numerous social-cognitive phenomena including attribution, dissonance, attitude formation, and judgmental accuracy. The lay epistemic analysis thus serves to integrate seemingly diverse social psychological topics under the same fundamental principles. The same analysis also has implications for synthesizing notions of adaptive and maladaptive thinking, and of lay and scientific inference. Besides the unifying coherence it lends to previously separate domains of study, the epistemic framework offers novel suggestions for future research on numerous social-cognitive topics.
Article
The purpose of the paper is to describe a more generally applicable method of factor analysis which has no restrictions as regards group factors and which does not restrict the number of general factors that are operative in producing the intercorrelation. Applications of the method to different types of correlation problems are suggested. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Subjects with some religious affiliation are more prejudiced than those without affiliation, but no significant difference between Protestants and Catholics. There is a low but significant negative relation of intelligence and education to ethnocentrism. Interviews threw light on parental relations, childhood, conception of self, and dynamics and organization of personality. Projective techniques are described and results analyzed. 63 interviews are analyzed qualitatively for prejudice, political and economic ideas, religious ideology and syndromes among high and low scorers. The development of two contrasting cases is given. Criminality and antidemocratic trends in prison inmates and a study of clinic patients complete the investigation of the authoritarian personality pattern. 121 references. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
This is the second volume of the "Handbook of Motivation and Cognition: Foundations of Social Behavior." The general purpose of both volumes has been to elicit original chapters specifically for the "Handbook" that present theory and research on the interface of motivation and cognition. This second volume of the "Handbook" continues to emphasize theory and research on the motivation-cognition interface, but it expands the range of approaches considered by including contributions reflecting clinical, developmental, political, and cognitive psychological perspectives in addition to social and personality perspectives. While expanding the range of approaches considered, this volume also addresses specific issues at a greater level of detail than the previous volume, including such key issues as the nature of self-regulation and self-control, the role of affect, value, and inference in social action, and motivation-cognition relations in social understanding. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
This study assesses the impact of non-specific epistemic needs—the need for structure and the fear of invalidity—on expectancy of control and performance following unsolvable problems. Subjects answered a questionnaire tapping their non-specific epistemic needs and were exposed to either no feedback or failure in unsolvable problems. Then their expectancies of control and performance were assessed. The results showed that a high need for structure was associated with a transfer of the expectancy of uncontrollability and worse performance following failure. The results are discussed in terms of Kruglanski's lay epistemic theory.
Article
Three experiments were conducted to test the hypothesis that primacy effects, ethnic stereotyping, and numerical anchoring all represent “epistemic freezing” in which the lay-knower becomes less aware of plausible alternative hypotheses and/or inconsistent bits of evidence competing with a given judgment. It was hypothesized that epistemic freezing would increase with an increase in time pressure on the lay-knower to make a judgment and decrease with the layknower's fear that his/her judgment will be evaluated and possibly be in error. Accordingly, it was predicted that primacy effects, ethnic stereotyping, and anchoring phenomena would increase in magnitude with an increase in time pressure and decrease in magnitude with an increase in evaluation apprehension. Finally, the time-pressure variations were expected to have greater impact upon “freezing” when the evaluation apprehension is high as opposed to low. All hypotheses were supported in each of the presently executed studies.
Article
Examines the attributional error of overestimating dispositions as a cause of behavior, with reference to the attitude attribution paradigm. The author observes that earlier experiments were open to criticism on artifactual grounds, but the overattribution-to-persons tendency has proved to be a remarkably robust and easily replicated phenomenon. It can be undermined or overcome when the perceived constraints on behavior are extreme or when instructions specifically set the S to consider the importance of situational factors. The functional significance of the attributional error is not clear, though it probably stems from a perceptually generated hypothesis that is insufficiently adjusted for contextual constraint. (21 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
This paper compares attention deficit disorder (ADD) with hyperactivity (ADDH) and without hyperactivity (ADDWO). The literature is outlined, revealing the areas of possible differences to be not only the core symptoms, but also associated conduct and emotional symptoms, social relations functioning, learning, medical disorders, family history, and course and outcome of the disorder. Empirical data are presented comparing age and sex matched groups of children from a speech/language clinic sample with ADDH (N = 40) and ADDWO (N = 40). Although the methods of the present study are different from those of previous studies, they nonetheless support a number of previous findings, and, further, give support to the external validity of the ADDWO diagnostic category.
Article
Four experiments examined freely interacting groups to investigate the determinants of group members' reactions to opinion deviates and conformists. In the 1st experiment, the deviate was rejected more when he or she articulated the dissenting opinion in close proximity to the group-decision deadline versus at an earlier point in the group discussion. In the 2nd, 3rd, and 4th experiment, the deviate was rejected more when the group discussion was carried out in a noisy versus a quiet environment. Furthermore, when the conformist's contributions to the group's attempts to reach consensus were made salient (in Experiment 4), he or she was evaluated more positively in a noisy versus a quiet environment. The results were discussed in terms of the notion that group members' tendency to denigrate a deviate or extol a conformist may be stronger when their need for collective cognitive closure is heightened.
Article
In a recent article in the British Medical Journal Maurice-Williams & Dunwoody (1988) reported two patients with frontal meningiomas who presented initially to psychiatrists. The correct diagnosis was made in one of them after prolonged, perhaps unnecessary, psychiatric treatment. In the other the diagnosis was made at autopsy. In this case psychiatrists were only briefly involved and neurosurgical referral had been made promptly. The authors, who treat these reports as a cautionary tale, conclude by warning psychiatrists to pay special attention to a number of features in the history and examination of psychiatric patients. In particular we are told that suspicion should arise in the presence of gradual non-remitting symptoms such as irritability, memory loss, self-neglect, dysphasia or incontinence in patients without a previous history of psychiatric disease or clear precipitating factors. They also suggest that we pay attention to the views of relatives when they feel the patient suffers from a physical rather than a psychiatric illness, and emphasise that early diagnosis leads to easier surgical removal and better outcome.
Article
Fragile X syndrome is a newly recognized X-linked disorder which has been associated with a high prevalence of psychiatric disturbance, particularly attention deficit disorder and autism. The present study involved the neuropsychiatric evaluation of 14 males with the disorder who were between the ages of 3 to 27 years. Pervasive hyperactivity, impulsivity, and attentional deficits were found among all of the subjects, while a significant degree of anxiety was manifested by more than half. Although the majority of subjects exhibited poor eye contact, atypical speech and language functioning, and stereotyped behavior, only one met DSM-III diagnostic criteria for a persistent pervasive developmental disorder. Gaze aversion, noted among half of the subjects, was attributed to underlying anxiety rather than to autistic social dysfunction because of the otherwise socially engaged and affectionate behavior exhibited by the subjects. Failure to make this distinction in the context of cognitive and linguistic impairments associated with fragile X syndrome may account for the high rates of autism reported by other investigators.
Article
Three experiments investigated the relation between need for cognitive closure and persuasion. In the 1st study, Ss high on an individual-differences measure of need for closure were more resistant to persuasion by their low need-for-closure counterparts than vice versa. In the 2nd study, Ss in a noisy environment, assumed to instill a relatively high need for closure, were more resistant to persuasion than Ss in a quiet environment, but only in presence of an initial informational base for an opinion. In its absence, Ss in the noisy (vs. quiet) environment were less resistant to persuasion. The interaction between need for closure and informational base was replicated in the 3rd experiment reverting to the individual-differences measure of need for closure. The discussion considered implications of these findings for further persuasion phenomena.
Article
Three experiments investigated whether the need to have (or avoid) cognitive closure affects observers' tendency to display attributional bias. Results of each experiment indicate that the overattribution bias was magnified under high need for cognitive closure and attenuated under high need to avoid closure. In Experiments 1 and 3, the relevant motivational state was manipulated situationally, whereas in Experiment 2 an individual-differences measure of the closure motivation was used. These divergent operationalizations yielded convergent results. Furthermore, when in Experiment 3 the task consisted of attributions to the situation, high need for closure augmented, and high need to avoid closure reduced, situational rather than dispositional overattributions. The results imply general motivational boundary conditions for inferential biases across judgmental contents.
The freezing and unfreezing of impressional primacy: Effects of the need for structure and the fear of invalidity
  • T Freund
  • A W Kruglanski
  • A Schpitzajzen
Freund, T., Kruglanski, A. W, & Schpitzajzen, A. (1985). The freezing and unfreezing of impressional primacy: Effects of the need for structure and the fear of invalidity. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 11, 479-487.
Systematic processing and the debiasing of covert priming effects in impression formation: Unshackling the motivated perceiver from the constraints of accessibility
  • E P Thompson
  • R J Roman
  • G B Moskowitz
  • S Chaiken
  • J A Bargh
Thompson, E. P., Roman, R. J., Moskowitz, G. B., Chaiken, S., & Bargh, J. A. (1993). Systematic processing and the debiasing of covert priming effects in impression formation: Unshackling the motivated perceiver from the constraints of accessibility. Unpublished manuscript, New York University, New York.
Individual differences in chronic motivation to simplify: Personal need for structure and social-cognitive processing
  • S L Neuberg
  • J Newsom
Neuberg, S. L., & Newsom, J. (1993). Individual differences in chronic motivation to simplify: Personal need for structure and social-cognitive processing. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 65, 113-131.
The development and validation of the Personal Need for Structure (PNS) and Personal Fear of Invalidity (PFI) measures
  • M Thompson
  • M Naccarato
  • K Parker
  • G Moskowitz
Thompson, M., Naccarato, M., Parker, K., & Moskowitz, G. (1993). The development and validation of the Personal Need for Structure (PNS) and Personal Fear of Invalidity (PFI) measures. Unpublished manuscript.