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Abstract

The purpose of this study was to develop and test psychometrically a self-report instrument designed to measure sense of belonging in adults. The Sense of Belonging Instrument (SOBI) is a 27-item, self-report instrument consisting of two separately scored scales, SOBI-P (psychological state) and SOBI-A (antecedents). Content validity was assessed by a panel of experts. Construct validity, internal consistency, and retest reliability were examined through a series of studies with three subject groups: community college students, patients in treatment for major depression, and Roman Catholic nuns. Results suggest that SOBI-P is a valid and reliable measure of sense of belonging. SOBI-A appears to reflect an individual's motivation for sense of belonging but requires additional study regarding its construct validity and internal consistency.
... This implies that one's sense of belongingness, in contrast to the fundamental need to belong, is inherently contextual, and emerges as the result of the individual's social, cultural, and emotional state within a specific environment, or at the time of specific experience. Considering that the sense of belongingness is based on personal experiences and involvement with social environments [2,40], it is possible to argue that a sense of belongingness is essentially a response to our emotional appraisals of our relations and interactions with others in the given conditions (e.g., [41,42]). ...
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People are frequently caught in the hold between the need to belong and the fear of exclusion. However, these needs might be expressed differently under different belongingness conditions, where other powerful social processes are accentuated. Thus, the need to belong and social exclusion are concepts that are subjectively appraised based on one’s social relations. The present study aims to examine the relationship between the need to belong and five personal appraisals under two different belongingness conditions: (1) social-emotion support and (2) social-value representation. A total of 201 participants from two different groups were presented with 69 different items measuring five personal appraisals (exclusion, shame, social-worthiness, emotional self-expression, and prosocial-relating behaviour). Condition 2, social-value representation with social worthiness being appraised, offered the strongest connection as a significant predictor amongst all appraisals in both conditions, despite both exclusion and shame being indicated as significant predictors, to begin with. Thus, highlighting the appraisal of social worthiness in support of one’s need to socially represent oneself by not being compared to others while being valued as an alternative motive for realising a sense of belongingness. The empirical and theoretical limitations and implications are also discussed.
... While, sense of belonging is related to the multidimensional concepts of sense of community and place attachment (Pipitone & Jović, 2021). Moreover,sense of belonging is recognized as an important determinant of psychological and physical well-being (Hagerty & Patusky, 1995). Consequently, the sense of belonging to a place thus refers not only to the emotional but also the behavioral bonds between people and places, which in recent literature includes at least three perspectives. ...
... This leads to our third hypothesis: [26]. Maslow [27] positioned 'belonging' as a basic human need, and Hagerty et al. [28] posited that a Sense of Belonging represents a unique mental health concept. A sense of belonging is key to work satisfaction [29], and productivity [26], and can help to avoid attrition [30]. ...
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Job burnout is a type of work-related stress associated with a state of physical or emotional exhaustion that also involves a sense of reduced accomplishment and loss of personal identity. Burnt out can affect one's physical and mental health and has become a leading industry concern and can result in high workforce turnover. Through an empirical study at Globant, a large multi-national company, we created a theoretical model to evaluate the complex interplay among organizational culture, work satisfaction, and team climate, and how they impact developer burnout. We conducted a survey of developers in software delivery teams (n=3281) to test our model and analyzed the data using structural equation modeling, moderation, and multi-group analysis. Our results show that Organizational Culture, Climate for Learning, Sense of Belonging, and Inclusiveness are positively associated with Work Satisfaction, which in turn is associated with Reduced Burnout. Our model generated through a large-scale survey can guide organizations in how to reduce workforce burnout by creating a climate for learning, inclusiveness in teams, and a generative organizational culture where new ideas are welcome, information is actively sought and bad news can be shared without fear.
... The need to belong is a powerful, fundamental, and pervasive force that has multiple strong effects on emotional patterns and cognitive processes across all cultures and different types of people [4]. Maslow [5] positioned 'belonging' as a basic human need, and Hagerty et al. [6] posited that a sense of belonging represents a unique mental health concept. A sense of belonging is key to productivity, satisfaction, and engagement [4], and can help to avoid attrition [7]. ...
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The sense of belonging to a community is a basic human need that impacts an individuals behavior, long-term engagement, and job satisfaction, as revealed by research in disciplines such as psychology, healthcare, and education. Despite much research on how to retain developers in Open Source Software projects and other virtual, peer-production communities, there is a paucity of research investigating what might contribute to a sense of belonging in these communities. To that end, we develop a theoretical model that seeks to understand the link between OSS developer motives and a Sense of Virtual Community. We test the model with a dataset collected in the Linux Kernel developer community, using structural equation modeling techniques. Our results for this case study show that intrinsic motivations - social or hedonic motives - are positively associated with a sense of virtual community, but living in an authoritative country and being paid to contribute can reduce the sense of virtual community. Based on these results, we offer suggestions for open source projects to foster a sense of virtual community, with a view to retaining contributors and improving projects sustainability.
... Sense of belonging was measured using the sense of belonging questionnaire (Hagerty & Patusky, 1995). There are two components of the instrument. ...
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The present study purposed moderating the role of friends’ support for the direct and indirect effect of diffusive identity style on personal accountability mediated thorough a sense of belonging. The sample included 500 university students (Male = 244 and Female = 256), age ranging from 18-25 years (M±SD = 20.35±1.54) from different Pakistani universities including Islamabad, Rawalpindi, Lahore and Mandi Bahauddin. Data was collected on Identity Styles (Berzonsky, 2013), Sense of Belonging (Hagerty & Patusky, 1995), Sense of Responsibility (Mergler, 2016) and Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support (Zimet, Dahlem, Zimet, & Farley, 1988) along with a detailed demographic sheet. The purposed mediated moderation was tested using Process Macro (Hayes, 2013). The results showed that the effect of diffusive identity style on personal accountability is mediated through sense of belonging-psychological measures. Additionally, results showed that an indirect effect through a mediator is moderated by friends’ support. With low level of friends’ support, the effect of diffusive identity style through a sense of belonging is non-significant but as friends’ support increases, diffusive identity contributes towards a sense of belonging-psychological measures resulting in decreased personal accountability. It is recommended that any intervention involving friends support shall be accounted for individuals’ own identity style.
... A fundamental feature of belonging is a person's feeling of being valued, needed, important to other people, groups, objects, organisations, and environments, or spiritual dimensions. To belong, a person's experiences should fit with others in the group, through shared or complementary characteristics [67]. COVID-19-related restrictions exacerbated feelings of isolation and loneliness previously understood to be problematic for homeworkers [68]. ...
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(1) Background: Pandemic-imposed lockdowns have heightened our awareness of the value of (work)place and made apparent the role it plays in establishing our sense of belonging and professional identity. The opportunity to work remotely during the pandemic has given us an appreciation of the benefits from access to increased flexibility, but there is consistent evidence emerging showing how much workers miss in-office social and learning interactions. This paper focuses on results about (i) reported perceived effectiveness and performance, (ii) sense of adjustment to remote working, and (iii) sense of belonging during the first two COVID-19-induced lockdowns, as reported by managers and workers in Australia in 2020. Findings shed light onto (i) how remote working experience affected our connection to, and the importance of, (work)place and (ii) how to harness insights towards creating spaces responsive to the activities we prefer to undertake in the workplace, permitting employees to choose the workstyle and pattern that suits their professional role and personal circumstances. (2) Methods: Correlational and thematic analyses were conducted on findings from 1579 online surveys focusing on remote working experiences during the first and second rounds of COVID-19-imposed lockdowns. A total of 668 managers and 911 workers from 12 different industry sectors participated in two rounds of the Bates Smart remote work survey (BSRWS). Surveys targeted knowledge workers of all career stages, age, and experience. (3) Results: Employees felt (i) technologically supported and productive whilst working from home, but (ii) aspects of connection, collaboration, and sense of belonging suffered; (iii) collaboration and togetherness are main motivators for returning to the office. Managers’ experiences were significantly different with (i) perceived productivity, collaboration, knowledge sharing, sense of belonging, and performance dropping; (ii) face-to-face interaction and business development were key priorities for returning to the office with (iii) challenges of mentoring and managing emotional wellbeing of teams evident. (4) Conclusions: From these surveys we conclude space is an enabler of organisational culture and professional identity, playing a critical role in establishing psychologically safe and equitable workplaces. This paper reports snapshot data showing knowledge workers’ experiences and effects of WFH under strict lockdown circumstances on wellbeing, productivity, and culture over time. It proposes two lenses (togetherness and place), through which the future workplace should be considered by industry and researchers alike.
... This idea of shifting one's professional identity to be accepted and fit into a new environment is articulated by Hagerty and Patusky (1995). They say that for an individual to feel a sense of belonging to a system or an environment, they not only need to experience being valued and needed but also need to perceive that their characteristics fit into or complement the system and environment. ...
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The global mobility and migration of teachers has affected the education environment worldwide. This study examines the professional transition of immigrant teachers and finds that teacher professional identity is a critical element in a complex process of professional transition. Using a qualitative inductive approach, this study reports on the professional transition experiences of ten teachers who migrated from Asia to Australia. Findings revealed that teachers’ employment status, skills and knowledge, perceived social position, and beliefs and attitudes towards teaching are significant elements of teacher identity that either enable or inhibit immigrant teachers’ professional transition. The findings relate to previous research and offer an enhanced understanding of how policymakers and educational leaders can support overseas teachers as they transition into schools within the Australian context.
Chapter
W przedstawionym artykule przybliżam teoretyczne ramy Projektu Bohaterskiej Wyobraźni (ang. Heroic Imagination Project – HIP), jego charakter i specyfikę – zmieniających oblicze edukacji – interwencji odnoszących się do procesów psychologicznych, powiązanych z motywacją i osiągnięciami młodzieży szkolnej (Dickerson, Wilkins i Zimbardo, 2013). Na bazie przeprowadzonego we wrześniu 2013 roku wywiadu z profesorem Zimbardo wyjaśniam naturę heroizmu wkomponowaną w założenia programu Rozumienie Ludzkiej Natury (ang. Understanding Human Nature – UHN) oraz jego znaczenie dla indywidualnej, społecznej i kulturowej rzeczywistości, w której funkcjonują uczniowie polskich szkół.
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Abstract Israel’s approximately 250,000 Bedouins self-defne as indigenous because they are the original inhabitants of the Negev, the country’s southern region, and lived there before the establishment of the state in 1948. Their society has undergone substantial changes since the 1960s, following the government’s decision to urbanize this population. This process has had many social, economic, and political ramifcations. The Bedouin population is young, and its percentage of young people is higher than that of Israel’s overall population. One of the ramifcations of urbanization is that young Bedouin men have entered the labor market and institutions of higher education. How do these young men experience the changes and life in an urban village? For them, what is the meaning of belonging? Is their sense of belonging to the village, the tribe, the family, or the nation? This qualitative study of 20 educated Bedouin young men found that there is no sense of belonging to the geophysical space of the village; the urban space is alienated. There is, however, a feeling of respect and belonging to the tribe, to the Arab and Muslim people, and to Arab Islamic thought.
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Mental breakdown in battle during service in the Israeli Defense Force is described. Factors that promote and inhibit occurrence of breakdown are proposed and an analysis is presented. A short description is given concerning the different therapeutic possibilities.
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Some studies of measuring instruments are validity studies. Others are reliability studies. Still others, such as the investigation of the stability of a construct and the correlation between the scores on two different levels of the same test, are neither. Authors of test manuals and of journal articles dealing with certain tests should label them accordingly as substantive studies, not methodological investigations.