Mentholated cigarettes decreases puff Volume of smoke and increase carbon monoxide absorption
Department of Psychology, University of California, Los Angeles, Los Ángeles, California, United StatesPhysiology & Behavior (Impact Factor: 2.98). 10/1994; 56(3):563-70. DOI: 10.1016/0031-9384(94)90302-6
The influence of mentholated vs. regular cigarettes on selected chemical and topographic parameters was measured in 20 smokers in a pulmonary function laboratory. Half the subjects were black and half were white; half were menthol and half regular smokers. All subjects smoked both types of cigarettes, one on each of 2 days. Compared to regular cigarettes, mentholated cigarettes produced a significantly greater boost in carbon monoxide measured as both blood carboxyhemoglobin and end-expired carbon monoxide, despite the fact that mentholated cigarettes decreased average and total cumulative puff volumes and increased mean puff flow rates of inhaled smoke. These chemical and topographic differences were independent of race. No significant differences in depth of inhalation of the smoke or in the amount of insoluble smoke particulates delivered to or retained in the respiratory tract were noted between the two types of cigarettes. Mentholation of cigarettes may decrease volume of smoke inhaled but appears to increase exposure of smokers to toxic effects of carbon monoxide.
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- "Recently, menthol has been demonstrated to increase the penetration of nicotine through porcine oral mucosa (Squier et al, 2010). These findings are supportive of a proposition that menthol in cigarettes may increase the permeability of nicotine across the lungs (Jarvik et al, 1994; McCarthy et al, 1995; Clark et al, 1996; US Department of Health and Human Services, "
ABSTRACT: Menthol cigarettes are likely associated with greater risks of smoking dependence than non-menthol cigarettes. We sought to test the hypothesis that menthol increases the rate of brain nicotine accumulation (BNA) during smoking and thereby enhances its addictive effects. In a counter-balanced cross-over design, 10 menthol and 9 non-menthol smokers (10 females and 9 males; mean age 44.3) underwent two study phases. In each phase the participant smoked exclusively either menthol or non-menthol research cigarettes for approximately 1 week prior to a Positron Emission Tomography (PET) scan session, during which the subject's head was scanned following inhalation of a single puff of smoke from a cigarette containing (11)C-nicotine. No differences in initial slope, Cmax, area under curve (AUC), and T1/2 of BNA were found between menthol and non-menthol cigarettes across all subjects; however, menthol relative to non-menthol cigarettes were associated with steeper initial slopes in men (p =.008). Unexpectedly, women had faster BNA as indicated by greater values of the initial slope, Cmax, AUC and shorter T1/2 than men (all ps <.04). The rates of BNA were significantly correlated with ratings of smoking motivations of getting a "rush", getting relaxing effects and marginally with alleviation of craving. These results do not provide strong support for the putative role of menthol in enhancing BNA, although further studies should explore the apparent effect of menthol on BNA in men. Fast BNA during smoking and preference of sensory properties of menthol cigarettes may independently or jointly contribute to smoking dependence among women.Neuropsychopharmacology accepted article preview online, 30 September 2014; doi:10.1038/npp.2014.263.
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- "Puff volumes were reported in six studies. A decrease in puff volume with mentholated cigarettes was reported in four of the studies, three of which were significant (Nil and Battig, 1989; Jarvik et al., 1994; McCarthy et al., 1995) and one not significant (Ahijevych et al., 1996). One study reported similar puff volumes for menthol and non-menthol cigarettes (Miller et al., 1994) and one reported a significant increase in puff volume associated with menthol cigarettes (Ahijevych and Parsley, 1999). "
ABSTRACT: Menthol can reduce sensory irritation and it has been hypothesised that this could result in smokers of mentholated cigarettes taking larger puffs and deeper post-puff inhalations thereby obtaining higher exposures to smoke constituents than smokers of non-mentholated cigarettes. The aim of our study was to use part-filter analysis methodology to assess the effects of cigarette menthol loading on regular and occasional smokers of mentholated cigarettes. We measured mouth level exposure to tar and nicotine and investigated the effects of mentholation on smokers' sensory perceptions such as cooling and irritation. Test cigarettes were produced containing no menthol and different loadings of synthetic and natural l-menthol at 1 and 4mg ISO tar yields. A target of 100 smokers of menthol cigarettes and 100 smokers who predominantly smoked non-menthol cigarettes from both 1 and 4mg ISO tar yield categories were recruited in Poland and Japan. Each subject was required to smoke the test cigarette types of their usual ISO tar yield. There were positive relationships between menthol loading and the perceived 'strength of menthol taste' and 'cooling' effect. However, we did not see marked menthol-induced reductions in perceived irritation or menthol-induced increases in mouth level exposure to tar and nicotine.
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- "Seven studies measured the effect of mentholation on number of puffs per cigarette (puff frequency) and the data for number of puffs per menthol cigarette vs. non-menthol cigarette are mixed (see Table 2). Jarvik et al  found that subjects took a smaller number of puffs from menthol cigarettes (p < .05), and that cumulative puff volume (number of puffs multiplied by volume of puffs) was smaller for smoking menthol cigarettes than it was for smoking non-menthol cigarettes (p < .001). "
ABSTRACT: Although there is a great deal known about menthol as a flavoring agent in foods and confections, less is known about the particular sensory properties of menthol cigarette smoke. Similarly, although smoking topography (the unique way an individual smokes a cigarette) has been well studied using non-menthol cigarettes, there is relatively less known about how menthol affects smoking behavior. The objective of this review is to assess the sensory properties of menthol tobacco smoke, and smoking topography associated with menthol cigarettes. The cooling, analgesic, taste, and respiratory effects of menthol are well established, and studies have indicated that menthol's sensory attributes can have an influence on the positive, or rewarding, properties associated smoking, including ratings of satisfaction, taste, perceived smoothness, and perceived irritation. Despite these sensory properties, the data regarding menthol's effect on smoking topography are inconsistent. Many of the topography studies have limitations due to various methodological issues.
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