Sauaia A, Moore FA, Moore EE, et al. Epidemiology of trauma deaths: a reassessment. J Trauma.38(2):185-193

St. Anthony's Hospital, St. Petersburg, Florida, United States
The Journal of trauma (Impact Factor: 2.96). 03/1995; 38(2):185-93. DOI: 10.1097/00005373-199307000-00073
Source: PubMed


Recognizing the impact of the 1977 San Francisco study of trauma deaths in trauma care, our purpose was to reassess those findings in a contemporary trauma system.
All trauma deaths occurring in Denver City and County during 1992 were reviewed; data were obtained by cross-referencing four databases: paramedic trip reports, trauma registries, coroner autopsy reports and police reports.
There were 289 postinjury fatalities; mean age was 36.8 +/- 1.2 years and mean Injury Severity Score (ISS) was 35.7 +/- 1.2. Predominant injury mechanisms were gunshot wounds in 121 (42%), motorvehicle accidents in 75 (38%) and falls in 23 (8%) cases. Seven (2%) individuals sustained lethal burns. Ninety eight (34%) deaths occurred in the pre-hospital setting. The remaining 191 (66%) patients were transported to the hospital. Of these, 154 (81%) died in the first 48 hours (acute), 11 (6%) within three to seven days (early) and 26 (14%) after seven days (late). Central nervous system injuries were the most frequent cause of death (42%), followed by exsanguination (39%) and organ failure (7%). While acute and early deaths were mostly due to the first two causes, organ failure was the most common cause of late death (61%).
In comparison with the previous report, we observed similar injury mechanisms, demographics and causes of death. However, in our experience, there was an improved access to the medical system, greater proportion of late deaths due to brain injury and lack of the classic trimodal distribution.

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    • "Hemorrhage is the leading cause of death after traumatic injury (Sauaia et al. 1995; Boulanger et al. 2007) with hemorrhage being the primary hyperglycemic stimulus in trauma models (Ma et al. 2003; Xu et al. 2008). Obese patients have increased morbidity and mortality after hemorrhage (Nelson et al. 2012), with impaired glucose regulation being a better predictor of increased mortality and complications than body mass index in obese patients (Sperry et al. 2007; Pieracci et al. 2008; Mowery et al. 2010). "
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    ABSTRACT: Stress hyperglycemia following trauma has been shown to potentiate morbidity and mortality. Glucose control in obese patients can be challenging due to insulin resistance. Thus, understanding the mechanisms for glucose generation following hemorrhage may provide important insights into alternative options for glycemic control in obesity. Obesity is characterized by elevated glycogen and increased hepatic β2-adrenergic activity, which play major roles in glucose production after hemorrhage. We hypothesized that, in obesity, hepatic glycogenolysis is enhanced during stress hyperglycemia due to increased hepatic β2-adrenoceptor activation. Hemorrhage was performed in conscious lean Zucker (LZ) and obese Zucker rats (OZ) by withdrawing 35% total blood volume over 10 min. Liver glycogen content and plasma levels of glucose, insulin, and glucagon were measured before and 1 h after hemorrhage. The hyperglycemic response was greater in OZ as compared to LZ, but glycogen content was similarly reduced in both groups. Subsequently, OZ had a greater fall in insulin compared to LZ. Glucagon levels were significantly increased 1 h after hemorrhage in LZ but not in OZ. To test the direct adrenergic effects on the liver after hemorrhage, we treated animals before hemorrhage with a selective β2-adrenoceptor antagonist, ICI-118,551 (ICI; 2 mg/kg/h, i.v.). After hemorrhage, ICI significantly reduced hyperglycemia in both LZ and OZ, independent of hormonal changes, but there was a significantly decreased hepatic glycogenolysis in OZ. These results suggest that the hemorrhage-induced hepatic glycogenolysis is likely glucagon-dependent in LZ, whereas the β2-adrenoceptor plays a greater role in OZ. © 2014 The Authors. Physiological Reports published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of the American Physiological Society and The Physiological Society.
    Full-text · Article · Dec 2014
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    • "Coagulopathy is linked to approximately 50% of the trauma associated deaths that occur within the first 48 hours after injury [1-3]. That condition is present in more than 25% of severely injured patients on admission, and is associated with a fourfold increased risk of death [1,4]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Introduction Inflammation plays a major role in the multifactorial process of trauma associated coagulopathy. The vagus nerve regulates the cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway. We hypothesized that efferent vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) can improve coagulopathy by modulating the inflammatory response to hemorrhage. Methods Wistar rats (n = 24) were divided in 3 groups: Group (G1) Sham hemorrhagic shock (HS); (G2) HS w/o VNS; (G3) HS followed by division of the vagus nerves and VNS of the distal stumps. Hemorrhage (45% of baseline MAPx15 minutes) was followed by normotensive resuscitation with LR. Vagus nerves were stimulated (3.5 mA, 5 Hz) for 30 sec 7 times. Samples were obtained at baseline and at 60 minutes for thromboelastometry (Rotem®) and cytokine assays (IL-1 and IL-10). ANOVA was used for statistical analysis; significance was set at p < 0.05. Results Maximum clot firmness (MCF) significantly decreased in G2 after HS (71.5 ± 1.5 vs. 64 ± 1.6) (p < 0.05). MCF significantly increased in G3 compared to baseline (67.3 ± 2.7 vs. 71.5 ± 1.2) (p < 0.05). G3 also showed significant improvement in Alfa angle, and Clot Formation Time (CFT) compared to baseline. IL-1 increased significantly in group 2 and decrease in group 3, while IL-10 increased in group 3 (p < 0.05). Conclusions Electrical stimulation of efferent vagus nerves, during resuscitation (G3), decreases inflammatory response to hemorrhage and improves coagulation.
    Full-text · Article · Sep 2014 · Journal of Trauma Management & Outcomes
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    • "In the battlefield or remote areas, prolonged hemorrhagic shock often results in multiple organ failure (MOF) with a mortality rate of 24% [1]–[4]. The gut is considered to be the “motor” driving MOF [5]– because hemorrhagic shock reduces intestinal mucosal blood perfusion that leads to intestinal mucosal barrier damage, intestinal barrier dysfunction, ectopic flora, endotoxemia, systemic inflammation, and finally MOF [8]–[13]. "
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    ABSTRACT: BackgroundIn prolonged hemorrhagic shock, reductions in intestinal mucosal blood perfusion lead to mucosal barrier damage and systemic inflammation. Gastrointestinal failure in critically ill patients has a poor prognosis, so early assessment of mucosal barrier injury in shock patients is clinically relevant. Unfortunately, there is no serum marker that can accurately assess intestinal ischemia-reperfusion injury.ObjectiveThe aim of this study was to assess if serum diamine oxidase levels can reflect intestinal mucosal injury subsequent to prolonged hemorrhagic shock.MethodsThirty New Zealand white rabbits were divided into three groups: a control group, a medium blood pressure (BP) group (exsanguinated to a shock BP of 50 to 41 mm Hg), and a low BP group (exsanguinated to a shock blood pressure of 40 to 31 mm Hg), in which the shock BP was sustained for 180 min prior to fluid resuscitation.ResultsThe severity of hemorrhagic shock in the low BP group was significantly greater than that of the medium BP group according to the post-resuscitation BP, serum tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, and arterial lactate. Intestinal damage was significantly more severe in the low BP group according to Chiu’s scoring, claudin-1, intercellular adhesion molecule (ICAM)-1, and myeloperoxidase expression. Serum diamine oxidase was significantly increased in the low BP group compared to the medium BP and control groups and was negatively correlated with shock BP.ConclusionSerum diamine oxidase can be used as a serological marker in evaluating intestinal injury and shows promise as an indicator of hemorrhagic shock severity.
    Full-text · Article · Aug 2014 · PLoS ONE
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