Steer P, Alam MA, Wadsworth J, Welch A. Relation between maternal haemoglobin concentration and birth weight in different ethnic groups. BMJ 310, 489-491

Academic Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Charing Cross and Westminster Medical School, Chelsea and Westminster Hospital, London.
BMJ Clinical Research (Impact Factor: 14.09). 02/1995; 310(6978):489-91. DOI: 10.1016/0020-7292(95)96757-L
Source: PubMed


To assess the relation of the lowest haemoglobin concentration in pregnancy with birth weight and the rates of low birth weight and preterm delivery in different ethnic groups.
Retrospective analysis of 153,602 pregnancies with ethnic group and birth weight recorded on a regional pregnancy database during 1988-91. The haemoglobin measurement used was the lowest recorded during pregnancy.
North West Thames region.
115,262 white women, 22,206 Indo-Pakistanis, 4570 Afro-Caribbeans, 2642 mediterraneans, 3905 black Africans, 2351 orientals, and 2666 others.
Birth weight and rates of low birth weight (< 2500 g) and preterm delivery (< 37 completed weeks).
Maximum mean birth weight in white women was achieved with a lowest haemoglobin concentration in pregnancy of 85-95 g/l; the lowest incidence of low birth weight and preterm labour occurred with a lowest haemoglobin of 95-105 g/l. A similar pattern occurred in all ethnic groups.
The magnitude of the fall in haemoglobin concentration in pregnancy is related to birth weight; failure of the haemoglobin concentration to fall below 105 g/l indicates an increased risk of low birth weight and preterm delivery. This phenomenon is seen in all ethnic groups. Some ethnic groups have higher rates of low birth weight and preterm delivery than white women, and they also have higher rates of low haemoglobin concentrations. This increased rate of "anaemia," however, does not account for their higher rates of low birth weight, which occurs at all haemoglobin concentrations.

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    • "The association between maternal haemoglobin and neonatal outcomes has already been studied in the general population of neonates and seems to follow a U-shaped distribution with adverse outcomes at both ends of the haemoglobin range largely mediated through preterm birth and low birth weight.[7], [8], [17] However, as our study was dealing only with preterm neonates, the effect of preterm birth could not be taken into account. In our very preterm population, we did not find a U-shaped distribution: preterm neonates whose mothers had low haemoglobin concentration value (Q1) had a poorer short-term outcome but no difference was found in terms of outcome in infants whose mothers had the highest haemoglobin concentration value (Q4). "
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    ABSTRACT: To determine whether there is a significant association between maternal haemoglobin measured before delivery and short-term neonatal outcome in very preterm neonates. We included prospectively all live births occurring from 25 to 32+6 weeks of gestation in a tertiary care centre between January 1(st) 2009 and December 31(st) 2011. Outborn infants and infants presenting with lethal malformations were excluded. Three hundred and thirty-nine mothers and 409 infants met the inclusion criteria. For each mother-infant pair a prospective record of epidemiologic data was performed and maternal haemoglobin concentration recorded within 24 hours before delivery was retrospectively researched. Maternal haemoglobin was divided into quartiles with the second and the third one regarded as reference as they were composed of normal haemoglobin values. Short-term outcome was defined as poor in case of death during hospital stay and/or grades III/IV intraventricular haemorrhage and/or periventricular leukomalacia and/or necessity of ventriculoperitoneal shunt. The global rate of poor short-term neonatal outcome was 11.4% and was significantly associated with low maternal haemoglobin values. This association remained significant after adjustment for antenatal corticosteroids therapy, gestational age, parity, mechanism of preterm birth, mode of delivery and birth weight (aOR = 2.97 CI 95% [1.36-6.47]). There was no relation between short-term neonatal outcome and high maternal haemoglobin concentration values. We show that low maternal haemoglobin concentration at delivery is an independent risk factor for poor short-term neonatal outcome in very preterm neonates. This study is one of the first to show such an association within the preterm population.
    Full-text · Article · Feb 2014 · PLoS ONE
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    • "Pregnant women with hemoglobin levels greater than 11 g/dl, which is considered normal, gave birth to neonates with normal weight, while pregnant women with lower hemoglobin levels (< 9 g/dl), who were considered anaemic gave birth to low birth weight babies. Steer et al. [30], Malhotra et al. [31] from India and Yazdani et al. [32] in Iran also indicated in their study the importance of normal haemoglobin level on pregnancy outcome, and their results agree with current findings. Their findings revealed that normal concentration of hemoglobin significantly influenced birth weight. "
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    ABSTRACT: The objective of this study was to examine the influence of anthropometric measurements of pregnant women, gestational weight gain, fundal height, and maternal factors, namely age, education, family income, parity along with maternal hemoglobin, on birth weight of neonates. A cross sectional study was performed in Khoy City in north west of Iran. Four hundred and fifty healthy pregnant women in the age between 16-40 years were selected for this study from seven health urban centers and one referral hospital. Findings showed that the mean age, height, fundal height, maternal weight, and gestational weight gain during pregnancy were 26.1 years, 159.1 cm, 32.9 cm, 72.0 kg, 11.8 kg respectively. The mean birth weight of neonates was 3.2 kg and 11% of neonates showed low birth weight. Age, family income, maternal height, weight, gestational weight gain and fundal height were significantly associated with birth weight of neonates. Using binary logistic regression analysis, fundal height, maternal hemoglobin, family income and gestational weight gain of pregnant women could be considered as predictive factors of birth weight of neonates.
    Full-text · Article · Apr 2012 · Nutrition research and practice
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    • "Anemia is regarded as a major risk factor for unfavorable pregnancy outcomes. It has been associated with premature labor [2], low birth weight [3,4], maternal mortality [5], and perinatal mortality [6]. It is estimated that more than half of pregnant women in developing countries suffer from anemia [1]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Anemia is regarded as a major risk factor for unfavorable pregnancy outcomes, but there have been no previous studies describing the pattern of hemoglobin concentration during pregnancy in Tibet and the relationship between altitude and Hb concentration in the pregnant women living in Tibet still has not been clearly established. The main objectives of this study were to study the hemoglobin levels and prevalence of anemia among pregnant women living in the highlands of Tibet and to evaluate potential associations of hemoglobin and anemia with women's characteristics. The hospital-based study was conducted in 380 pregnant women. Their blood samples were tested and related sociodemographic information was collected. Multiple linear regression model and multiple logistic regression model were used to assess the association of pregnant women's characteristics with hemoglobin level and the occurrence of anemia. Centers for Disease Control (CDC), Dirren et al. and Dallman et al. methods were used to adjust the hemoglobin measurements based on altitude for estimating the prevalence of anemia. The mean hemoglobin concentration was 127.6 g/L (range: 55.0-190.0 g/L). Prevalence rate of anemia in this study was 70.0%, 77.9% and 41.3%, respectively for three altitude-correction methods for hemoglobin (CDC method, Dirren et al. method, and Dallman et al. method). Gestational age, ethnicity, residence and income were significantly associated with the hemoglobin concentration and prevalence of anemia in the study population. Specially, the hemoglobin concentration of pregnant women decreased with increase in gestational age. The hemoglobin level was low and prevalence rate of anemia was high among pregnant women in Lhasa, Tibet. Gestational age, ethnicity, residence and income were found to be significantly associated with the hemoglobin level and the occurrence of anemia in the study population.
    Full-text · Article · Sep 2009 · BMC Public Health
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