ArticleLiterature Review

The welfare problems of laying hens in battery cages

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Abstract

So far as feeding, health and protection from cannibalism are concerned, the welfare needs of laying hens can be well catered for in cages. In other respects, however, cages fail to provide for hens' welfare needs. Deprived of litter, caged hens are prevented from dust bathing and foraging. Without access to a nest site, nesting motivation is frustrated and without a perch, roosting is prevented. Restrictions on movement within a cage cause frustration and prevent normal bone maintenance, particularly in the legs and wings. Confinement in a battery cage is concluded to cause suffering to laying hens in several different ways.

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... Interest in furnished cages followed from concerns that conventional cages failed to provide hens with the opportunity to perform certain behaviours. The support for furnished cages largely derives from the failure of conventional cages to meet aspects of the 'Five Freedoms' (Appleby, 1993b;Baxter 1994;. In the EU, conventional cages are to be replaced with furnished cages by 2013. ...
... Keel bone deformation and incidence of bumble foot can be higher in furnished cages (Tauson and Abrahamsson, 1994;Abrahamsson et al., 1996), however feather condition and body condition can be better (Maria et al., 2001). A number of workers have reported that in general they consider that hen welfare is improved in furnished cages compared to conventional cages (Baxter, 1994;Tauson and Abrahamsson, 1996;Duncan, 2001;Appleby et al., 2002). ...
... Appleby and found slightly better production from furnished cages. A number of workers have reported that, generally, hen welfare is improved in furnished cages compared to conventional cages (Baxter, 1994;Tauson and Abrahamsson, 1996;Duncan, 2001;Appleby et al., 2002). ...
... Laying hens are highly motivated for nests [1][2][3][4] even if they have no prior experience of nesting cues [5] . They feel frustrated when nest sites are out of access [1] , and they will overcome increasing resistance for nest entrance [6] . ...
... Laying hens are highly motivated for nests [1][2][3][4] even if they have no prior experience of nesting cues [5] . They feel frustrated when nest sites are out of access [1] , and they will overcome increasing resistance for nest entrance [6] . Therefore, provision of nests is thought as an improvement for birds' welfare to fulfill pre-laying behaviors. ...
Article
Provision of nest boxes is necessary for laying hens, especially in non-cage systems. This study investigated the effects of nest width on nest utilization and mislaid eggs. Hy-Line Browns hens were transferred from conventional cages to perchery pens at 12 weeks of age. Two experiments were conducted to mutually verify the hypothesis that narrowing group nests would improve nest utilization and reduce mislaid eggs. In experiment 1, group nests of 150 cm wide in two pens were partitioned at intervals of 50 cm and 37 cm, respectively. In experiment 2, partition panels were removed after acclimation. The number of mislaid eggs and nest eggs in each pre-set section were compared. Results indicated that narrowing group nests had positive effects on improving usage uniformity and efficiency of group nests. Nest eggs were more evenly distributed on the egg belt in both narrowed group nests, which was indicated by the significant decrease of variance among different sections (p<0.001). The proportion of mislaid eggs decreased by 3.5% in 37 cm treatment (p<0.05) and 4.7% in 50 cm treatment (p<0.001), respectively. As expected, reuse of the 150 cm group nests after removal of partition panels lowered the usage uniformity of group nests. A growth of three percentage points was found for the proportion of mislaid eggs after removing the partition panels in 50 cm treatment. The present results indicated that it is the width of the nest box that works for a better use of group nests. In conclusion, adding partition panels at intervals of 50 cm and 37 cm in group nests both are effective on nest usage and decreasing the occurrence of mislaid eggs. © 2018, Chinese Society of Agricultural Engineering. All rights reserved.
... So the birds become frustrated, the consequence of such deprivation and frustration, aggressive pecking at other birds increased led to more head injuries and finally death. These obtained results are similar to those obtained by Baxter (1994) who mentioned that the space available in a battery cage does not allow hens even to stand still in the way they would in a more spacious environment. Some behaviors are completely inhibited by confinement in a cage causing a progressive accumulation of motivation to perform the behaviors. ...
... These obtained result agreed with Sainsbury and Sainsbury (1982) who mentioned that the cage system considered to cause stress among birds and therefore its use is discriminated against in some countries while in other countries the number of birds per cage is limited and birds managed under this system occasional suffer from cage fatigue a kind of leg weakness of unknown cause. Moreover, Baxter (1994) mentioned that extreme confinement in wire cages predisposes to external injuries to feet and feathers and exacerbates the development of osteoperosis, leading to bone fractures and chronic pain. The long-term effects of lack exercise on the bones and muscles of birds, caged birds have lower bone weight and greater bone brittleness than birds which have more freedom of movement and more caged birds are lame. ...
Book
Our work was carried out in three separate experiments; The first experiment concluded that cage systems are still the most efficient form of housing for breeder Japanese quail because it was accompanied with greatest feeding and drinking, egg production, hatchability,egg quality and lower mortality percent, but in order to reduce the welfare problems associated with these systems, the birds have to be equipped at minimum with an area for pecking, scratching, and dust-bathing to meet the fundamental behavioral needs of birds. The second experiment summarized that the sex ratio 1 male to 3 females was the optimum mating ratio in mass-mated groups of Japanese quail which lead to highest level of complete mating, egg production, maximum fertility and hatchability, and lowest level of agonistic encounters. The third experiment revealed that the puberty and sexual maturity ages of female quail were found to be 48 and 54 days, respectively. While in male quail they were found to be 32 and 42 days, respectively. The meat of Japanese quail (breast meat) contains 74.58% moisture, 18.88% protein, 3.45% fat and 2.57% ash in female, while in males 73.90% moisture, 19.75% protein, 2.58% fat.
... LIVING OR HOUSING CONDITIONS A conventional battery cage for laying hens is the predominant housing system in many countries because this system is the most integrated and intensified housing system for obtaining maximum productivity of laying hens. However, this system has been criticised for undesirable effects on physiology, behaviour, health and even the hen's welfare (Nicol, 1987;Baxter, 1994;Freire et al., 2003;Albentosa and Cooper, 2004). The conventional battery cage was banned in the European Union in 2012 for producing table eggs. ...
... The conventional battery cage was banned in the European Union in 2012 for producing table eggs. Therefore, currently, much concern is focused on the housing system as it relates to the welfare of laying hens (Baxter, 1994). It is also crucial to determine the relationship between housing systems and physiology of the chicken from the viewpoint of productivity, stress and welfare. ...
Article
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Telomeres are specialised nucleoprotein end structures of eukaryotic chromosomes and protect and maintain genome integrity from recombination, exonuclease degradation and end-to-end fusion. Because of the end replication problem, telomere length in somatic cells tends to decrease with organismal age. Telomere shortening is known to occur in chicken somatic tissues and correlates with advanced developmental age. However, age is not the only determinant of telomere length in an individual. Several factors at the genetic and epigenetic levels are known to affect telomere length in different ways. Herein, we review several factors that affect telomere length in the chicken. Genetic factors include breed and sex, while the epigenetic factors include environmental and stochastic influences. Age, stocking density and living or housing systems were reviewed as environmental factors pertaining to the habitat of the organism. Factors such as oxidative stress, antioxidants in feed and restriction feeding were the stochastic factors that we reviewed.
... In the egg industry, where feeding, health and protection from cannibalism are concerned, the welfare needs of laying hens are well catered for in cages (Baxter, 1994). However, caging chickens has been tied to increased food safety risk in addition to impaired acquisition of normal gut flora, compromised gastrointestinal function and physiological stressors (Shields & Greger, 2013). ...
... To be precise, caged hens are deprived of litter, are prevented from dust bathing and foraging, are without access to a nest site, nesting motivation is frustrated and, without a perch, roosting is prevented. Restrictions on movement in a cage cause frustration and prevent normal bone maintenance, particularly in the legs and wings (Baxter, 1994). Handling and management of spent layers during transportation over long distances from Gauteng, North West and the Western Cape to the Eastern Cape has been regarded as warranting research (Lovell, 2016). ...
Article
Poultry meat and eggs are the largest source of animal protein in the human diet worldwide. These are the benefits of decades of poultry research investments that were aimed at developing fast-growing strains, a better understanding of nutrient metabolism and utilization, and the effects of those nutrients on gene expression. The South African poultry industry has advanced alongside global trends in most developed countries. The industry is dominated by a few fully integrated large commercial producers, and a high volume of small-scale producers, either as contract growers or individual producers supplying solely the informal market. Currently, the poultry industry is battling to remain competitive, owing to tons of imported dark chicken meat being dumped in this market by other countries at prices below the cost of production locally. This has had negative consequences on producers, big and small, and on the employment rate. Disease outbreaks, welfare regulations, food safety, house environment and a number of issues relating to nutrition and feeding are among current and future challenges to the poultry industry, particularly the small-scale segment. With urbanization escalating, land availability and accessibility for intensive poultry rearing, and crop production for feed will be a challenge. Simultaneously, although poultry has the lowest carbon and water footprint, global warming is likely to affect feed quality and quantity, increasing feed and energy costs, thereby influencing food security. In future, maize and soybean meal on a worldwide basis will remain the major ingredients in poultry diets, although research on feedstuffs for partial replacement of these two will still be relevant, more so for home mixers. Focus on poultry science education and training, research and extension partnerships between poultry scientists and veterinarians also needs serious attention. Lack of collaboration between the private and public sectors, and lack of innovative ways to articulate concerns from producers and consumers to policy makers remain barriers to technological adoption. This review adopts poultry in sole reference to chickens.
... kanat çırpma, eşinme davranışları ve diğer bir takım fiziksel aktivitelerinin kısıtlanmasına neden olmaktadır [3,10]. Bu gibi sistemlerde barındırılan hayvanlarda kafes yorgunluğu, ayak ve bacak bozuklukları gibi sağlık sorunları ile sıkça karşılaşılırken aynı zamanda korku ve stres nedeniyle geri gagalama, tüy yolma, polidipsia ve kanibalizm gibi davranış bozuklukları da gelişmektedir [3,5]. ...
... kanat çırpma, eşinme davranışları ve diğer bir takım fiziksel aktivitelerinin kısıtlanmasına neden olmaktadır [3,10]. Bu gibi sistemlerde barındırılan hayvanlarda kafes yorgunluğu, ayak ve bacak bozuklukları gibi sağlık sorunları ile sıkça karşılaşılırken aynı zamanda korku ve stres nedeniyle geri gagalama, tüy yolma, polidipsia ve kanibalizm gibi davranış bozuklukları da gelişmektedir [3,5]. Avrupa'da hayvan koruma dernekleri tarafından hayvan haklarını ihlal ettiği gerekçesi ile alternatif sistemlere yönlendirilme yapılmaktadır. ...
Article
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The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect between the conventional layer breeder hen cages and cages enriched on semen quality. In the study, with 36 RIR-I line hens at 20 weeks of age in Ankara Poultry Research Institute, 4 groups containing different litter materials were created. 36 hens from 4 different groups were used as study material. Semen was collected by abdominal massage and ejaculation volume, concentration, pH, abnormal spermatozoa rate, dead spermatozoa rate and motility were determined. Collected data were analyzed statistically with One-Way ANOVA model. For group I, II, III and IV mean of ejaculate volume (ml) were 0.39±0.22, 0.53±0.35, 0.52±0.16, 0.51±0.23; mean of motility (%) were, 81.30±12.22, 83.33±6.65, 82.59±13.33, 82.04±10.76; concentrations (x106/ml) were, 1726.06, 1868.39, 1949.26, 1896.78 x106/ml; mean of dead spermatozoa (%) rate were, 9,50±8,73, 7,98±3,58, 9,31±8,51, and mean of abnormal spermatozoa rate (%) were 3.92±0.55, 4.11±0.66, 3.88±0.49, 3.80±0,43 respectively. There was no statistically significant difference between the groups among the evaluated semen parameters. (p>0.05). As a result, we concluded that there was no effect of layer breeder hen cages enriched with different materials on semen quality. Çalışmanın amacı, standart ve zenginleştirilmiş kümes bölmelerinin yumurtacı damızlık horozların bazı spermatolojik veriler üzerine olan etkisini araştırmaktır. Çalışmada, Ankara Tavukçuluk Araştırma İstasyon Müdürlüğü’nde bulunan 20 haftalık 36 adet RIR-I hattı horoz, 4 farklı altlık içeren gruba ayrıldı. Toplamda 4 farklı gruptan 36 adet horoz çalışma materyali olarak kullanıldı. Oluşturulan gruplardaki horozlardan spermalar abdominal masaj yöntemi ile alınarak ejakulat miktarı, yoğunluk, pH, anormal spermatozoa oranı, ölü spermatozoa oranı ve motilite belirlendi. Elde edilen veriler, tek yönlü varyans analizi (One-Way ANOVA) ile istatistiksel açıdan değerlendirildi. Grup I, II, III ve IV’de sırasıyla ejakulat miktarı (ml) 0,39±0,22, 0,53±0,35, 0,52±0,16, 0,51±0,23; motilite (%), 81,30±12,22, 83,33±6,65, 82,59±13,33, 82,04±10,76; yoğunluk (x106/ml), 1726,06±171, 1868,39±183, 1949,26±144, 1896,78±174; ölü spermatozoa oranı (%), 9,50±8,73, 7,98±3,58, 9,31±8,51, anormal spermatozoa oranı (%), 3,92±0,55, 4,11±0,66, 3,88±0,49, 3,80±0,43 olarak hesaplandı. Değerlendirilen sperma parametreleri tüm spermatolojik parametreler yönünden gruplar arasında istatistiksel açıdan bir fark bulunamadı (p>0,05). Sonuç olarak farklı materyallerle zenginleştirilen damızlık horoz kümeslerinin spermatolojik parametreler üzerine etkisinin olmadığı belirlendi.
... Tavukların sınırlı ve dar alanlarda barındırıldığı kafes sisteminde, folluk, tünek ve altlık gibi materyallerin bulunmamasının bir sonucu olarak, tavukların doğal ihtiyacı olan yumurtlama, kanat çırpma, tüneme, eşinme davranışları ve diğer birtakım fiziksel aktivitelerinin kısıtlanması söz konusu olmaktadır. Hayvanların kısıtlı alanlarda barındırılması, bir taraftan hareketsizlik, kafes yorgunluğu, ayak ve bacak bozuklukları gibi sağlık sorunlarına sebep olurken, diğer taraftan korku ve stres kaynaklı kanibalizm, tüy yolma geri gagalama ve polidipsia gibi davranış bozukluklarına da neden olmaktadır [1][2][3][4]. ...
Article
Dunyada ve ulkemizde yumurta uretiminde kullanilan en yaygin ve en ekonomik sistem olan kafes sistemi, son yillarda hayvan haklarinin ihlal edildigi gerekcesiyle yogun elestirilerine maruz kalmis ve alternatif sistemlere gecis calismalari baslamistir. Avrupa Toplulugu’nun kafeste barindirilan tavuklarla ilgili yaptigi yeni duzenlemelere gore, 2012 yilindan sonra geleneksel kafeslerin tamamen yasaklanacagi bildirilmistir. Alternatif olarak tunekli ve kusluklu tip kumesler ve serbest gezinmeli (Free-Range) sistem gibi, hayvanlarin fizyolojik ve davranissal olarak rahat edebilecegi sistemler kullanilmaya baslanmistir. Free-range sistemi; tavuklarin hareketlerini kisitlamadan, temiz hava ve gunes isigindan azami faydalanabildigi, daha saglikli kosullarda ve daha az strese maruz kaldiklari, dogadaki cesitli yiyeceklerden yararlandiklari icin beslenme maliyetinin dusuk oldugu bir sistemdir. Sistem hayvanlara; serbest dolasim imkani, daha saglam bir iskelet ve iyi bir tuy yapisi, dogal beslenme ile buna bagli olarak daha kaliteli yumurta ve et uretim olanagi yaninda, tuketicilere saglikli et ve yumurta tuketim olanagi gibi avantajlar da saglamaktadir. Butun bunlarin yani sira, hayvanlarda saglik problemlerinin artmasi, canli agirlik kazancinda yavaslama, daha fazla yem tuketimi ve yem sacimi gorulmesi, hayvanlarin uzun surede kesime gelmesi, yuksek iscilik masraflari nedeniyle maliyetin artmasi ve guvenlik problemleri gibi dezavantajlari da beraberinde getirmistir. Sistemin, avantaj ve dezavantajlarinin bilinmesi; yetistiricilere isik tutmasi ve tuketici tercihlerine yon vermesi acisindan onemlidir.
... No primeiro experimento, delineado com densidade de 3 aves por box, o Teste de hipótese para diferença nas taxas de comportamento (α = 0,05) detectou diferenças entre as taxas de ocorrência dos comportamentos coçar a cabeça (p = 0,023), empoleirar (p = 0,000) e ninho (p = 0,000), como mostrado na Tabela 1. (Nicol, 1987;Baxter, 1994). Com a realização do experimento foi possível observar, em ambos os ciclos, que as aves conseguiram demonstrar alguns dos seus comportamentos naturais, apesar dessas aves serem originárias de gaiolas, a alta evolução nos setores da avicultura de postura e o grande avanço da genética nas linhagens comerciais de aves cada vez mais produtivas estarem fazendo com que as linhagens "percam" seus princípios normais de comportamento animal, devido aos avanços genéticos as aves se "esqueceram" Aves criadas em gaiolas convencionais têm restrita capacidade de circulação e expressão de seus comportamentos naturais, o que compromete sua saúde, bem-estar e produção (Alves et al, 2007). ...
Article
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A produção de ovos no Brasil tem crescido fator que acarretou um aumento na densidade de animais nas instalações, gerando diminuição da ambiência e do bem-estar. Desta forma este estudo teve como objetivo realizar uma análise em sistemas de criação de poedeiras, tipo cage free sem enriquecimento e cage free com enriquecimento, no pico e final de produção e sua relação com o enriquecimento ambiental e qualidade de ovos. Para o tratamento com enriquecimento foram utilizados: ninho, poleiro, chocalho, fardos de capim nativo e galhos de Cambuci. Enquanto o tratamento sem enriquecimento possuía apenas um ninho, ambos os tratamentos possuíam comedouros do tipo tubular, bebedouros do tipo pendular e cama de palha de arroz. Foram avaliados o comportamento animal e qualidade dos ovos. Na análise de comportamento obtivemos diferença entre os comportamentos de ninho, empoleirar, ciscar, perseguir e coçar cabeça, possivelmente pelo fato das aves utilizarem dos meios que eram fornecidos e poderem expressar seu comportamento natural. Dentro da qualidade de ovos, observamos uma diferença nos parâmetros de coloração da gema, peso, altura de albúmen, unidade Haugh, espessura da casca e índice de gema (YCF), onde o peso e a coloração da gema foram maiores no tratamento sem enriquecimento, podendo ser devido ao maior consumo de alimento, já que as aves nesse tratamento não possuíam outros meios de distração. Conclui-se que o enriquecimento promove alterações positivas tanto na expressão de comportamentos naturais das poedeiras como melhora os principais requisitos em relação à qualidade dos ovos.
... Tavukların sınırlı ve dar alanlarda barındırıldığı kafes sisteminde, folluk, tünek ve altlık gibi materyallerin bulunmamasının bir sonucu olarak, tavukların doğal ihtiyacı olan yumurtlama, kanat çırpma, tüneme, eşinme davranışları ve diğer birtakım fiziksel aktivitelerinin kısıtlanması söz konusu olmaktadır. Hayvanların kısıtlı alanlarda barındırılması, bir taraftan hareketsizlik, kafes yorgunluğu, ayak ve bacak bozuklukları gibi sağlık sorunlarına sebep olurken, diğer taraftan korku ve stres kaynaklı kanibalizm, tüy yolma geri gagalama ve polidipsia gibi davranış bozukluklarına da neden olmaktadır [1][2][3][4]. ...
... However, to prove and verify animal welfare requirements in practice is not simple. In intensive poultry production a large number of factors, such as stocking density, environmental deterioration, unsuitable social environments, thermal stress, or difficulties in accessing essential resources can be major sources of stress that can lead to welfare deterioration and reduced performance [2][3][4][5][6][7]. Many of these factors can be controlled through well-established management practices to provide birds with an optimal environment. ...
Article
Full-text available
Consideration of animal welfare is essential to address the consumers’ demands and for the long term sustainability of commercial poultry. However, assessing welfare in large poultry flocks, to be able to detect potential welfare risks and to control or minimize its impact is difficult. Current developments in technology and mathematical modelling open new possibilities for real-time automatic monitoring of animal welfare and health. New technological innovations potentially adaptable to commercial poultry are appearing, although their practical implementation is still being defined. In this paper, we review the latest technological developments with potential to be applied to poultry welfare, especially for broiler chickens and laying hens. Some of the examples that are presented and discussed include the following: sensors for farm environmental monitoring, movement, or physiological parameters; imaging technologies such as optical flow to detect gait problems and feather pecking; infrared technologies to evaluate birds’ thermoregulatory features and metabolism changes, that may be indicative of welfare, health and management problems. All these technologies have the potential to be implemented at the commercial level to improve birds’ welfare and to optimize flock management, therefore, improving the efficiency of the system in terms of use of resources and, thus, long term sustainability.
... Accepted June 15, 2016. 1 Corresponding author: kch8059@korea.kr roosting, and scratching (Nicol, 1987;Baxter, 1994;Tactacan et al., 2009). The use of non-cage housing systems for laying hens increased after the 2012 EU ban on conventional cages was implemented. ...
Article
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The effects of stocking density on the performance, egg quality, leukocyte concentration, blood biochemistry, corticosterone levels, bone mineral density, and noxious gas emission of laying hens were investigated. Eight hundred 34-week-old Hy-Line Brown laying hens (Gallus gallus domesticus) were randomly assigned to one of 4 treatments, each of which was replicated 4 times. Four stocking densities, including 5, 6, 7, and 10 birds/m², were compared. A commercial-type basal diet was formulated to meet or exceed nutrient recommendations for laying hens from the National Research Council. The diet was fed to the hens ad libitum for 8 wk. Results indicated that hen-day egg production, egg mass, and feed intake were less for (P < 0.01) 10 birds/m² stock density than other stock densities. Production rate of floor and broken eggs and eggshell strength were greater (P < 0.01) for 10 birds/m² stock density than other stock densities. There were no significant differences in the level of leukocytes among densities. However, heterophils and the H/L ratio were greater (P < 0.01) for 10 birds/m² than in stock density of 6 or 7 birds/m². Serum corticosterone was greater (P < 0.01) 10 birds/m² than stock density than other stock densities. Litter moisture and gas emission (CO2 and NH3) were greater (P < 0.01) for 10 birds/m² than stock density than 6 and 7 birds/m² stock density. Bone mineral content was not influenced by increasing stock density. However, bone mineral density was less (P < 0.05) for 10 m² stock density than other stock densities. These results indicate that increasing the density beyond 5 birds/m² elicits some negative effects on laying performance of Hy-Line brown laying hens.
... J. L203:53-57. 95 Baxter, 1994. 96 Korsgaard, 2007. ...
... Cages that can individually house laying hens, such as conventional battery cages, are superior to other housing systems because they reduce the labor requirement for the management of hens and the space needed for rearing (Appleby et al., 2004). However, the expression of some innate hen behaviors, such as foraging and dust bathing, is known to be restricted in battery cages (Martin, 1987;Baxter, 1994). Considering this, rearing laying hen flocks on the flat floor of barns (i.e., free-range facilities) has been proposed as an alternative rearing system. ...
Article
Upon contact with laid eggs, avians initiate incubation behavior and stop laying additional eggs. This phenomenon suggests that the productivity of laying hens in free-range facilities may decrease because of frequent contact with laid eggs. Here, we examined whether hens of a commercial breed exhibit incubation behavior in a free-range facility and whether egg productivity subsequently decreases. One-hour observations were performed twice weekly for 3 weeks, during which 9 of 129 hens (7.0%) exhibited incubation behavior (i.e., sitting on eggs) in the free-range facility and were defined as incubating hens. During 4 d of continuous behavioral observation, incubating and non-incubating hens laid the same number of eggs statistically (4.6 and 3.6, on average, respectively); however, incubating hens spent significantly more time on average incubating the eggs (2071.9 min) than did the non-incubating hens (20.9 min; P<0.05), indicating a clear behavioral difference. Subsequently, the incubation behavior and egg productivity of incubating hens and a Silky Fowl breed hen, which is known to exhibit typical incubation behavior and cessation of laying, were continuously compared for 27 d. The average minutes spent incubating eggs during the observation period increased in both the incubating hens and Silky Fowl hen and the total time was almost the same (18,088.5 and 23,092 min, respectively). However, the Silky Fowl hen stopped laying on day 17 after laying 17 eggs, whereas the incubating hens continued laying throughout the observation period. Incubating hens laid an average of 24.5 eggs, indicating that some hens (at least those of the commercial breed used in our study) can continue laying while exhibiting incubation behavior. A single-nucleotide polymorphism associated with incubation behavior was detected on chromosome 4 through genome-wide association analysis.
... Although globally the prevalent system, the move away from keeping hens in conventional battery cages is extending beyond Europe to countries such as Australia, New Zealand, Canada and the USA. This follows increasing recognition of the extreme spatial and behavioural restriction these cages impose on hens, possibly offsetting their advantages in terms of hygiene and reduced exposure to potential disease causing organisms [1,2,3]. Therefore, increasing numbers of laying hens are being kept in non-cage housing systems in large groups of several thousand birds. ...
Article
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Data from ten sources comprising 3,851 flocks were modelled to identify variation in levels of mortality in laying hens. The predicted increase with age was curvilinear with significant variation between the seven breed categories. Mortality was higher in loose housing systems than in cages and variable within system, confirming previous reports. Cumulative mortality (CM) was higher in flocks with intact beaks (χ2 = 6.03; df 1; p = 0.014) than in those with trimmed beaks. Most data were available for free-range systems (2,823 flocks), where producer recorded CM at 60-80 weeks of age averaged 10% but with a range from 0% to 69.3%. Life cycle assessment showed that the main effect of increased levels of hen mortality is to increase the relative contribution of breeding overheads, so increasing environmental burdens per unit of production. Reducing CM to levels currently achieved by the 1st quartile could reduce flock greenhouse gas emissions by as much as 25%. Concurrently this would enhance hen welfare and better meet the expectation of egg consumers. More research to understand the genetic x environment interaction and detailed records of the causes of mortality is required so that improved genotypes can be developed for different systems and different breeds can be better managed within systems.
... Spatial restriction has diverse behavioral consequences in other animals. Confinement imposes movement limitations in egg-laying hens [6][7][8], and induces behavioral and psychological disorders in captive animals [9][10][11][12]. A common abnormality associated with spatial restriction is the occurrence of stereotypic behaviors-a group of repetitive and non-varying behavioral patterns [9], for instance, compulsive pacing in cats and bar gnawing in laboratorycaged mice [13,14]. ...
Article
Drosophila adults display an unwillingness to enter confined spaces but the behaviors induced by spatial restriction in Drosophila are largely unknown. We developed a protocol for high-throughput analysis of locomotion and characterized features of locomotion in a restricted space. We observed intense and persistent locomotion of flies in small circular arenas (diameter 1.27 cm), whereas locomotion was greatly reduced in large circular arenas (diameter 3.81 cm). The increased locomotion induced by spatial restriction was seen in male flies but not female flies, indicating sexual dimorphism of the response to spatial restriction. In large arenas, male flies increased locomotion in arenas previously occupied by male but not female individuals. In small arenas, such pre-conditioning had no effect on male flies, which showed intense and persistent locomotion similar to that seen in fresh arenas. During locomotion with spatial restriction, wildtype Canton-S males traveled slower and with less variation in speed than the mutant w1118 carrying a null allele of white gene. In addition, wildtype flies showed a stronger preference for the boundary than the mutant in small arenas. Genetic analysis with a series of crosses revealed that the white gene was not associated with the phenotype of boundary preference in wildtype flies.
... Conventional cages for laying hens are widely used around the world because they are low-cost, high-performance, easy to manage and hygienic. However, conventional cages lead to many welfare issues (Nicol 1987a; Baxter 1994); for example, laying hens in conventional cages lack the opportunity to express their natural behaviour, which can cause frustration and stress to the hen (NAWAC 2012). In addition, the narrow living space could restrain their movements and activities, and lack of exercise may lead to osteoporosis (Webster 2004). ...
Article
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The study investigated the effects of large or small furnished cages on laying hens. Hyline brown hens (n ≤ 360) were placed into three treatments with six replicates: large furnished cages (LFC), small furnished cages (SFC), and conventional cages (CC). The results showed that egg production of hens in the LFC treatment was significantly lower (P < 0.05) than that in SFC and CC groups. Daily feed intake, feed:egg ratio, egg weight, and proportion of broken eggs and dirty eggs were not affected by cage types. However, Haugh unit and albumen height of the eggs from LFC and SFC hens were significantly higher (P < 0.01) than those from the CC hens. Welfare indicators (feather conditions, gait score, and fluctuating asymmetry of tibia length or wing length) in LFC and SFC hens were much better than in CC hens (P < 0.05). In conclusion, the hens in the LFC treatment had lower productivity, higher egg quality and better welfare conditions than those in the SFC and CC treatments.
... They compromise most or all of the independent Farm Animal Welfare Council's five freedoms -freedom from hunger and thirst; from discomfort; from pain, injury, and disease; to express normal behaviour; and from fear and distress (Webster and Nicol, 1988). Baxter (1994) commented that "Concern over the welfare of caged hens arises in two general areas: first that the barren environment within a cage prevents the performance of hens' natural behaviour patterns and, secondly, that the small amount of space in a cage imposes severe restrictions on hens' general freedom of movement". ...
Article
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Abstract GERZILOV, V., V. DATKOVA, S. MIHAYLOVA and N. BOZAKOVA, 2012. Effect of poultry housing systems on egg production. Bulg. J. Agric. Sci., 18: 953-957 An industrial experiment with ISA-Brown commercial layers was carried out during the laying period (from 18 to 76 weeks of age) in 2009/2010 at the poultry complex „Eggs and Chickens - Zora” JSC – Donchevo. The layers were reared under three poultry management systems: in conventional cages type BKN-3 – 66 300 layers distributed equally in five poultry houses; in enriched cages type Eurovent 1500-EU-60 – 123 430 layers distributed equally in two poultry houses; and in barn with slat flooring with manure pit and deep litter – 30 000 layers distributed equally in four poultry houses. The results showed that for the whole laying period the layers kept in conventional cages exhibited an average egg laying capacity of 336.1 eggs per hen, the egg laying capacity was over 90 % from 25 to 50 weeks of age, the mortality was the lowest - 5.35 % and feed conversion ratio per egg was the highest - 155.9 g. The layers kept in enriched cages gave the highest yield of eggs from a hen - 339.2, the egg laying capacity was over 90 % from 26 to 59 weeks of age, the mortality was 7.96 % and feed conversion ratio per egg was the lowest - 150.1 g. The layers reared in the floor/litter system l were characterized with the lowest yield of eggs per hen - 330.5 eggs, the egg laying capacity was over 90 % from 26 to 61 weeks of age, the mortality was the highest - 9.43 % and feed conversion ratio per egg was 151 g. Key words: layers, laying hen, poultry housing system, egg laying capacity
... Suto et al. (1997) reported that birds housed inside conventional battery cage had higher hen-day production of eggs than those on free range. However, housing laying hens intensively inside battery cages has received so much opposition recently with the argument that this system poses welfare problems on the birds (Baxter, 1994). According to Nicol (1987), birds housed inside cages are always under stress and will not be able to exhibit some natural behaviors. ...
Article
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Welfare of the animals is of global interest recently and housing of egg-type chickens inside battery cages is being banned in many developed countries in view of the stress to which the chickens are exposed. Measurement of some blood parameters such as White blood cell(WBC) counts and differential leucocytes counts and heterophil to lymphocytes ratio have been used to assess stress among chickens. Changes in these parameters were therefore investigated among chickens in different housing systems in a typical humid region of the world where animal welfare issue is currently unpopular. 108,17 weeks old super Black hens (SBL) and 108,17-weeks old Super Brown hens (SBR) were randomly allotted to three different intensive housing systems of partitioned Battery cage (PBC) Extended Battery Cage (EBC) and Deep Litter System (DLS) in a randomized Complete Block (RCB) design with 36 hens per housing system each with three replicates. The experiment lasted 37 weeks . Parameters measured include Total white blood cells(WBC), differential Leukocytes while Heterophli –Lymphocytes ratios (H/L) were calculated. Data collected were subjected to statistical analysis using 2 way Anova while means were separated with Duncan multiple Range Test (DMTR). Housing systems had significant effect on the differential leukocyte counts and H/L ratio but not on WBC counts. Hens housed inside PBC (control) had the highest values of H/L ratio with the least values from those housed on DLS. Meanwhile the parameters investigated were not significantly affected by the strain. Higher values of H/L ratio recorded by hens housed on PBC which is the conventional system of housing layers in the tropics are indications of stress on the chickens due to lack of freedom to move about and which is against the welfare of the chickens. Keywords Blood, housing, layers, stress welfare
... Good welfare for a hen includes freedom to forage, exercise, preen, dust-bathe, take refuge on a perch whenever she feels vulnerable, and build a nest to lay eggs. These natural behaviors are denied to hens kept in a battery cage (1). ...
Article
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This study aimed to investigate the responses to abrupt changes in feeding and illumination during the egg-laying period. Six hens were housed individually in cages under constant environmental conditions, with a photoperiod of 15 h (0400-1900) and ad libitum access to food for 10 days. Then the same hens were subjected to a feed withdrawal trial (between 1200 and 0830), followed by a 5-h reduction in the photoperiod (0400-1400). The heart rate (HR), body temperature (BT), and locomotor activity (LA) of the laying hens were measured continuously using radiotelemetry, with simultaneous recording of the time of oviposition. Behavioral responses to sudden changes in the management program during the pre-and post-laying periods were also recorded. Hens with restricted access to food had significantly lower HR, BT, and LA during the pre-and post-laying periods than hens given unrestricted access to food. In the pre-laying period the behavioral activity counts for cage pecking and preening were significantly higher, and feeding and drinking counts were significantly lower in the hens with restricted access to food than in the hens given unrestricted access to food. During the post-laying period the behavioral activity count in preening was significantly higher in the hens with restricted food access than in those given unrestricted access to food. Experimental hens subjected to a reduced photoperiod had significantly higher HR and BT during the pre-laying period than those under the normal light regime. During the pre-and post-laying periods hens subjected to light reduction had significantly lower LA than the hens subjected to the normal light regime. In the pre-laying period the behavioral activity count for circling was significantly lower and the preening count was significantly higher in the hens subjected to light reduction than in the hens subjected to the normal light regime. The post-laying period occurred during the light period and thus the behavioral activities were similar in the hens subjected to light reduction and those under the normal light regime. Mean onset of egg laying in all groups exposed to food withdrawal or darkness was delayed by 34 min in the food reduction trial and by 11 min in the light reduction trial, as compared to the hens during the control period. These results suggest that changes in the management program might lead to stress and impair the welfare of hens.
... Concerns over the welfare of caged hens arises in 2 general areas: first, that the barren environment within a cage prevents the performance of ethological needs of hens (Yue and Duncan, 2003) and, second, that the small amount of space in a cage imposes severe restriction to the general freedom of movement (Baxter, 1994). ...
... When eggs are laid on the floor, they are easily broken and often dirty (Appleby, et al., 2004). Baxter, in 1994, found that hens are motivated to find nesting sites and if access was denied, hens became frustrated. ...
... They compromise most or all of the independent Farm Animal Welfare Council's five freedoms -freedom from hunger and thirst; from discomfort; from pain, injury, and disease; to express normal behaviour; and from fear and distress (Webster and Nicol, 1988). Baxter (1994) commented that "Concern over the welfare of caged hens arises in two general areas: first that the barren environment within a cage prevents the performance of hens' natural behaviour patterns and, secondly, that the small amount of space in a cage imposes severe restrictions on hens' general freedom of movement". ...
Article
Full-text available
An industrial experiment with ISA-Brown commercial layers was carried out during the laying period (from 18 to 76 weeks of age) in 2009/2010 at the poultry complex "Eggs and Chickens - Zora" JSC - Donchevo. The layers were reared under three poultry management systems: in conventional cages type BKN-3 - 66 300 layers distributed equally in five poultry houses; in enriched cages type Eurovent 1500-EU-60 - 123 430 layers distributed equally in two poultry houses; and in barn with slat flooring with manure pit and deep litter - 30 000 layers distributed equally in four poultry houses. The results showed that for the whole laying period the layers kept in conventional cages exhibited an average egg laying capacity of 336.1 eggs per hen, the egg laying capacity was over 90% from 25 to 50 weeks of age, the mortality was the lowest - 5.35% and feed conversion ratio per egg was the highest - 155.9 g. The layers kept in enriched cages gave the highest yield of eggs from a hen - 339.2, the egg laying capacity was over 90% from 26 to 59 weeks of age, the mortality was 7.96 % and feed conversion ratio per egg was the lowest - 150.1 g. The layers reared in the floor/litter system l were characterized with the lowest yield of eggs per hen - 330.5 eggs, the egg laying capacity was over 90% from 26 to 61 weeks of age, the mortality was the highest - 9.43% and feed conversion ratio per egg was 151 g.
... Similarly, Nielsona et al. (1983 ) also reported a correlation to efficient of 0.62 between these two traits. Baxter (1994) had reported a correlation co-efficient of 0.62(P<0.0 I) between body condition and milk production at five weeks of lactating cows. ...
Article
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Animal welfare means how an animal is coping with the conditions in which it lives; it is based on ‘five freedoms’ and ‘four principles’ of animal welfare. Dairy cattle are considered as sentient beings due to which husbandry should be provided as per their needs. As cattle and human beings are intrinsically connected to each other, protection of cattle from diseases and unnecessary suffering should become prime responsibility of human. Welfare of dairy cattle cannot be measured directly, as is multidimensional in nature and can be measured by various indicators which are either direct or indirect. In this review we try to analyze dairy cattle welfare, their indicators and their assessment.
... Requests for change of cages of layer hen housing, is not the only improvement of the poultry living conditions (Baxter MR. 1994;Scientific Veterinary Committee. 1996;Department for Environmental Food and Rural Affairs, 2002;Hunton, P, 2002), but also improving egg quality produced by them and the sensitivity of citizens for eggs income from free range chicken or subject to conditions and their well-being (Van Horne PLM and N. Bond 2003;European Commission. ...
Article
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In this paper the performance indicators outlined in two poultry cage systems, were studied. For this purpose, in a poultry farm have been monitored for 20-56 week period two batches of birds housed in two different caging systems: control group was housed in a conventional battery cages and experimental group in enriched cages. Chickens in two herds were hybrid Hy-Line W 98, the same age and it was used the same amount and structure of the ration. They were recorded continuously egg production, egg weight, mortality, food consumption and food was estimated FCR (Feed Conversion Rate). At the end of the study it was showed that the use of different cage system showed no impact on production performance of eggs and egg weight. Layers reared in conventional cages manifested a higher egg laying than the experiment and that the standard of the hybrid. As a result of greater density than the rate allowed in the two groups mortality was observed higher than the standard (the control group 3,04% more and EUROPEAN ACADEMIC RESEARCH-Vol. V, Issue 2 / May 2017 1475 the experiment group 4.78% more). The control group has saved 2,48g more feed for egg, or 2% compared with that of the experiment. There were no significant differences (P≤0.05) between the groups regarding the feed utilization. In both groups have achieved good results in the performance indicators. It leaves much to be desired but the use of feed for eggs, egg mass per kg, or as kg eggs are obtained from 1 kg of feed utilization compared to standard hybrid. This will certainly lead to increased cost of egg produced.
... Specifications regarding space requirements and maximum stock densities were also provided for non-cage alternative housing systems (Michelle, 2005). Issues of poultry housing, transportation, slaughter and their welfare implications have been severally reported (Nicol, 1987;Baxter, 1994;Appleby, 2003). In view of the stress on chickens, the use of battery cages is being jettisoned while alternative housing systems such as aviaries, deep litter with pasture runs, modified cages and improved cages are better form of housing chickens (Elson, 2004;Tauson, 2005). ...
Article
Full-text available
Animal welfare is becoming an interesting global issue which must be given the best of attention by researchers, producers, consumers and the governments. The need to ensure the general well-being of the wild and domestic animals in every aspect of their husbandry is mandatory now in many developed countries of the world and poultry industries are responding positively to this new dimension of husbandry. Species of animal are sensitive to the way they are being managed in terms of housing and other husbandry. Meanwhile, there is little or no concern on subjects of applied ethology in developing areas of the world such as Africa and Asia where livestock production and wildlife conservation is currently experiencing tremendous growth. Issues of animal welfare are being promoted by researches, sponsored information, legislation and enforcement by relevant agencies in developed nations of the world. Factors such as poor economic development, political instability, social insecurities, low level of awareness and lack of information on legal provisions on animal welfare have been identified to be responsible for poor animal welfare and its science in developing countries. Despite the fact that livestock sector carries the highest percentage among agricultural facets commercially in Nigeria, the level of welfare of the domestic animals and those in the wild are still below standard. This paper is however suggesting that even with the level of economic developments in most of low and middle incomed nations, researchers can be motivated into animal welfare science, the curricula of colleges and universities can be expanded to include subjects of applied ethology, professional bodies and associations on animal welfare can be formed with international affiliations. All these may change the orientation of the people and governments in developing countries positively towards animal welfare.
... Although the CC system has been considered as one of the most efficient housing methods of laying hens for a long time, it is now widely accepted that this system has negative impacts on the welfare of hens (3)(4)(5)(6)(7). The negative impacts of CC are mainly due to the limited space for movement that can cause musculoskeletal weakness, and low complexities of the environment, which can abolish many of their natural behaviors such as nesting, roosting, dust bathing, perching, and foraging (6)(7)(8). ...
Article
Full-text available
Due to animal welfare issues, European Union has banned the use of conventional cages (CC) and non-EU countries including the US are also under constant public pressure to restrict their use in egg production. Very limited information is available on the composition of the microbial community of hens raised in different housing environments. This study was conducted to determine the effects of CC and enriched colony cages (EC) on cecal microbiota of two commercial laying hen strains, Hy-Line W36 (W36) and Hy-Line Brown (HB) during the late production stage (53, 58, 67, and 72 weeks of age). Cecal microbiota was studied by analyzing 16S rRNA gene sequences with Quantitative Insights Into Microbial Ecology (QIIME) 2 ver. 2018.8. Differentially abundant taxa were identified by Linear discriminant analysis Effect Size (LEfSe) analysis (P < 0.05, LDA score > 2.0). At phylum level, Actinobacteria was significantly enriched in W36 at all time points while Synergistetes (53 weeks), Spirochaetes (58 weeks), and Synergistetes and Spirochaetes (67 weeks) were significantly higher in HB. At genus level, Bifidobacterium (at all time points) and butyric acid producing genera such as Butyricicoccus and Subdoligranulum (58 and 72 weeks) were significantly higher in W36 as compared to HB. Moreover, Proteobacteria (72 weeks) and its associated genus Campylobacter (67 and 72 weeks) were significantly enriched in EC as compared to CC. Alpha diversity was significantly higher in HB (at all time points) and in EC (67 weeks) as compared to W36 and CC, respectively. Similarly, there was a significant difference in community structure (beta diversity) between W36 and HB (all time points) as well as between EC and CC (67 weeks). The effect of housing and strains was not only seen at the bacterial composition and structure but also reflected at their functional level. Notably, KEGG metabolic pathways predicted to be involved in carbohydrates degradation and amino acids biosynthesis by PICRUSt analysis were significantly different between W36 and HB housed at CC and EC. In sum, cecal microbiota composition, diversities, and their functional pathways were affected by housing type which further varied between two commercial laying hen strains, HB and W36. This suggests that both housing and genetic strains of laying hens should be considered for selection of the alternative housing systems such as enriched colony cage.
... Похожее поведение наблюдается у кур при напольном содержании. Куры изначально мотивированы на получение доступа к месту гнездования в период яйцекладки (96,97). На гнездовое поведение влияют и другие факторы, в том числе способность использовать насест (10), а также конструкция гнезд. ...
... The traditional review may also seek to explore the edge of understanding so that gaps in knowledge can be identified and the course of further research can be plotted. The review of layer hen welfare by Baxter (1994) provides a general and selective glimpse of layer hen welfare. That of Craig and Swanson (1994) emphasises genetic aspects of layer hen welfare while that Barnett and Newman (1997) provides a reasoned basis for research on the issue in Australia. ...
Technical Report
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SCIENCE AND LAYER HEN HOUSING (1) The current National Layer Hen Housing Review has identified major differences in the assessment of the welfare of layer hens under different systems of housing. These may reflect difficulties and uncertainties in the scientific subject matter or competing interests and the tendency for interested parties to marshal arguments around predetermined positions. With this in mind, the present paper examines the 2 body of science that bears upon vexed questions about layer hen housing. The aim is to clarify the facts, as well as they can be known, in order to allow the system to speak for itself. Weaknesses in the factual and conceptual basis of animal welfare will have an adverse impact on value judgements about morality and subsequent political decisions. Furthermore, maintenance of the integrity of scientific analysis is an issue in its own right. (2) Since the assessment of the scientific aspects of animal welfare depends upon the perspective taken, it has been necessary to examine the application of science to animal welfare in general. An additional reason for making this extra step is the possibility of animal welfare becoming an issue for international trade. Here it will be similar to food safety and animal health in that science will be called upon for its capacity to answer particular problems in a logical and objective manner. How is this to be done? The implications are important for Australia, which has a major economic stake in the export of animals and animal products. (3) The scientific literature on layer hen welfare is large: particularly the secondary literature, which embraces reviews, commentaries and opinions. In order to make the present task manageable, a particular depiction of the welfare issues of layer hens is scrutinised. The focus in this depiction is squarely on cages. To quote: There is now a large amount of scientific evidence which demonstrates that conventional cages have major problems with regard to layer hen welfare. These are discussed in detail in the Housing Report, in the RSPCA and Animals Australia Submissions and also in the EC Report which formed the basis of the EU Directive. Does this large amount of scientific evidence exist and can it be found in the EC Report? The conclusions in the EC Report (Report on the Welfare of Laying Hens, 1996, Animal Welfare Section, Scientific Veterinary Committee, European Commission) have been highly influential. (4) The method used for examining the capsule summary of the Welfare Report in the present review is to compare and contrast statements on the vexed questions of layer hen housing in the 1996 EC Report and the 1994 Temple Report commissioned for the National Layer Hen Housing Review of 1994. The similarities and differences between these statements are analysed according to a framework of ideas that involves the various definitions of animal welfare and the behavioural, health, physiological and production indicators of welfare. (5) Comparison of the two reports leads to the conclusion that the capsule summary of the major welfare issues of layer hens is scientifically unsound and that little or no new information appears in the EC Report of 1996 compared with the Temple Report of 1994 (section 3.2). • There is not a large amount of scientific evidence to demonstrate that conventional cages have major problems with regard to layer hen welfare. However, space allowances could be increased in the absence of aggressive strains of hens. • The case is not sustained for “severe behavioural frustration which has shown to be extremely aversive to hens ” in the absence of a nest or substrate for scratching and dust-bathing. The EC Report argues for frustration in regard to nesting and egg-laying only and the analogy made with feeding frustration is false. Physiological evidence around nesting and 3 egg-laying is misquoted. The conclusions of the EC Report that hens have a preference for laying their eggs in a nest, for a littered floor and for perching are disconnected from and not supported by the line of thought pursued in the body of the report. A drift and shift of argument occurs within the EU report from the actual analysis to the summaries at the end of each chapter to the conclusions. A further drift and shift occurs in the capsule summary. • All systems of housing have “inherent” welfare problems which are solvable and the word “inherent” is a rhetorical device. For example, perceived problems with pre-laying behaviour can be solved by genetic selection. • Perches may actually do harm and should not be sought for cages. • Claw shortening devices should be considered on their merits and the pros and cons evaluated. They are not mentioned in the EU Report. (6) As for layer hen welfare in general, the EC Report has an excellent introductory chapter on basic welfare issues, which could have wide application (section 3.2.6). However, the EC Report does not contain a clear statement about the methods to be used in analysing questions about animal welfare. For example, it does not say explicitly that it will look at evidence from the health, production, physiological and behavioural indicators and then argue from them for a particular picture of welfare based on a particular amalgam of welfare definitions. Without this statement of methods, the opportunity is left open to ignore results from particular indicators or to move between definitions of welfare, for example when discussing different questions or making conclusions compared with setting out arguments
... on welfare of chicken is also being considered widely (Craig & Swanson, 1994). It has been observed that confinement and complexity in conventional cages restricts the birds to limited natural habitat which eliminates the expression of natural behaviors like roosting, nesting and scratching (Baxter, 1994). Banning of conventional cages by European Union and to overcome the lack of natural behaviors, the alternative housing systems are gaining strength day by day to cope with the consumer's demand. ...
Article
Full-text available
In the present study, the second generation of two genotypes RNN (Rhode Island Red × Naked Neck) and BNN (Black Australorp × Naked Neck) obtained by two self-crosses (RNN × RNN =RR and BNN × BNN= BB) and two reciprocal crosses (RNN × BNN = RB and BNN × RNN = BR) were evaluated in three alternative production systems (conventional cages, enriched cages, and aviary). In total 480 birds, comprising 240 pullets with 240 cockerels (60 pullets & 60 cockerels from each crossbred) were used during rearing phase (17-21 weeks). Higher body weight, shank circumference, body and drumstick length were noticed in RB and BR genotypes. Among different production systems, chickens reared in enriched cages showed higher body weight and body lengths than other production systems. Comparing the behavior of chickens, higher feeding, jumping and dust bathing were observed in chickens reared in aviary systems than in other production systems while the maximum perching behavior was showed by the chickens reared in enriched cages. The highest glucose level was observed in RR genotypes when reared in aviary systems. Antibody titers against ND and IB were highest in chickens reared in aviary systems. In conclusion, RB and BR genotypes had better performance in terms of morphometrics and blood biochemistry when reared under enriched cages and aviary systems.
... Похожее поведение наблюдается у кур при напольном содержании. Куры изначально мотивированы на получение доступа к месту гнездования в период яйцекладки (96,97). На гнездовое поведение влияют и другие факторы, в том числе способность использовать насест (10), а также конструкция гнезд. ...
... Куры не могут садиться на насест и как следствие развитие пододерматитов, и нарушения метаболизма (включая остеопороз). Baxter M. (1994) считает, что лапка курицы «анатомически приспособлена для того, чтобы захватывать насест» и отсутствие насеста вызывает страдание кур-несушек [10]. ...
Article
Full-text available
In modern poultry farming, the keeping of laying hens is considered from several points of view: economic, investment, financial, livestock, social, economic, veterinary, etc. However, the trend towards sustainable development of society implies priority consideration of the welfare of animals and laying hens, in particular. It is relevant to find a compromise in the production and welfare of the hens, as well as informing the consumer about the welfare of laying hens, because from a suffering bird one receives a corresponding egg and meat that are involved in shaping people's health (it is probably necessary to differentiate certification of eggs from different laying hen keeping systems). The paper presents an analysis of the level of well-being of laying hens in different systems of poultry keeping according to the principle of "cut across" on the basis of our own expert research and analysis of world achievements, as well as approaches to identifying critical points of chicken welfare and determining the prospects for the development of poultry farming for laying hens. The paper presents an analysis of the cage and free keeping of laying hens from the standpoint of the welfare of hens, with an emphasis on critical points of welfare, which significantly affect the condition of the bird. Laying hens, having free access to the external environment, have a number of welfare advantages, at the same time, chickens in their cage systems have the lowest risk of contamination with pathogens of infectious and invasive diseases and pecking, but there is a high level of damage to the skeletal system. We think it is a mistake to think that animal welfare suffers when caged (regardless of cage modification) and it is good for it when birds are kept free. We believe that a compromise solution could be the production of eggs in improved cages, which allows the bird to satisfy behavioral functions. An important point in the modern trend in the development of poultry farming is the analysis of accumulated knowledge and the formation of scientific and practical information groups in the welfare or consulting groups on the welfare of poultry, which will form a policy for animal welfare, carry out legislative harmonization and implementation of the best welfare practices in poultry farming. Key words: animal welfare, laying hens, poultry keeping systems, welfare critical points.
... Avrupa Birliği (AB), ticari yumurtacı tavukların fizyolojik ve ekolojik gereksinimlerinin karşılanabilmesi amacıyla kümes, yem, su ve bakım koşullarıyla ilgili 99/74/EC sayılı direktif ile yasal düzenlemeler yapmıştır . AB Komisyonu'nun aldığı kararlar, geleneksel kafes sistemlerinde yetiştirilen tavukların, serbest dolaşımlı (free-range) barınaklardaki yumurtacı tavuklara göre doğal ihtiyaçlarını daha az karşılayabilmeleri (Baxter, 1994) ...
Article
Full-text available
Z E T Özbilgi/Amaç: Son 30-40 yılda, endüstriyel tavukçuluğun beşiği olan Avrupa Birliği (AB) ve diğer gelişmiş ülkelerde, entansif üretimi ciddi şekilde sorgulayan bir kamuoyu oluşmuştur. Zaman içerisinde hayvanların bulundukları ortamdaki rahatlık durumları tartışılmış ve bu da beraberinde hayvan refahı kavramını ortaya çıkarmıştır. Brambel komitesi tarafından 1993 yılında ortaya konulan hayvanların sahip olması gereken beş temel özgürlükten dördüncüsü, hayvanların normal davranışlarını sergileyebilmeleriyle ilgilidir. Bu bakımdan, yumurtacı tavukların refahı açısından, hayvanların doğal davranışlarını sergilemelerine olanak tanınması önemlidir. Türkiye'nin öncelikli hedeflerinden biri Avrupa Birliği'ne üye olmaktır. Halen AB ile müzakere süreci devam etmektedir. Yumurtacı tavukların korunması amacıyla AB Konseyi tarafından kabul edilen ilk düzenleme, 88/166/EEC sayılı direktif olup, yürürlüğe giren 99/74/EC sayılı direktif ile son halini almıştır. Bununla birlikte, Türkiye'de AB uyum yasaları çerçevesinde gerçekleştirilen yumurtacı tavukların korunması ile ilgili hukuksal yapılanma, 2011-2014 yılları arasında yayımlanan iki yönetmelik ile güncellenmiştir. Bu derlemenin amacı, yumurtacı tavuk mevzuatının temelini oluşturan yumurtacı tavuklar için yetiştirme sistemleri ile AB ve Türkiye'de yumurtacı tavukların korunması mevzuatı ile ilgili yasal düzenlemeler hakkında bilgi vererek konunun genel olarak değerlendirilmesidir. Sonuç: Türkiye'nin AB üyeliğinin gerçekleşmesi durumunda hayvan refahı ile ilgili düzenlemeleri uygulaması zorunluluk haline gelecektir. Bu nedenle, yumurta tavukçuluğu ile ilgili yönetim koşullarını iyileştirmek, tavuklarda oluşacak stresi en düşük seviyeye indirmek ve refahı artırmak bakımından önemlidir.
... Also, conventional cages lack the space that non-cage systems, or even enriched cages, offer -to enable some behaviours to take place. Dawkins and Hardie (1989) demonstrated that hens need between 540 and 1980 cm 2 /hen to perform turning, wing stretching, wing flapping, feather ruffling, preening, and ground-scratching behaviours, although the space used has been shown to depend on the space provided (Nicol, 1990), and, of course, hens require much more space to perform a behaviour than the amount of space it takes up, if they are to avoid hitting the enclosure sides or ceiling (Baxter, 1994). Comfort activities such as wing flapping and head scratching increase up to three-fold after living under spatial restriction compared to when space is not restricted (Nicol, 1987). ...
... Battery cages have been criticised for increasing the incidence of feather damage, foot lesions, and brittle bones (SVEDBERG, 1988, GREGORY andWILKINS, 1989;APPLEBY, 1993;CRAIG and SWANSON, 1994;KANG et al., 2016). Moreover, battery cages restrict the movements of hens and prevent certain behaviours, such as laying eggs in nests, scratching and bathing in sand or soil, and roosting on perches (NICOL, 1987;BAXTER, 1994;ABRAHAMSSON et al., 1996). Although some studies have reported that egg production is similar in aviaries and cages, others have indicated that it is lower in the former, since the risks of feather pecking, cannibalism, disease, and parasites increase (TANAKA and HURNIK, 1992;HANSEN, 1993). ...
... Movements and behavioral repertoire of birds are restricted in conventional cages because of the limited space and barren environment [1][2][3][4] , which is thought unfriendly for animal welfare. Therefore, conventional cage systems for laying hens are required to be phased out by 2012 in EU [5,6] and replaced by enriched cage systems with more space and environmental enrichments according to the Egg Products Inspection Act Amendments of 2012 (HR 3798) [7] . ...
... FP behaviour and FD outcomes can pose a greater risk in these alternative systems where a pecking bird has access to a larger number of pecking victims [26], although these housing systems can provide welfare benefits such as increased space allowance, nesting areas, and opportunities for dustbathing and foraging that conventional cages do not [25,27]. Birds in furnished cages are typically housed in groups of 10-100 birds [25] and >1000 birds in non-cage systems [2]. ...
Article
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Feather pecking is a continuous welfare challenge in the housing of egg-laying hens. Canada is currently making the transition from conventional cages to alternative housing systems. However, feather damage (FD) among laying hens due to feather pecking remains a welfare concern. An explorative approach was taken to assess bird, housing, and management associations with FD in Canadian laying hens housed in alternative systems. A questionnaire focused on housing and management practices was administered to 122 laying farms across Canada in autumn of 2017 (response rate of 52.5%), yielding information on a subset of 26 flocks housed in furnished cages. Additionally, a three-point feather cover scoring system was developed to estimate the prevalence of FD. Farmers assessed FD by sampling 50 birds per flock. Linear regression modeling was applied to explain FD as a function of 6 variables (out of an available 54). Of the 6 modeled variables, “increased age”, “brown feather colour”, “midnight feeding”, and “no scratch area” were associated with higher levels of FD at farm level (R2 = 0.77). The results indicated that FD resulting from feather pecking is a multifactorial problem, and supported existing evidence that FD increases as birds age. These results also suggested that “feather colour”, “midnight feeding”, and “access to (or lack of) a scratch area or additional substrate” play a role in FD prevalence in furnished cages.
... The result is support, by default, for furnished cages as an acceptable alternative to the battery cage (Tauson and Abrahamsson 1994a;Tauson 1995) and in the UK, where furnished cages were developed (Appleby 1993a;Hughes and Sherwin 1994) there appears to be considerable support for this system(s). Also, on the basis that the five freedoms (see Appleby 1991) prescribed in 'Freedom Foods' (UK, RSPCA marketing initiative, see above) cannot all be met in battery cages (Appleby 1993b;Baxter 1994), this tends to lend support for furnished cages. However, it must be recognised there is some circularity in this latter argument as included in the five freedoms concept is the perception that close confinement is unacceptable. ...
Conference Paper
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This workshop was hosted by RIRDC (Rural Industries Research and Development) to develop a strategic plan for research into furnished cages under Australian conditions and to revise the research proposal from Dr John Barnett on “Welfare of laying hens in furnished cages” in light of this plan. A background paper (Appendix 1) was prepared by Dr Barnett and circulated to workshop participants prior to the workshop. The workshop commenced with four background information sessions to set the scene for the discussion required to achieve the workshop objectives. The workshop identified that many behaviours of poultry are present in all environments, although some are modified by environment and some may be prevented by the environment. The question to be answered is “How important are these behaviours to welfare?” The current European attitude to animal welfare is based on the “Five Freedoms” (UK FAWC, 1992) . Freedom from hunger and thirst . Freedom from discomfort . Freedom from pain, injury and disease . Freedom to express normal behaviour . Freedom from fear and distress Most dispute arises from the fourth point “Freedom to express normal behaviour” due to the difficulty in defining “normal behaviour”, particularly in different environments. Difficulties associated with current scientific methods for the assessment of welfare are not insurmountable. The production, physiological, health and behavioural indicators are essential but cannot stand alone. They need to be merged in a rational manner. Given the close relationship between disease, health and welfare, the diagnostic process used for disease provides the framework for integrating results from the four types of indicator. The added advantage of the diagnostic process is that it adds history and an examination of the environment. The concept of motivational state may be a useful adjunct for integrating information around welfare issues. Diagnosis of disease attempts to identify the range of primary and secondary causative factors that are involved. The diagnosis of welfare issues can have the same aim. The result could be the formulation of innovative interventions for animal welfare problems. There may be an application to the welfare enhancement of cages for layer hens. As long as we make assumptions regarding hen welfare and the needs of laying hens we will not be able to “think outside of the box” and may miss the opportunity of finding better ways to improve the welfare of laying hens in commercial systems. It was felt that the bulk of the research trials that have been conducted in Europe on furnished cages were confounded by only investigating the effects on a very limited range of parameters. Therefore, a comprehensive study under Australian conditions is required to provide basic information on the importance of the behavioural and physiological traits that these cages are designed to address. This information will assist in identifying the priority welfare issues that should be focussed on in subsequent studies to determine the best way to address these issues in a commercial situation. The recommendations of the workshop are that: 1. Dr John Barnett prepares an updated research proposal for consideration by RIRDC along the lines of his original proposal to RIRDC but taking into information gained in his recent trip to Europe and the discussions held during this workshop. 2. RIRDC uses the information gained from this project to develop a strategic approach to evaluating the welfare issues for laying hens in cages and the most effective means of addressing these issues in a commercial situation.
... Specifications regarding space requirements and maximum stock densities were also provided for non-cage alternative housing systems (Michelle, 2005). Issues of poultry housing, transportation, slaughter and their welfare implications have been severally reported (Nicol, 1987;Baxter, 1994;Appleby, 2003). In view of the stress on chickens, the use of battery cages is being jettisoned while alternative housing systems such as aviaries, deep litter with pasture runs, modified cages and improved cages are better form of housing chickens (Elson, 2004;Tauson, 2005). ...
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... Specifications regarding space requirements and maximum stock densities were also provided for non-cage alternative housing systems (Michelle, 2005). Issues of poultry housing, transportation, slaughter and their welfare implications have been severally reported (Nicol, 1987;Baxter, 1994;Appleby, 2003). In view of the stress on chickens, the use of battery cages is being jettisoned while alternative housing systems such as aviaries, deep litter with pasture runs, modified cages and improved cages are better form of housing chickens (Elson, 2004;Tauson, 2005). ...
Article
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Researchj ournali’s Journal of Agriculture Vol. 5 | No. 9 October | 2018 2 www.researchjournali.com ABSTRACT Animal welfare is becoming an interesting global issue which must be given the best of attention by researchers, producers, consumers and the governments. The need to ensure the general well-being of the wild and domestic animals in every aspect of their husbandry is mandatory now in many developed countries of the world and poultry industries are responding positively to this new dimension of husbandry. Species of animal are sensitive to the way they are being managed in terms of housing and other husbandry. Meanwhile, there is little or no concern on subjects of applied ethology in developing areas of the world such as Africa and Asia where livestock production and wildlife conservation is currently experiencing tremendous growth. Issues of animal welfare are being promoted by researches, sponsored information, legislation and enforcement by relevant agencies in developed nations of the world. Factors such as poor economic development, political instability, social insecurities, low level of awareness and lack of information on legal provisions on animal welfare have been identified to be responsible for poor animal welfare and its science in developing countries. Despite the fact that livestock sector carries the highest percentage among agricultural facets commercially in Nigeria, the level of welfare of the domestic animals and those in the wild are still below standard. This paper is however suggesting that even with the level of economic developments in most of low and middle incomed nations, researchers can be motivated into animal welfare science, the curricula of colleges and universities can be expanded to include subjects of applied ethology, professional bodies and associations on animal welfare can be formed with international affiliations. All these may change the orientation of the people and governments in developing countries positively towards animal welfare. Keywords:Animal, developing countries, implementation, welfare
... Caged hens are prevented from dust bathing and roosting because they are deprived of litter and perches. Movement restriction induces bone disease, particularly in legs and wings (Baxter, 1994). Conventionally confined systems cause animal stress (Jones and Millis, 1999;Marin et al., 2001), which results in poor performance (Mendl, 1999). ...
Article
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An enriched environment can promote adaptability of animals to cope with complex environments. A total of 18-week-old 216 laying hens were randomly divided into 2 groups; of which, one group was housed in conventional battery cages (CC, n = 36), and the others were housed in furnished cages (FC, n = 180). At the end of 64 wk of age, 24 chickens of each group were selected for 4-hour transport treatment. The spleen tissues of laying hens were collected before transportation (BT), immediately after transportation, and at 48 h after transportation to detect the expression of the heat shock protective response signaling pathway and inflammatory factors. Serum samples were collected to detect the content of immune cytokines. Transport stress decreased heat shock proteins (HSP; including Small HSP, HSP27, HSP40, HSP60, HS70, HSP90, HSP110) in the CC group (P < 0.05), whereas there was no significant difference in the expression of HSP (except for Small HSP and HSP40) in the FC group (P > 0.05) immediately after transportation. At 48 h after transportation, mRNA levels of HSP (except for Small HSP and HSP40) in the FC group were upregulated, which were higher than those at BT (P < 0.05). The changes in HSP60, HSP70, and HSP90 protein levels had similar tendencies. The results showed that housing in furnished cages alleviated the inhibition of expression of HSP in the hens' spleen induced by transport stress. In addition, the hens housed in the FC group had lower expression levels of proinflammatory factors (nuclear transcription factor-kappa B, inducible nitric oxide synthase, cyclooxygenase-2, prostaglandin E synthase, inflammatory cytokines [IL-1β and IL-6], and tumor necrosis factor alpha) (P < 0.05). We suggest that the enriched environment can reduce transport stress damage in laying hens and improve resistance to transport stress by regulating expression of heat shock response proteins and inflammatory cytokines.
Article
European Union banned with Council Directive No. 74/1999/EC use of the conventional battery cages for laying hens in European Union with effect from January 1, 2012. By this time much attention was paid to the assessment of laying hens welfare in the modified breeding system, namely from aspect of behavior and expression fyziological stress. At present are used the enriched cages, which device is defined by the Code of laying hens living conditions. Quantification of intensity and sequence of the events in different behaviour and a time regime can contribute to knowledge of time spending of the laying hens in the breeding area and to determining of prioritizing their behavior. The aim of our research was assessment an application of principles laying hens welfare in the farm, their production and egg quality. An object of investigation was ecological farm of laying hens. In the experiment were observed the housing conditions and nutrition of laying hens in farm, egg production, egg weight at laying hens old 42 weeks and selected indicators of chemical formation of the eggs. In the farm were reared laying hens ISA Brown, which are high-productive and the most the most widely used in EU. The informations and data on farm, laying hen hall, breeding facility, breeding conditions, the behavior of the laying hens, nutrition, feeding and egg production were obtained by personal visit an organic farm and informations which the farmer records and stores. The informations about the behavior of laying hens were obtained by observing and comparing with the knowledge and data of the Slovak Government regulation on December 11, 2002, which minimum standards determine for the protection of laying hens. The informations on feed were obtained directly from an organic farm and feed company that followed by accordance the minimum content of nutrients and energy in accordance with the needs of the laying hens. Egg production was monitored on the base of collecting eggs two and several times a day, which was recorded daily on an organic farm. Chemical analyzes of samples of eggs were conducted according to the methodology for analytical laboratories (2009). In the farm were application welfare principles. The laying hens had unlimited access to feed and water, ad libitum, free movement in the stable hall on the litter and perches. The laying hens rummaged and ashed in the free-range are of clay. In the free-range area of grassland where was a shelter, they free ranged and explorated environment. The microclimatic conditions, a construction of the perches, nests in the hall and location of the feeders and drinkers in the hall and in the free-range were solution in the accordance with the needs of improved living conditions of the laying hens. The laying hens achieved an intensity of egg-laying 84.60% in the all laying cycle. An egg weight was 62.30 g at laying hens old 42 weeks. The average dry mater contents was in the table eggs 26.21 g per 100 g of egg mass, the proteins 12.34 g per 100 g of egg mass, a fat 11.63 g per 100 g of egg mass and a cholesterol 1.27 g per 100 g of egg yolk. On the base of achivied the results, further research was recommended in the field the welfare of the laying hens intendent for the production of the table eggs.
Chapter
Many behaviors in poultry can be modified by genetic selection. Selection of laying hens for maximum egg production had the unfortunate side effect of increased rates of beak inflicted damage on other birds. Selective breeding has eliminated broodiness and has either increased or decreased other behaviors, such as hysteria, fearfulness, appetite in broilers, social dominance, ability and damage to other birds. Genetic selection can be used to reduce behaviors that cause welfare problems. However, it must be approached with caution to avoid unintended consequences that would be detrimental to welfare. A calm, docile bird that appears behaviorally calm, may take longer for its heart rate to return to normal after it is frightened. The use of group selection instead of single-bird selection can be effectively used to reduce undesirable behaviors such as feather pecking and to maintain high egg production. An entire group of birds is selected instead of selecting individuals.
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Chapter
Climate change mitigation policies are in essence about equitable, sustainable, and humane development. Here the environmental and social impacts of a climate change policy focused on reduced methane emissions from animal agriculture are examined, with a particular focus on the implications of such a policy for low-income households in the developing world. Reductions in short-lived greenhouse gas species-especially methane, which has a much larger warming potential than the longer-lived carbon dioxide-offer an effective and relatively inexpensive option for mitigating climate change. Since animal agriculture is responsible for approximately 37 % of global anthropogenic methane emissions, this sector could be a central focus of near-term GHG reductions. Based on a systematic review of climate change and food security literature, this chapter shows that developing countries with large farm animal populations, such as India and Brazil, can achieve a reduction in farm animal populations, and thus reduced methane emissions, by supporting free-range, environmentally sustainable farm animal production by small farmers instead of industrialized farm animal production systems. Such a policy would maintain food security in poor households and may help protect them from climate-change-induced hunger and displacement. © 2013 Springer Science+Business Media New York. All rights are reserved.
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Selection for increased number of eggs from egg-type hens and improved meatiness of broiler chickens that has been carried out over the last fifty years as well as efforts to increase the profitability of poultry production paid scant attention to avian welfare, conservation of genetic resources and the concept of sustainable development. Many human activities in poultry production are therefore not sustainable because they are a threat to the survival of native breeds of birds (extinction of many local breeds such as naked neck and crested hens); fail to guarantee necessary conditions for high welfare levels in birds (in both conventional and alternative systems); pose a threat to human health (crowding of birds carries the risk of a rapid spread of infectious diseases, including zoonoses); and are an environmental threat (water pollution due to inappropriate application of manure to the soil, atmospheric emissions of ammonia, hydrogen sulfide, carbon dioxide and dust substances from intensive breeding systems).
Article
Confinement housing appears to be at the forefront of concern about farm animal welfare. Although many factors may affect the welfare of commercial laying hens housed in cage and non-cage systems, welfare issues in confinement systems often involve behavioural restrictions, while many welfare issues in more extensive systems involve health and hygiene. Hens require an absolute amount of three-dimensional space in order to be able to perform basic body movements. They may prefer to distance themselves from other birds, but their strength of motivation to do so has not been thoroughly investigated, and preferred inter-individual distances may vary with activity. The relationships between the effects of space and group size on behaviour are not well understood, particularly in large groups where birds may cluster together around resources and at different times of day. There are common risks to hen welfare posed by both cage and non-cage systems such as overcrowding. However, some welfare issues present a greater risk in one system compared to another. When considering space and social environment, the comparison of cage and non-cage systems must take into account the threats to welfare that are specific to each system. Furthermore, this review highlights the importance of the design of the housing system rather than just the housing system per se .
Article
The aim of this study was to investigate the behavioral changes of laying hens in an aviary system. In this study, 500 laying hens (Hyline brown) were held in an aviary system in a open-type poultry house. The behaviors of laying hens were recorded using CCD cameras and a digital video recorder. The data were scanned every 2 min to obtain an instantaneous behavioral sample. In the behaviors of laying hens, 'Feeding' and 'Drinking' increased from 3 d placing chick and stabilized after 5 d placing chick. 'Perching' increased from 19:00 to 05:00, while 'Nest visiting' increased from 06:00 to 18:00. 'Aggressive behavior' decreased gradually after 5 d placing chick. These results suggest that the behaviors of laying hens are changed rapidly for about 5 days after placing chick and the behaviors of the laying hens are almost stabilized at 5 d placing chick.
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