Article

Family and friends produce greater social facilitation of food intake than other companions

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Abstract

How the presence of other people increases the amount eaten in meals was investigated by studying the impact of different companions on the spontaneous intake of free-living humans. 515 adults were paid to maintain 7-day diaries of everything they ate or drank, the time of occurrence, self-rated hunger, anxiety, and elation, the number of other people present, and their gender and relationship to the subject. Meals eaten with other people were larger and longer in duration compared to meals eaten alone regardless of the relationship of the eating companion to the subject. However, relative to other companions, meals eaten with spouse and family were larger and eaten faster, while meals eaten with friends were larger and of longer duration. This was independent of the time of day with similar effects occurring with morning, noontime, and evening meals. In addition males produced greater social facilitation of intake in females but not in males. These results suggest that the presence of other people at a meal increases intake by extending the time spent at the meal, probably as a result of social interaction, and that family and friends have an even larger effect, probably by producing relaxation and a consequent disinhibition of restraint on intake.

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... Interpersonal synchronization occurs when people are together because of maintained engagement, temporal coordination, or contingency (Harrist and Waugh, 2002). In co-eating situations, eating behavior has been found to be affected by the partners because of "social facilitation", "social inhibition" or "social modeling" (De Castro, 1990, 1994Lumeng and Hillman, 2007;Hartmann et al., 2010;Cruwys et al., 2015;Herman, 2015;Kaisari and Higgs, 2015;Nakata and Kawai, 2017;Kawai et al., 2021;Kimura et al., 2021). From a broad perspective, people coordinate their eating pace, especially when sharing food, either eating with friends or strangers (Woolley and Fishbach, 2019). ...
... Although we did not record calorie intake, the eating frequency and proportion suggest that the participants ate more when eating the same food. Studies on the social facilitation of eating (De Castro, 1990, 1994Lumeng and Hillman, 2007;Herman, 2015;Nakata and Kawai, 2017;Kawai et al., 2021;Kimura et al., 2021) have consistently shown that food intake is higher when people eat with others-either friends, strangers, or even their selfimages-than when they eat alone. Although several reasons for and limitations of social facilitation have been suggested (Tolman, 1968;De Castro, 1990, 1994Herman, 2015), our results may be explained by disinhibition: "observing someone else eating may remove constraints on eating that otherwise would limit the amount ingested" (De Castro, 1990, p. 1134. ...
... Studies on the social facilitation of eating (De Castro, 1990, 1994Lumeng and Hillman, 2007;Herman, 2015;Nakata and Kawai, 2017;Kawai et al., 2021;Kimura et al., 2021) have consistently shown that food intake is higher when people eat with others-either friends, strangers, or even their selfimages-than when they eat alone. Although several reasons for and limitations of social facilitation have been suggested (Tolman, 1968;De Castro, 1990, 1994Herman, 2015), our results may be explained by disinhibition: "observing someone else eating may remove constraints on eating that otherwise would limit the amount ingested" (De Castro, 1990, p. 1134. Recent artificial co-eating studies have found that observing others' eating behaviors makes people think the food is more delicious and eat more in a shorter time (Nakata and Kawai, 2017;Kawai et al., 2021). ...
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In recent years, online commensality, such as remote dining, has become a way to connect people in different places. In remote dining, people have drinks, snacks, or meals while chatting with each other via video calls and seek connectedness and belonging. However, many people feel that there is a gap between real-life and digital co-eating and that interaction in current remote dining fails to satisfy the need for companionship. Unlike real-life co-eating, in remote dining, one's meal may not be similar to that of a partner's because people usually prepare their own food separately. In this study, we focused on the effects of meal similarity on interpersonal synchronization and subjective feelings. We conducted a laboratory-based remote dining experiment and video analysis to investigate whether eating similar meals in remote conditions has any effect on eating behavior and to explore the relationship between meal similarity, interpersonal synchronization, and subjective feelings. The results showed that participants ate at a faster pace and conducted eating actions more frequently. They were more synchronized with their partners, and the feeling of togetherness was stronger. Thus, we suggest that preparing similar meals or ordering the same dishes can enhance the remote dining experience.
... Psychologists have shown that the presence of friends and family affects the type of food, as well as how much of it we consume. This has been termed a "social facilitation" effect [103], and it is especially pronounced within friends and families [104,105] Researchers suggests that there are at least four major concurrent context effects that can alter an individual perception of food and beverages preference during consumption in tandem with social events [106]: its function as a meal component, social interaction during consumption, the environment in which food is selected and consumed, and freedom of food choice. Others argued that the increasing popularity and adaptation of foods from other ethnic groups and countries probably due to the increase of social interaction, especially during festivals, gatherings, partying or even eating in the restaurants [107]. ...
... These results suggest that food knowledge, food presented in social events and food media play a significant role in food identity formation. This result is consistent with the conjectures made by several researchers [45,102,103,113] that social interaction and events could have given a significant impact on food identity formation. This is also in line with other researchers which indicate that integrated individuals although seek to maintain their own culture and identity; however, through interaction and adaptation to the new or [2,42,52,126,129]. ...
... Hence, revealing the antecedents of food identity formation will indirectly help the major ethnic groups in Malaysia to have a better understanding of the importance of having national food identity and the elements that accelerated the formation. Biculturalism/integration attributes like knowledge on food, social events where the variety of ethnic foods are a presence, and food media influence the food adaptation among the ethnic groups and longitudinally contribute to the national food identity formation [45,102,103,113]. In this sense, perhaps the ethnics' chefs/cooks and those individuals who are directly dealing with food are prone to the process of adaptation of each ethnic food. ...
... Learners thought the snacks that their best friend liked the most were SSBs (with or without an unhealthy snack) and crisps/salty biscuits, which is interesting given that peer influence increases during childhood and adolescence, and that friendship groups may play a role in determining eating patterns [65]. Two studies have shown the presence of peers and friends at eating occasions increases adolescent energy intake and the likelihood of meal and snack consumption [66,67]. In contrast, support for healthy eating in the form of friends eating healthy foods together, discouragement of the consumption of junk food and encouragement of the consumption of healthy foods by best friends [67] has been associated with a change in vegetable consumption [68]. ...
... Two studies have shown the presence of peers and friends at eating occasions increases adolescent energy intake and the likelihood of meal and snack consumption [66,67]. In contrast, support for healthy eating in the form of friends eating healthy foods together, discouragement of the consumption of junk food and encouragement of the consumption of healthy foods by best friends [67] has been associated with a change in vegetable consumption [68]. It is possible, therefore, that our learners' friends may have influenced an unhealthy meal and snack option choice, although much of the literature has shown that modeling of healthy eating by best friends was not associated with better eating behaviours [69,70]. ...
Article
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Rapid changes in food environments, where less nutritious foods have become cheaper and more accessible, have led to the double burden of malnutrition (DBM). The role food environments have played in shaping the DBM has attained global interest. There is a paucity of food environment research in low-to-middle-income countries. We conducted a case study of the food environments of school aged learners. A primary school in Cape Town was recruited. A multi-method design was used: a home food and eating behaviours questionnaire completed by 102 household respondents and four questions completed by 152 learners; learner participatory photography; a semi-structured school principal interview; a tuckshop inventory; observation of three-day tuckshop purchases. Foods that were commonly present in households: refined carbohydrates, fats/oils, chicken, processed meats, vegetables, fruit, legumes, snacks/drinks. Two thirds of households had rules about unhealthy drinks/snacks, ate supper together and in front of the TV, ate a home cooked meal five–seven times/week and ate breakfast together under two times/week. Vegetables were eaten under two times/week in 45% of households. A majority of learners (84%) took a lunchbox to school. Twenty-five learners photographed their food environment and 15 participated in semi-structured interviews. Six themes emerged: where to buy; what is available in the home; meal composition; family dynamics; peer engagement; food preparation. Items bought at informal food outlets included snacks, drinks and grocery staples. The principal interview revealed the establishment of a healthy school food environment, including a vegetable garden, although unhealthy snacks were sold at the tuckshop. Key dimensions of the food environment that require further investigation in disadvantaged urban and informal settlement areas include the home availability of unhealthy foods, eating behaviours in households and healthfulness of foods sold by informal food outlets.
... Characteristically, the holidays are accompanied with easy access to a large variety of calorie-dense foods. Previous work shows that constant exposure to such food cues [10], combined with social facilitation [11], and stress due to increase in alcohol intake, changes in sleep and activity patterns, increased contact with family members, financial stress, loneliness, party planning, holiday shopping, meal preparations, etc. [12] can increase energy intake from highly rewarding foods [11,13], something that is common around the holidays and humorously captured in "Ode on health and holidays" [14]. These rewarding foods may trigger alterations in neural pathways and cause a conscious increase in eating, leading to the holiday weight gain, particularly in obese adults. ...
... Characteristically, the holidays are accompanied with easy access to a large variety of calorie-dense foods. Previous work shows that constant exposure to such food cues [10], combined with social facilitation [11], and stress due to increase in alcohol intake, changes in sleep and activity patterns, increased contact with family members, financial stress, loneliness, party planning, holiday shopping, meal preparations, etc. [12] can increase energy intake from highly rewarding foods [11,13], something that is common around the holidays and humorously captured in "Ode on health and holidays" [14]. These rewarding foods may trigger alterations in neural pathways and cause a conscious increase in eating, leading to the holiday weight gain, particularly in obese adults. ...
Article
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The winter holiday season in the United States, which spans mid-November to mid-January, contributes to over half of annual body weight gain. Although self-reported data have linked this weight change to both increased energy intake and reduced physical activity, objective techniques have never been used; and thus, the actual cause of holiday weight gain is controversial. Here, we aimed to determine changes in components of energy balance leading to the holiday weight gain. Body weight change was compared between the pre-holiday (mid-September to mid-November) and the holiday period (mid-November to early January). Total energy expenditure (TEE) was measured using doubly labeled water during holiday time (early to mid-December). Subjective (ratings) and physiological (appetite-regulating hormones) measures of appetite, eating-away-from-home frequency, and incentive salience of food pictures were also evaluated. In 23 obese adults (87% female), body weight change during the holidays (0.41 ± 0.42 kg) was significantly higher (P = 0.02) than the body weight change during the pre-holiday period (−0.86 ± 0.42 kg). TEE was unchanged during the two periods, suggesting no role of energy expenditure on weight gain. However, participants reported lower satisfaction after a meal pre-load which was significantly correlated with increased body weight during the holiday period. An increase in number of episodes of eating at sit-down restaurants was also reported during that period. Overall, these changing behaviors were supported by a non-significant increase in energy intake (+80 kcal/day, P = 0.07) observed during the study holiday period. We conclude that a decrease in energy expenditure does not result in the weight increase, but that increase in food intake is the more likely cause. Our data imply that compromised internal satiety mechanisms in presence of external food cues and diet-related behavioral variables during the holidays may influence weight gain.
... Although this phenomenon was initially researched in the context of cognitive perception tasks (Cottrell et al., 1968;Henchy & Glass, 1968;Zajonc, 1965), it also applies to the field of decision-making under risk (Gardner & Steinberg, 2005;O'Brien et al., 2011) and discounting-related choices in realworld scenarios such as food choices (Herman et al., 2003;Roth et al., 2001, see for a review Herman, 2015). Similar to discounting choices, there is evidence that a socially close relationship can enhance this effect (de Castro, 1994). Based on these observations, it can be assumed that the suppression of an unwanted or unfavourable behaviour is supported by normative expectations that are derived from the social situation, which in turn exert strong effects on people's decisionmaking. ...
Article
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Deciding together is common in our everyday life. However, the process of this joint decision-making plays out across different levels, for example language, intonation, or non-verbal behaviour. Here we focused on non-verbal interaction dynamics between two participants in probability discounting. We applied a gamified decision-making task in which participants performed a series of choices between a small but safe and a large but risky reward. In two experiments, we found that joint decision-making resulted in lower discounting and higher efficiency. In order to understand the underlying mechanisms in greater detail, we studied through which process this variation occurred and whether this process would be modulated by the social distance between both participants. Our findings suggested that socially close participants managed to reduce their discounting by interactive processes while socially distant participants were influenced by the social context itself. However, a higher level of efficiency was achieved through interactive processes for both groups. In summary, this study served as a fine-grained investigation of collaborative interaction processes and its significant impact on the outcome of choices with probabilistic consequences.
... The majority of dining-out happens amidst other people in a specific location. Studies show that an individual tends to consume little amount of food when eating alone compared to larger quantities when eating with known and close people, for instance family members and friends (Spence, Mancini & Huisman, 2019;De Castro, 1995). Researchers at the University of Illinois also found that peer pressure affects food choices at restaurants particularly when diners in groups are asked to state their order out loud. ...
... 10 Furthermore, parents may offer food as means to manage their children's emotions or to prevent them from eating the food themselves. 11,12 Social eating also impacts upon food intake and several studies indicate that people tend to eat more food in the presence of others or in groups [13][14][15][16][17] although the social facilitation of eating may be weaker when the other person(s) is a stranger [18][19][20][21] and varies according to gender. 22 Likewise, romantic partners also influence eating behaviour and research indicates that whilst dining with a desirable partner, women tend to eat less to impress whilst men eat more. ...
Article
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Whilst overeating is often influenced by others in an implicit way, people may also explicitly encourage others to overeat. This has been labelled being “a Feeder” but to date, this more deliberate trait remains neglected. This study aimed to conceptualize being “a Feeder” in terms of motivations and behaviour and to operationalize this construct with a new measurement tool through five stages with three discrete samples. Using the definition of a Feeder as “someone who offers others food even when they are not hungry” a preliminary qualitative study (n = 5) clarified the behaviour of a Feeder and revealed six motivations for such feeder behaviour. These six motivational dimensions and the feeder behaviours were operationalized with individual items and the psychometric properties of the scale were assessed using two independent samples (n = 116; n = 113). The final 27‐item measure consisted of six motivational factors (affection; waste avoidance; status; hunger avoidance; offloading; manners) and one behaviour factor, all with good internal consistency (α ≥ .7). The two samples were then merged (n = 229) to describe motivations and behaviour and to assess the association between them. The best predictors of feeder behaviour were love, offloading, manners and status. This new Feeder questionnaire has a strong factor structure and good internal consistency and could be used for further research or clinical practice.
... Having a travel companion has also been found to encourage travelers to be more accepting of a greater diversity of travel experiences and embrace more risk (Torres, 2016). Social facilitation theory examines how the simple presence of others can impact a person's emotions and behaviors (Castro, 1994). The co-action effect (Triplett, 1898) suggests that improved performance on a task is a result of simply the presence of another performing the identical or similar task. ...
... In other words, if the model ate a lot, participants primed with proximity also ate a lot, whereas if the model ate less, participants primed with proximity also ate less, compared to participants primed with distance. This finding adds to previous research showing that imitation of food intake is weaker for socially distant models [7,38,39]. Additionally, some studies that used a video model, who was shown in a spatially distant and different environment, did not find any evidence of imitation ( [40] Exp. 2 and 3; see also [38]). The present study demonstrates that temporal self-distancing has a comparable effect and supports the idea that psychological distance in general (e.g., social, spatial, and temporal distance) may reduce imitation of food intake. ...
Article
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Abstract: Observing other people snacking can affect one’s own consumption behavior. The present experiment tested whether temporal distance moderates imitation of brand choice and the number of snacks consumed. Based on previous research demonstrating that psychological distance (e.g., temporal or spatial distance) reduces imitation of movements, we hypothesized that participants would imitate the amount of food intake to a lesser degree when they temporally distance themselves from a model person. To test this idea, participants (n = 113) were asked to imagine their life either the next day (proximal condition) or in one year (distant condition). Next, participants watched a video clip depicting a model person who chose one of two brands of pretzels and ate either plenty or just a few of the pretzels. Then, participants chose one of the two brands of pretzels, served themselves as many of the pretzels as they liked, and ate them while filling in a tasting questionnaire. As expected, participants primed with proximity imitated snack intake more than participants primed with distance. The brand choice was not affected by self-distancing. Implications for snacking behavior are discussed.
... En effet, ce phénomène est connu sous le nom de « facilitation sociale » (Stroebele & De Castro, 2004) et fait référence au fait qu'il y existe une corrélation positive entre le nombre de personnes présentes au repas et la quantité consommée par chacun (De Castro & Brewer, 1992). La familiarité avec les personnes a également un impact sur la consommation : manger avec des personnes familières peut conduire à augmenter la quantité d'aliments ingérée alors que manger avec des personnes étrangères diminue la quantité d'aliments ingérés (De Castro, 1994). En effet, partager un repas avec des personnes familières devient un moment agréable, un moment de détente. ...
Thesis
Cette thèse avait pour objectif de proposer une nouvelle méthode pour évaluer le rassasiement. Elle s’inscrit plus largement dans le projet FUI Satiarôme, dont le but était de produire des yaourts rassasiants en jouant sur la composition, mais également sur l’arôme et la texture, tout en induisant plaisir et bien être. Les mesures habituelles permettant d’évaluer le rassasiement sont des mesures directes qui peuvent être sujettes à des biais de subjectivité et de désirabilité sociale. Afin de pallier ces biais, nous avons choisi d’orienter notre recherche vers des mesures implicites puisque ce sont des mesures qui ne demandent pas aux sujets d’exprimer leur ressenti et dont les sujets ne sont pas conscients de la nature de la mesure. Nous avons choisi d’utiliser le test d’association implicite (IAT). Ce test permet de déterminer les attitudes des sujets de manière indirecte en mesurant la force d’association relative entre différents concepts par l’enregistrement des temps de réponse. Dans un premier temps nous avons cherché à déterminer si l’évolution de l’état de rassasiement entre la phase pré- et la phase post-consommation pouvait modifier, chez un même individu, la force d’association entre le concept cible (ici « Aliment ») et une valence affective (« Agréable » versus « Désagréable »). Dans un second temps, nous avons voulu déterminer si cette mesure était assez sensible pour discriminer le pouvoir rassasiant de yaourts équicaloriques mais de composition, texture et/ou arôme différents. L’IAT a permis de mesurer un état de rassasiement (avant/après consommation) mais ne semble pas assez sensible pour discriminer le degré de rassasiement entre différents produits.
... Notably, these current interventions do not focus on, or capitalize on, the important social aspects of mealtimes and some may actually interfere with the quality of mealtime interactions. Eating in company not only enhances the emotional experience of dining, but social companionship is indeed associated with greater food intake (e.g., Brown et al., 2013;de Castro, 1994;de Castro & de Castro, 1989). Research across a narrow range of populations has suggested that behavioral mimicry, or the nonconscious imitation of others' behaviors, may underlie this adaptation of food intake to that of others (e.g., Bevelander et al., 2013;Hermans et al., 2012;Koordeman et al., 2011;Larsen et al., 2009;Sharps et al., 2015;Shune & Foster, 2017). ...
Article
Purpose Individuals with dysphagia, particularly in the presence of dementia, are at high risk for decreased nutrition and hydration. Unfortunately, current treatment options are not without limitations and often ignore the crucial social aspects of mealtimes. The aim of this exploratory, proof-of-concept study was to examine whether the social phenomenon of nonconscious behavioral mimicry can increase drinking behaviors in healthy older adults. Method Forty-two older adults ( M age = 68.26 years, SD = 6.49) participated. Participants and a member of the research team posing as another participant (a confederate) took turns describing two series of pictures, while, unbeknownst to the participants, the confederate either frequently drank from a cup of water or touched the cup. The primary outcome measures (number of drinks per minute, number of cup touches per minute, percentage of time spent drinking, and percentage of time spent touching the cup) were coded and analyzed across both the confederate drinking and cup-touching conditions. Results Participants drank more frequently and spent more task time drinking during the confederate drinking condition as compared to the cup-touching condition. There was significant variability in drinking patterns across participants, with some only drinking when they were not engaged in the picture description task. Conclusions Behavioral mimicry may increase drinking behaviors in healthy older adults, although the effect may not be as robust among certain subsets of individuals. Clinically, mimicry may hold potential as a powerful, noninvasive supplemental mealtime strategy for increasing intake in those who are most at risk for malnutrition.
... The influence of social context may be regarded as a special case of social impact theory, which suggests that the relative importance, strength and immediacy of a group can be related to an individual's conformity to normative group dynamics (Latane, 1981). Generally, it has been found that an individual's food intake increases when meals are eaten in a social context, irrespective of the number of people present (DeCastro, 1994;Clendenen, Herman, & Polivy, 1994). The positive correlation between the presence of other people and food intake has been demonstrated for meals consumed at and away from home, as well as for different meal occasions (DeCastro, Brewer, Elmore, & Orozco, 1990;Patel & Schlundt, 2001). ...
Article
Assuming that the more a restaurant’s manager know the preferences of his/her clients, the greater the chance to maximise the experience of the customers and therefore the revenue of the restaurant. However, very little is known about the attributes that influence menu-item choice of such customers in a restaurant context and consequently, on the relative importance attached to specific attributes shaping the overall appeal of a menu-item. Despite the familiarity that consumers have with making menu-item choices, there exists a significant paucity of academic research exploring the relative importance of attributes that influence menu-item selection in a restaurant context. This research aims to respond to the following question: what are the attributes that influence menu-item choice in a casual and fine-dining restaurants context? To explore further the reasons that influence menu-item choice, the authors also investigate the extent the customers’ level of food involvement and the social context have an impact on the attributes influencing menu-item choice in these two restaurants’ contexts. This study utilises the Best-Worst method to examine consumer-based preference in relation to the relative importance of attributes that influence the menu-item choice of casual and fine-dining restaurant patrons. Respondents should have patronised a casual or fine-dining restaurant within the last 4 weeks and 6 months respectively and were randomly allocated the task to respond the questions either with a casual-dining context in mind or with a fine-dining context in mind. Consumer attribute-based preferences are also examined in relation to an individual’s level of food involvement and effect of social context, giving the authors the opportunity to split the entire sample into sub groups. The overarching objective is to draw comparisons in order to determine whether the attributes that influence menu-item choice differ between segments of consumers. Quantitative data was collected from 1208 respondents in Australia representative of casual and fine-dining restaurant patrons. Results of the study indicate that “the combination of ingredients” is the most influential attribute on patrons’ menu-item selection at casual and fine-dining restaurants, with a probability of 100% for that attribute to be chosen as the most important one when selecting a dish. Conversely, the “avoidance of certain foods” and “the core ingredient of the dish is sustainably produced” are the least important attributes influencing the menu-item selection of restaurant patrons, with a probability of 30 and 38% for these attributes to be chosen as the most important one when selecting a dish. Interestingly, the ranking and relative importance of menu-item attributes significantly differed between segments of consumers with a high and low level of food involvement. The “the combination of ingredients” remains the most important reason for people highly involved in food. Whereas “a sufficient portion size that will satisfy my appetite” and “a dish that I have tried before and know that I will like the taste” have probabilities of 100 and 94.5% to be chosen as the most important attribute when selecting a dish for people with low food involvement.
... In general, people tend to eat more in the presence of others (Herman, 2015), and the particular natureof the relationship between the eating companion and the individual may influence how much additional food is eaten (Herman, 2015). Individuals typically consume a larger amount of food when dining with familiar company (e.g., family and friends) (Clenenden, Herman, & Polivy, 1994;de Castro, 1993;1994). In more recent studies involving virtual meal sharing, Kawai et al. (2021a) and(2021b) showed that their participants consumed more food both when they simultaneously ate and watched a video of another person eating (Kawai et al., 2021a) and when they simultaneously ate and listened to human voices through television and radio (Kawai et al., 2021b). ...
Article
The current COVID-19 pandemic has prevented individuals from gathering together physically because of mandated social distancing, enhancing the popularity of digital commensalism via video telecommunication. Since there has been only limited research on how social presence can influence food consumption experience, this study aimed to determine whether differing means of social presence could influence sensory and emotional responses to consumed meals. A total of 56 participants, comprised of 28 co-habiting pairs, ate meal samples on 3 separate days under 3 different commensality conditions: (1) physically together (“physical commensality”), (2) virtually together (“digital commensality”), and (3) alone (“eating alone”). The participants, under the three commensality conditions, rated attribute intensities and acceptance of meal samples and also self-reported emotional responses to the meals. The results demonstrated that participants liked physical commensality the most, followed by digital commensality, with the eating alone condition least liked. While the participants liked the meals under the physical commensality condition more than under the eating alone condition, there was no significant difference in overall meal liking between the physical and digital commensality conditions. Commensality conditions also induced variation in meal-evoked emotional profiles, with the physical and digital commensality conditions more associated with positive valence-related emotions. Differing commensality conditions resulted in variation in the duration of meal consumption, with the shortest eating duration occurring under the eating alone condition. In conclusion, this study emphasizes the great potential for improving eating environments by incorporating technological enhancement into commensality, especially when physical commensality is impossible.
... This term describes the influence of presence of others on food intake. Diary studies have shown how meal size increases with the degree of intimacy with meal companions (De Castro, 1994) and how the presence of others models food intake, by acting as a guide on what and how to eat (Cruwys et al., 2015). ...
Article
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Food and eating are inherently social activities taking place, for example, around the dining table at home, in restaurants, or in public spaces. Enjoying eating with others, often referred to as “commensality,” positively affects mealtime in terms of, among other factors, food intake, food choice, and food satisfaction. In this paper we discuss the concept of “Computational Commensality,” that is, technology which computationally addresses various social aspects of food and eating. In the past few years, Human-Computer Interaction started to address how interactive technologies can improve mealtimes. However, the main focus has been made so far on improving the individual's experience, rather than considering the inherently social nature of food consumption. In this survey, we first present research from the field of social psychology on the social relevance of Food- and Eating-related Activities (F&EA). Then, we review existing computational models and technologies that can contribute, in the near future, to achieving Computational Commensality. We also discuss the related research challenges and indicate future applications of such new technology that can potentially improve F&EA from the commensality perspective.
... Since Meiselman in 1992 proposed to study real foods in real contexts , several studies have been conducted in natural consumption settings in an effort to improve the ecological validity of consumer data used in sensory science (Bell & Pliner, 2003;de Castro, 1994;Marshall & Bell, 2003). However, the gain in realism of studies in natural contexts is obtained to the detriment of control over context variables, questioning the reproducibility and transferability of the results. ...
Thesis
Environmental factors modulate consumers’ perception and in turn, consumer evaluation of food in a given context, either directly or through context-induced beliefs and expectations. However, food products are usually evaluated in standardized conditions in an attempt to neutralize possible context effects on consumer evaluation. This questions the generalization of such measures to more natural consumption contexts.The aim of this research was to examine the conditions under which context affects consumer evaluation of food products. This work is grounded in Prospect Theory, which considers the effects of context on judgement through the notion of reference points.The first objective was to understand how consumers’ experiences and subsequent product evaluations are influenced by consumers’ representations about food in different consumption contexts. A qualitative study (12 focus groups; N =86) revealed that consumers’ beliefs and expectations towards a particular context are intimately associated to different types of products and culinary methods, and that external factors have a different weight depending on the consumption context.The second objective was to understand how consumers’ hedonic responses in natural consumption contexts may differ depending on the type of evaluation task. The hedonic responses of products with different degrees of culinary preparation (bread = control; pizza = homemade, industrial and mixed) were compared (N = 457) between two different tasks in a student cafeteria. The results showed that multicomponent products subjected to a different degrees of culinary preparation (homemade pizza) were indeed more sensitive to the type of evaluation task compared to more standardized products (bread).The last objective of the thesis was to test hypotheses based on Prospect Theory to explain contextual influences on consumers' food evaluation. Two experiments compared hedonic evaluations in (i) two contexts (CLT and restaurant; N= 283), in blind and informed conditions about the degree of culinary preparation of a product (ham-olive cake); and (ii) in one context (restaurant; N = 114) in informed conditions about the degree of culinary preparation and origin of the ingredients (quiche); where consumers’ beliefs and expectations towards the food served were modified. Results showed that the effects of external factors could be reduced through careful control of consumers’ beliefs and expectations in a given context.This thesis contributes to the understanding of context effects on consumer hedonic evaluation and it proposes a theoretical framework to investigate those effects by means of reference points. The results could be valuable to develop guidelines for industrials and researchers using hedonic evaluations to include context adequately at each stage of product development.
... Social facilitation can influence food intake by extending the duration of a meal ( de Castro 1994), and through this may also influence eating rate. Individuals tend to eat faster and consume more when eating with multiple people and when their companions eat at a faster rate ( Herman et al. 2003). ...
Chapter
The modern food environment is often characterised by an increasingly assessable diet of inexpensive, energy-dense and highly palatable foods. Extensive evidence indicates the eating rate of foods (g/min or kcal/min) is associated with energy intake, body composition and the associated risk of food based non-communicable diseases. Moderating eating rate during food intake offers a simple but effective strategy to regulate energy consumption and body weight. Research evidence from population and experimental studies demonstrate that eating at a slower rate can produce sustained changes in ad-libitum energy intake, influence body composition and moderate our metabolic response to ingested nutrients. Understanding which factors combine to influence eating rates affords new opportunities to design ‘slower’ foods that can reduce the risk of over-consumption and support better long-term energy control. This chapter summarises the role of eating rate in energy intake and body composition, provides an overview of development of eating behaviours in infancy and childhood and describes the individual and food-based factors that can influence eating rate and its metabolic impact. The chapter provides a summary of research that has intervened to slow eating rate and demonstrates opportunities to support energy intake reductions using texture led changes to eating rate.
... Expectations from strangers may have a different effect compared to expectations from close friends or relatives. Prior research has found that the presence of family and friends leads to greater food consumption than the presence of other companions, which could be because the presence of family and friends creates a more relaxed atmosphere and also promotes social facilitation (Castro, 1994). This topic may prove to be an interesting area of research, particularly studying whether social support from an audience can drive individuals to perform better on a given task. ...
... Some studies suggest positive effects of social affiliation by reporting that eating with others induces feelings of security and belonging, enjoyment of the experience, and happiness (Bauer and Reisch, 2019;Brown et al., 2013;Kauppinen-Räisänen et al., 2013). On the other hand, other studies suggest that eating with others may interfere with consumers' immersion in the food experience (Bellisle and Dalix, 2001;de Castro, 1994;Mitchell and Brunstrom, 2005;Rolls, 1991). This may be because consumers socializing with others may not be able to allocate appropriate cognitive resources to processing and evaluating the food. ...
Article
This study examines the effect of mass customization (MC) on perceived value in food services and tests whether perceived value is higher in food services with a customized menu than a fixed menu. The study also examines moderating effects of social influence and consumption motivation. In Study 1, a 2 (customization: low vs. high) × 2 (social influence: dining alone vs. together) between subject experiment was conducted sequentially with two types of food consumption motivation (utilitarian vs. hedonic consumption situation). The result shows a significant moderating effect of consumption motivation on the relationship between MC and perceived value. Study 2 shows that perceived value and satisfaction mediate the relationship between social influence and repurchase intentions. In addition, the result shows that consumers eating alone have higher levels of functional value perceptions, satisfaction, and repurchase intentions than those eating together.
... Commensality can have a great influence on food, from its taste [3,7] to portion size [6,8], food choice [13], and meal duration [2]. The term social facilitation of eating refers to the influence of the presence of others on food intake [10], which is stronger when eating with friends [19] than with strangers [11]. ...
... Even in hunger states during which Physical Satisfaction might be expected to be the strongest determinant of meal termination, if individuals are in the presence of another person, they have been found to consume similar amounts to their companion [48]. However, this is moderated by the level of familiarity with the eating companion; individuals tend to eat more in the presence of familiar companions such as friends and family compared to strangers [49,50]. Thus, the influence of Self-Consciousness on meal termination is dependent on the meal's social context. ...
Article
Satiation has been described as a process that leads to the termination of eating and controls meal size. However, studies have shown that the termination of eating can be influenced by multiple behavioral and biological processes over the course of a meal as well as those related to the context in which the meal is consumed. To expand understanding of how individuals experience satiation during a meal, we recently developed the Reasons Individuals Stop Eating Questionnaire (RISE-Q). The development of the RISE-Q revealed five distinct factors reported to contribute to meal termination: Planned Amount, Self-Consciousness, Decreased Food Appeal, Physical Satisfaction, and Decreased Priority of Eating. Thus, we define satiation as a series of dynamic processes that emerge over the course of a meal to promote meal termination. We suggest that each of the factors identified by the RISE-Q represents a distinct process, and illustrate the contribution of each process to meal termination in the Satiation Framework. Within this framework the prominence of each process as a reason to stop eating likely depends on meal context in addition to individual variability. Therefore, we discuss contexts in which different processes may be salient as determinants of meal termination. Expanding the definition of satiation to include several dynamic processes as illustrated in the Satiation Framework will help to stimulate investigation and understanding of the complex nature of meal termination.
... However, their sense of food pleasure was naturally driven by the contextual-driven pleasure dimension, which included the items 'Atmosphere', 'Physical surroundings' and 'Eating w. others', and oppositely not by the sensory-driven or internal-driven pleasure dimensions. In previous studies, it has been found that the meal context is correlated with higher intake levels as well as higher acceptability and liking of foods [5,18,28,60,79,90]. Wansink (2004) differentiates between two different types of contextual environments which affect food consumption levels; the 'eating environment' and the 'food environment', where the first concerns the atmosphere and sociability of the meal, and the latter regards the physical state of the food such as the shape, serving size and packaging [91]. ...
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A greater comprehension of factors contributing to pleasure from food-related experiences could increase understanding of underlying processes around different eating behaviours. We explored drivers of food pleasure and whether certain consumer characteristics were associated with specific food pleasure profiles. This study aimed to investigate (1) how Danish consumers vary in terms of primary drivers of food pleasure, and (2) how differences in food pleasure are related to specific sociodemographic, lifestyle, health and eating behavioural personality traits. Three-hundred and fifty-five respondents (mean age 33.3 years) rated the importance of different drivers of food pleasure, along with sociodemographic, lifestyle, health and eating behaviour variables. Segmentation analysis was performed based on emerging food pleasure dimensions, and profiling of segments was conducted by multivariate regression analysis and calculations of odds ratios. The results demonstrated that five specific consumer segments could be defined, ‘Sensory-pleasure Seekers’ (50%), ‘Internal-pleasure Seekers’ (34%), ‘Contextual-pleasure Seekers’ (17%), ‘Exploratory-pleasure seekers’ (13%) and ‘Confirming-pleasure seekers’ (5%), each with specific characteristics. Importantly, this research indicates that a link between mental health, personality, eating behaviour and perceived food pleasure is evident. These insights contribute to the comprehension of the complex nature of food choices of importance to accommodating public health issues.
... Therefore, we reviewed the literature on family affairs closely in relation to the number of household members, PUD, and sex differences, and we expected that women would have more PUD than men because women are more involved and experience more stress in family affairs than men 42 . The regularity of meal intake and skipping breakfast have a strong effect on PUD 11,15,16,25,43 , and the number of household members is closely associated with the regularity of meal intake, meal preparation, and the role of meal production due to the common activities among family members 11,25,43,44 . For example, Leblanc et al. 45 examined sex differences in eating behaviors and dietary intake based on a food frequency questionnaire and the Three-Factor Eating questionnaire, and they concluded that women engaged in meal preparation each week much more frequently than men. ...
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Peptic ulcer disease (PUD) is caused by many sociodemographic and economic risk factors other than H. pylori infection. However, no studies reported an association between PUD and the number of household members. We showed the number of family members affected by PUD based on sex in a Korean population. This cross-sectional study used 1998–2009 data from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey of the Korea Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Multiple binary logistic regression models adjusted for confounders were constructed to analyze the association of PUD with the number of household members. The number of household members was associated with PUD, age, body mass index (BMI), waist circumference, systolic blood pressure, hemoglobin, glucose, location (urban/rural), income, education level, stress, current drinking, and smoking in both sexes. Men with other household members had a higher PUD risk compared to men or women living alone (reference), and the opposite was observed for women. Men with 4 household members had a higher PUD risk than men living alone in the model adjusted for age, BMI, income, location, education, and stress (OR = 2.04 [95% CI 1.28–3.27], p value = .003). Women with more than 6 household members had a lower PUD risk than women living alone in the adjusted model (OR = 0.50 [0.33–0.75], p value = .001). Women with more household members had a lower PUD risk. However, more men had PUD than women regardless of the number of household members.
... However, the exact nature of these influences is not clear (Brown & Garland, 1971; Zhang & Shrum, 2009). Some research suggests that certain types of peers (e.g., close vs. distant friends, friends vs. other companions) increase attitudes and behaviors associated with consumption more than do other types of peers (de Castro, 1994;Luo, 2005). To examine the effects of different types of social presence on purchase intention, this research examines three forms of social presence: stranger, acquaintance, and close friend. ...
... The prevailing explanation is that the presence of friends or family extends the duration of a meal and, given that the predominant response to the presence of food is to eat, a longer meal results in facilitation of intake 11 . Refinements of this "time extension hypothesis" have also considered the effects of social eating on other variables that are known to influence meal size, such as not paying attention to internal signals 12 and eating rate 13 . However, all of these explanations require the presence of additional food at social meals, which raises questions about where the additional food comes from. ...
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One of the most powerful influences on food intake yet identified is the presence of familiar others at an eating occasion: people eat much more when they eat with friends/family than when they eat alone. But why this is the case is unclear. Across two studies (Study 1: N = 98; Study 2: N = 120), we found that the mere anticipation of social interaction is all that is needed to promote the selection of larger meals, and that this occurs even when a person is alone when they make their decision. Adult women served themselves larger portions when they knew they were going to eat socially versus when they knew they were going to eat alone. These data suggest that how other people influence our food intake reaches beyond the specific eating context to affect pre-meal portion size decisions, suggesting that a fundamental shift is required in our thinking about social influences on eating.
... SFI equally affects basic acts such as laughing or moving the eyes, physical skills such as running or dressing up, and cognitive functions such as memory or reasoning [9][10][11][12]. Strangers suffice to trigger SFI, but there is evidence that the effect increases with familiarity with the peer [13][14][15][16]. All the above findings hold, however, mostly for adults as only a small fraction of the extensive SFI literature concerns children. ...
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The present study explores the potential impact of peers' omnipresence at school on children's academic performance. We tested 99 fourth-graders either alone or with a classmate in a task involving both numeracy and literacy skills: numerosity comparison and phonological comparison. Ninety-seven college-aged young adults were also tested on the same task, either alone or with a familiar peer. Peer presence yielded a reaction time (RT) speedup in children, and this social facilitation was at least as important as that seen in adults. RT distribution analyses indicated that the presence of a familiar peer promotes the emergence of adult-like features in children. This included shorter and less variable reaction times (confirmed by an ex-Gaussian analysis), increased use of an optimal response strategy and, based on Ratcliff’s diffusion model, speeded up non decision (memory and/or motor) processes. Peer presence thus allowed children to, at least, narrow (for demanding phonological comparisons), and, at best, virtually fill in (for unchallenging numerosity comparisons) the developmental gap separating them from adult levels of performance. These findings confirm the influence of peer presence on skills relevant to education and lay the ground for exploring how the brain mechanisms mediating this fundamental social influence evolve during development.
... As observed, 15 sessions were family meals, where parents and other family members could be seen eating along with the child in these videos. The presence of family and companions facilitates greater food intake during mealtimes (De Castro, 1994). Moreover, seeing adults or peers socially modeling eating increases children's food intake (see Cruwys et al., 2015 for review). ...
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The COVID-19 pandemic has disrupted many facets of developmental research, including research that measures children’s eating behavior. Here, children’s food intake is often measured by weighing foods that children are offered before and after in-person testing sessions. Many studies also examine children’s food ratings (the extent to which they like or dislike a food), assessed via picture categorization tasks or hedonic scales. This paper reviews existing research on different methods for characterizing children’s eating behavior (with a focus on food intake, preferences, and concepts) and presents a feasibility study that examined whether children’s eating behaviors at home (including their food intake and ratings) can be measured via live video-chat sessions. The feasibility analyses revealed that an observational feeding paradigm at home yielded a majority (more than 70%) of video-chat recordings that had a sufficient view of the child and adequate sound and picture quality required for observational coding for the majority of the session’s duration. Such positioning would enable behavioral coding of child food intake, parent food talk, and meal characteristics. Moreover, children were able to answer questions to stories and express their preferences via researcher screen-share methods (which can assess children’s self-reported food preferences and beliefs) with low rates of exclusion across studies. The article ends with a discussion on the opportunities and challenges of using online platforms to conduct studies on children’s eating behaviors in their home environments during the COVID-19 pandemic and beyond.
... Böylece, yemek yeme örüntüleri toplumsal bir uyum ile eyleme dönüşmekte, yalnızken olduğundan daha farklı davranışlar sergilenebilmektedir. Kısacası yemeğe atfedilen bu toplumsallık olgusu ile davranış yeniden değerlendirildiğinde, yemek yeme sürecine ilişkin tutum ve kararların, başkalarının duygu, fikir ve davranışlarına karşı oldukça duyarlı olması beklenmektedir (Higgs ve Thomas, 2016). Dışarıda yemek yeme sürecinde sosyal etkinin değerlendirildiği üç örnek çalışma (De Castro, 1994;Tian vd., 2002;Salvy, 2007) bu durumu destekler şekilde; birlikte yemeğe çıkılan aile, arkadaşlar, meslektaşlar ve yakın çevrenin; yemek seçimlerini, yemek yeme süresini ve porsiyon büyüklüğünü farklılaştırdığına ilişkin bulgulara erişmiştir. ...
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Tüketim kişiden kişiye ve üründen ürüne farklılaşan bir süreçtir. Tüketme eylemi temel olarak bitirmek anlamına gelmekte, iktisadi olarak düşünüldüğünde ise ihtiyacı sonlandırmayı ifade etmektedir. Bu doğrultuda özellikle son iki yüz yılda gerçekleşen yemek tüketimindeki farklılaşma göz önüne alındığında, yemek yeme ihtiyacının nasıl oluştuğu ve nelerden etkilendiğinin belirlenmesi sağlık, iktisat, pazarlama, antropoloji ve turizm başta olmak üzere pek çok disiplin için önem arz etmektedir. Bu kapsamda bu çalışmada yemek yemenin doğası ve modern bir alışkanlık olarak evden uzakta yemek tüketiminin nasıl gerçekleştiği anlaşılmaya çalışılmıştır. Ayrıca spesifik olarak tüketim davranışın oluşmasında önemli bir etken olarak kabul edilen “sosyal grupların”, hangilerinin yemek seçimi üzerinde etkisi olduğu ve bu etkinin tüketici grupları arasında farklılık gösterip göstermediği belirlenmiştir.
... SFI equally affects basic acts such as laughing or moving the eyes, physical skills such as running or dressing up, and cognitive functions such as memory or reasoning [9][10][11][12]. Strangers suffice to trigger SFI, but there is evidence that the effect increases with familiarity with the peer [13][14][15][16]. All the above findings hold, however, mostly for adults as only a small fraction of the extensive SFI literature concerns children. ...
Article
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Little is known about how peers’ mere presence may, in itself, affect academic learning and achievement. The present study addresses this issue by exploring whether and how the presence of a familiar peer affects performance in a task assessing basic numeracy and literacy skills: numerosity and phonological comparisons. We tested 99 fourth-graders either alone or with a classmate. Ninety-seven college-aged young adults were also tested on the same task, either alone or with a familiar peer. Peer presence yielded a reaction time (RT) speedup in children, and this social facilitation was at least as important as that seen in adults. RT distribution analyses indicated that the presence of a familiar peer promotes the emergence of adult-like features in children. This included shorter and less variable reaction times (confirmed by an ex-Gaussian analysis), increased use of an optimal response strategy, and, based on Ratcliff’s diffusion model, speeded up nondecision (memory and/or motor) processes. Peer presence thus allowed children to at least narrow (for demanding phonological comparisons), and at best, virtually fill in (for unchallenging numerosity comparisons) the developmental gap separating them from adult levels of performance. These findings confirm the influence of peer presence on skills relevant to education and lay the groundwork for exploring how the brain mechanisms mediating this fundamental social influence evolve during development.
... In fact, according to Herman (2017), a primary reason for social eating may actually be that it provides an opportunity for people to overindulge. Though, that being said, a number of other factors have been shown to modulate the increased consumption that is typically seen in group settings (e.g., de Castro, 1990de Castro, , 1994Goldman et al., 1991;Feunekes et al., 1995;Klesges et al., 2006;Cavazza et al., 2011;Higgs and Thomas, 2016 At the same time, however, commensality may have multiple beneficial effects on diners (see Grimes and Harper, 2008), including the positive mood/emotion likely engendered by eating with others (rather than eating alone; Troisi et al., 2015). However, beyond that, a separate literature shows that shared experiences seem to be amplified (Boothby et al., 2014). ...
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Commensality is a key aspect of social dining. However, previous research has identified a number of pros and cons associated with the incorporation of digital technology into eating and drinking episodes. For instance, those who are distracted by digital technology may eat/drink more (that is, they may overconsume) as a result of their failure to attend to the food-related sensations that are thought to cue the termination of eating. Similarly, it has often been suggested that the use of mobile devices at mealtimes can disrupt the more commensal aspects of dining/drinking (at least among those who are physically present together). At the same time, however, looking to the future, it seems clear that digital technologies also hold the promise of delivering opportunities for enhanced multisensory experiential dining. For instance, they might be used to match the auditory, visual, or audiovisual entertainment to the eating/drinking episode (e.g., think only about watching a Bollywood movie while eating a home-delivery Indian meal, say). Indeed, given the growing societal problems associated with people dining by themselves, there are a number of routes by which digital technologies may increasingly help to connect the solo diner with physically co-located, remote, or even virtual dining partners. In this review of the literature, our focus is specifically on the role of technology in inhibiting/facilitating the more pleasurable social aspects of dining, what one might call “digital commensality.” The focus is primarily on Westernized adults with reasonable access to, and familiarity with, digital technologies.
... These associations are not surprising, as lack of food stimulation in the oral cavity decreases satiety while increasing the desire to eat, leading to greater food consumption [69]. Yet, the duration of eating occasions may not be solely indicative of the extent of oral stimulation and thus food intake, as it can be additionally influenced by other factors, including eating utensil used [70], texture of food [71], and social setting and company [72,73]. ...
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Unusual meal timing has been associated with a higher prevalence of chronic disease. Those at greater risk include shift workers and evening chronotypes. This study aimed to validate the content of a Chrononutrition Questionnaire for shift and non-shift workers to identify temporal patterns of eating in relation to chronotype. Content validity was determined using a Delphi study of three rounds. Experts rated the relevance of, and provided feedback on, 46 items across seven outcomes: meal regularity, times of first eating occasion, last eating occasion, largest meal, main meals/snacks, wake, and sleep, which were edited in response. Items with greater than 70% consensus of relevance were accepted. Rounds one, two, and three had 28, 26, and 24 experts, respectively. Across three rounds, no outcomes were irrelevant, but seven were merged into three for ease of usage, and two sections were added for experts to rate and comment on. In the final round, all but one of 29 items achieved greater than 70% consensus of relevance with no further changes. The Chrononutrition Questionnaire was deemed relevant to experts in circadian biology and chrononutrition, and could represent a convenient tool to assess temporal patterns of eating in relation to chronotype in future studies.
... Meiselman et al. found that serving the same meal in different environments would affect both acceptance and liking of food, and thereby suggested that the physical setting and context of eating situations are influencing pleasure derived from a meal (Meiselman et al., 2000). De Castro have found the social setting of eating with others, especially family and friends, would prolong the eating session as well as increasing consumed amount and liking of food (de Castro, 1994). Rozin and Tuorila differentiates contextual factors as either simultaneous or temporal contextual, the first regarding the actual physical context of the eating session, and the latter any context of the past or anticipated future that may come to mind, when engaging in eating a meal (Rozin & Tuorila, 1993;Shepherd & Raats, 2006). ...
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Cross-cultural research with a focus on understanding food consumer behaviour is becoming increasingly relevant and important, not least because of the globalization of food markets. A better understanding of the relative importance of factors contributing to food pleasure could advance our understanding of different food behaviours. Two identical consumer surveys were conducted with a Chinese (n=306) and a Danish sample (n=280) to explore the importance of several drivers to food pleasure in each sample. Exploratory factor analyses were utilized for investigating underlying constructs of drivers of food pleasure. Most important drivers of food pleasure for each sample were investigated and a cross-cultural comparative analysis of main drivers of food pleasure was performed. Both samples found ‘Sensory-driven Pleasure’ to be most important for experienced food pleasure. In addition, the Danish sample had two secondary drivers of food-related pleasure; ‘Exploratory-driven Pleasure’ and ‘Confirming-driven Pleasure’. The Chinese sample had three secondary drivers of food pleasure: ‘Cognition-driven Pleasure’, ‘Curiosity-driven Pleasure’ and ‘Symbolic-driven Pleasure’. Thereby, the sensory-driven pleasure could be regarded the primary driver of food pleasure on a cross-cultural level, whereas secondary drivers seem to distinguish food-related pleasure in different cultures. These findings are relevant in several areas, as they provide new insights and knowledge of cultural differences in food choice and eating behaviour between China and Denmark, as well as contribute to the important field of cross-cultural research. This knowledge can support food researchers and food industry for a better understanding of what drives food pleasure, and ultimately food choice too.
... For social context there is clear evidence that product perceptions and the amounts consumed varies depending on the presence of other people (Krantz, 1979;Meiselman, 2006). Individuals are more likely to eat more when eating together with others than eating alone (de Castro, 1994). For FCMs, the social context is also important to consider (Machín et al., 2014;Phan & Chambers, 2016). ...
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Food choice motives (FCMs) such as price, sensory appeal and health are important in understanding food consumption. FCMs are traditionally investigated at a general level, for food choices on ‘a typical day’. However, food choices have been shown to differ across temporal, situational and social contexts. This suggests that measuring FCMs at a context-specific level could increase our understanding of food consumption in different contexts. Therefore, the current paper aims to explore whether FCMs are indeed context-specific for different meal moments, locations and social contexts. Two studies were conducted among Dutch adults (Study 1: N=935; Study 2: N=642). Both studies measured FCMs in context, either by using 2-hour recalls (Study 1) or recalls of the last consumption moment (Study 2). Result showed that participants rated and ranked FCMs significantly different across most contexts showing the relevance of considering the context when studying FCMs. Egocentric motives of taste, affordability, and convenience were the most important motives across all contexts, as was health. In contrast, sustainability-related motives were consistently rated as least important. Most variability occurred in the middle part of the rankings and mainly in health-related motives such as weight control and safety. This shows the added value of measuring FCMs in different contexts, particularly for health-related motives. The contexts snacking versus main meals, eating out of home versus at home and eating alone versus with others showed the most pronounced contrasts in ranking of FCMs. The current study is the first to quantitatively explore the variability of FCMs across eating contexts, both in rating and ranking of FCMs. The chosen research method resulted in a representative, though unbalanced sample of consumption contexts in the Netherlands, which limits the generalizability of the results to an international context and restricts the insights in out-of-home contexts as food is mainly consumed at home in the Netherlands. The results enable public health authorities and food companies to target messages, interventions and products to consumers’ food choice motives in specific contexts.
... Individual factors such as one's momentary emotional state and stress level have been shown to be related to eating . Inter-personal factors, including who one is with, and interpersonal stressors can facilitate food intake (de Castro, 1994;De Castro & Brewer, 1992;Mason, Heron, Braitman, & Lewis, 2016). Further, environmental factors including the presence of palatable food and the time of day can impact food intake. ...
Article
The objective of this review was to summarize associations between ecological momentary assessment (EMA)-measured contextual factors and eating and dietary intake behaviors in children and adolescents. The inclusion criteria were availability of the study in English and use of EMA to study eating and dietary intake behaviors among children and/or adolescents (ages<18). Literature searches were conducted in PsycInfo and PubMed databases across all dates until December 2018. A modified Checklist for Reporting EMA Studies was used to assess quality of studies. Eighteen articles from 15 independent studies were included in the systematic review. Contextual factors examined in relation to children's eating in studies included affect and stress; cognitive factors; social and environment factors; behavioral factors; and caregiver-related factors. Studies suggested there is strong evidence that cognitive and social factors have an effect on eating and dietary intake behaviors while the association between affect and eating and dietary intake behaviors remains mixed. Future studies should consider timing of effects, measure choice, individual difference and contextual factors, and developmental context.
Article
Previous research indicated that dining style is associated with depressive mood in community-dwelling older adults; however, the nature of this relationship in care facilities is unclear. The association between dining style and depressive mood was examined in Japanese assisted living facility. A questionnaire survey was conducted among residents older than 65 years. Dining style was assessed by objective (the number of people with whom one eats) and subjective (feelings of enjoyment during mealtimes) factors. The odds ratio of participants who ate alone but enjoyed meals having depressive mood were not statistically different from the reference group (eating with others and enjoying). In contrast, participants who ate with others and did not enjoy meals, and participants who ate alone and did not enjoy meals were more likely to have depressive mood compared to the reference group. Although a cross-sectional study, findings suggested that caregivers should consider residents’ subjective dining styles to provide optimal support at mealtimes.
Article
Purpose: This study aimed to identify the factors associated with mindful eating of clinical nurses. Design and methods: We recruited 205 nurses and administered a structured questionnaire. All factors correlating significantly with mindful eating were analysed using multiple regression analysis. Findings: The results showed that the mindful eating score was positively associated with mental well-being. Conversely, mindful eating score was significantly lower among obese participants and a higher level of occupational stress. Practice implications: Our findings can provide a basic reference for developing interventions that improve healthy eating habits and thereby help to manage mental well-being among nurses.
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This study aims to investigate (1) whether the perception of gender-based food stereotypes exits among millennial consumers of two different cultures and (2) the impact of gender and culture on the relationship between gender-based food stereotypes and food consumption intentions. The data was collected from college students in Turkey and the U.S. The results show that respondents perceive certain foods as masculine and feminine, but the degree of masculinity or femininity and food consumption intentions differs by gender and country. The findings of this research can help global marketers to design strategies for food products.
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Research has shown that 1) the slower a food is eaten the less food is consumed overall, and 2) context affects portion selection. This study aimed to explore whether eating rate and food intake are influenced by consuming food in ‘usual’ vs ‘unusual’ mealtime contexts. Furthermore, this study aimed to identify whether mealtime-specific appropriateness and previous consumption frequency corresponded with differences in eating rate and food intake between contexts. Seventy-eight participants were served either cheese and tomato pasta (a typical lunch food) or porridge with milk and honey (a typical breakfast food) ad libitum at both breakfast and lunch on separate days. Results showed that eating rate was slower (60.7 vs 71.2 g/min, p < 0.001) and less food was consumed (404.1 vs 543.2 g, p < 0.001) when participants ate cheese and tomato pasta at breakfast compared to at lunch. However, no significant differences in eating rate (54.6 vs 56.4 g/min, p = 0.75) or food intake (423.7 vs 437.7 g, p = 0.88) were found between mealtimes for porridge with milk and honey. Furthermore, differences in eating rate and food intake between contexts were not associated with differences in mealtime-specific appropriateness or previous consumption frequency. These results suggest that eating rate and ad libitum food intake are influenced by the congruency of the food-to-mealtime context; however, this effect is not associated with mealtime-specific appropriateness or previous consumption of the food. Further research should explore the implications of introducing foods at unusual mealtimes in relation to strategies for weight management.
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This is the protocol for a Campbell systematic review. The objectives are as follows: What is the association between marital transitions and physical health among people older than 60? What is the association between marital transitions and mental health among people older than 60? What is the role of gender, age, and education on the association between marital transitions and health among people older than 60? What is the influence of geographical region, housing, neighborhood, and social support on the association between marital transitions and health status among people older than 60?
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When questioned, people typically report that different foods are appropriate at different times of day. What is more, patterns of food consumption tend to exhibit marked diurnal/circadian variations in many parts of the world too. The question addressed in this review is what factors help to explain these temporal differences in food consumption. While it has been suggested that our nutritional needs may differ somewhat over the course of the day, cultural conventions, marketing-led interventions, atmospheric (e.g., think only of changes in ambient temperature and/or daily light levels), perceptual (i.e., threshold) and/or hedonic changes, as well as psychological factors have also been suggested to play a role. Taken together, though, the evidence reviewed here would appear to support the view that cultural and psychological factors, not to mention the ubiquitous influence of food marketing, may be the most important factors in terms of helping to explain why it is that so many of us choose to eat different foods at different times of the day. Relevant psychological factors here include everything from the purported depletion of self-restraint resources over the course of the day through to the fulfilment of different psychological needs (e.g., functional or hedonic) associated with different mealtimes. Given the unhealthy foods typically associated with breakfast in many western countries (e.g., think only of sugar-laden breakfast cereals), gaining a better understanding of the factors underpinning current temporal patterns of food consumption may potentially help those wanting to nudge consumers toward making healthier food choices in the future.
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Engineering healthy diets from sustainable food resources undoubtedly constitutes a major global challenge. One solution to the problem of developing healthy and sustainable diets involves the incorporation of various novel/unfamiliar foods into our diets (e.g., insect-based foods, cultured meats, plant-based meat alternatives, and 3D printed foods). However, the consumer acceptance of novel/unfamiliar foods still poses something of a challenge. Although a growing body of research has started to reveal that situational factors (e.g., social companions, eating venue) can influence food preferences, it remains unclear how exactly they influence the consumer’s acceptance of novel/unfamiliar foods (including unfamiliar ingredients, food produced by novel processes/technologies). Across three studies, we examined the influence of social companions (alone, friend, family, acquaintance, partner) and venue (home, cafe, bar, pub, food festival, restaurant), on the anticipated willingness to try a number of novel/unfamiliar foods (insect-based foods, cultured meats, plant-based meat alternatives, and 3D printed foods). Using the category name and descriptions of novel/unfamiliar foods, our results demonstrated that situational factors influence anticipated acceptance differently depending on the type of novel/unfamiliar foods. Eating with friends and at food festivals plays an important role in the anticipated acceptance of insect-based foods, cultured meats, and 3D printed foods in a similar way. Moreover, expected positive and negative emotions might help to explain why these situational factors increase the anticipated acceptance of these foods. In contrast, the environmental situations that increase the anticipated acceptance of plant-based meat alternatives are similar to those increasing the acceptance of typical (rather than novel) foods. Taken together, these findings reveal the role of situational factors in the anticipated eating of a variety of novel/unfamiliar foods, thus providing practical implications on how/where to introduce such foods or engineer appropriate situations to increase the acceptance of, and exposure to, such novel/unfamiliar foods.
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Non-communicable diseases (NCDs) affect many people in Myanmar where meals often contain high amounts of oil and salt that can lead to obesity and hypertension. Therefore, healthy Myanmar curry recipes and set menus were developed following the INMUCAL-Nutrients V.4.0 guidelines. Results from sensory evaluation and nutritional values before and after consumption were compared. Satiation and satiety were analysed using a visual analogue scale (VAS). Menus as pork curry and pork rib with fermented bamboo shoot curry were selected. After menu formulation, fat, saturated fat, and sodium decreased, while fibre increased (p < 0.05). No significant differences were found between sensory attribute scores of the developed and control curry formulae. Two created set menus achieved healthy diet criteria with acceptability scores of 7.03 and 7.43 as ‘like moderately’ and ‘like very much.’ Satiation and satiety of these two healthy set menus recorded ‘satisfied’ and ‘semi-satisfied’ scores immediately after consumption and 120 min later. The results suggest that healthy Myanmar meals should be developed and promoted to the general public and patients to reduce fat and sodium intake and alleviate the occurrence of NCDs.
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In this chapter, the authors adopt a practice‐based approach to understand how individuals eat together. They address the questions “what are the materials, skills and meanings associated with these practices?” The overall goal of the Plan National Nutrition Santé is to “contribute to the creation of an overall nutritional environment, facilitating positive choice for the health of consumers”. The authors focus on the interactions between these three elements – materials, necessary skills and associated meanings – to show that together they can give rise to particular practices or help overcome obstacles to eating together. They examine the links between eating together and well‐being, and open up perspectives for accompanying or facilitating eating together practices. Organizational constraints can indeed complicate the fact of eating together. Maintaining times and spaces dedicated to eating together would materially contribute to the implementation of this practice.
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Background: The family environment influences food consumption and behaviours, which impact adolescent's eating habits, diet and health. Young individuals who frequently eat family meals are less likely to develop risk- and behaviour-related outcomes as obesity. Aim: To assess the relationship between the family meal environment and food and macronutrient consumption in European adolescents. Methods: 1,703 adolescents aged 12.5-17.5 years (46.5% male) from the European HELENA cross-sectional study were selected. Sociodemographic variables and dietary intake using two non-consecutive self-reported 24-hour dietary recalls were collected from all the included participants. The relationship between family meals' environment and food and macronutrient consumption was analized using analysis of covariance. Results: Adolescents who used to take their main meals with their family were associated with high consumption of healthy foods and beverages (i.e. vegetables, fruit, milk, water) and low consumption of energy dense food and beverages as chocolate, savoury snacks, sugar or juices compared with those who used to eat alone, with friends or other people (p < 0.05). Conclusion: The company/people with whom adolescents consume their meal have an important influence on the adolescent's consumption of different types of food (especially at lunch). Family's environment during meals has been associated with a high consumption of healthy foods.
Chapter
What we choose to eat, and how much we eat, are powerfully affected by the behavior of other people, as we have seen. To a large extent, we base our food choices on what others choose, and we tend to eat more or less depending on whether our eating companions eat more or less (modeling). We also choose to eat particular foods so as to make a positive impression on others who are watching us, and we also eat more or less in order to make a good impression (impression management).
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The present study examined the amount of food chosen by moderately obese and nonobese customers in a university cafeteria as a function of whether they were about to eat alone or were explicitly accompanied by others during lunch. It was hypothesized that many overweight individuals are self-conscious about eating due to perceived social pressures, and that obese people would therefore choose less food (i.e., suppress intake) when eating with others than when alone. Food selections of a matched sample of overweight and nonobese individuals were recorded, and subjects were observed as they took a seat to determine if they ate alone or with others. Caloric values of foods chosen for each meal were computed. Results for the number of calories indicated that, as predicted, overweight subjects purchased less food when accompanied than when alone. Nonobese individuals, by contrast, chose more food when with others than when alone. In addition, males chose more food than females and obese subjects chose more than normals. Results were discussed in terms of the impact of social variables on eating behavior, and the theoretical importance of weight consciousness and pereceived social pressures in understanding correlates of obesity. Several alternative explanations were addressed.
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Social influences on eating were investigated by paying 63 adult humans to maintain 7-d diaries of everything they ingested, time, subjective hunger, and number of people present. Meals eaten with others contained more carbohydrate, fat, protein, and total calories; had smaller deprivation ratios; and had larger satiety ratios than meals eaten alone. The number of people present was positively correlated with meal size even when meals eaten alone were excluded. Adding the number of people present as a factor in a multiple-regression prediction of meal size more than doubled the variance accounted for, without altering the influence of other predictors, suggesting that social factors are associated independently with an increase in meal size. Meal size was positively correlated with the postmeal interval for meals eaten alone but not for meals eaten with other people. This suggests that social factors increase amounts eaten and disrupt postprandial regulation.
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Over 15 years ago, a psychobiosocial theory of appetite was formulated in the light of experimental evidence from rats and people that appetite was suppressed by the flow of energy to lean body mass and that much ingestion was a learned response to integrated dietary, somatic and social cues. Enough was known in 1973 about these influences on food intake and about rates of flow of energy-yielding substrates around the body of the rat to program a computer simulation which had no loose parameters. This rat model successfully predicted feeding patterns under a variety of normal and abnormal conditions, including the day-night meal rhythm, the overeating and obesity following ventromedial hypothalamic lesions, and the suppression of appetite by fenfluramine via slowed gastric emptying. In 1976, its parameter values were adjusted to those expected for an adult person having food freely available and a sedentary lifestyle. The output of this human model was remarkably realistic in meal pattern: culture appears to adapt to the physiological average. The predicted effect on appetite of energy released from adipose in proportion to the energy stored was relatively minute but very persistent. These old results are no less relevant now to improvement of our understanding of human food-intake controls and to more effective reduction and prevention of unhealthy overweight.
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In Experiment 1, male and female subjects were given an opportunity to snack as they participated in a "get-acquainted study" with a same-sex or opposite-sex partner (confederate) whose social desirability was manipulated. Consistent with the hypothesis that women may eat less when motivated to present themselves in a feminine light, female subjects ate significantly less with a desirable male partner than in the remaining three conditions. In contrast, male subjects did not eat more (or less) with a desirable woman, although they did show an overall tendency to eat less with female (vs. male) partners. In Experiment 2, female subjects snacked as they got acquainted with a desirable male partner (confederate). Before this interaction, subjects received feedback indicating that they had either very masculine or very feminine interests. In addition, subjects believed either that their male partner was aware of their gender feedback or that he was unaware. Consistent with predictions derived from Schlenker's (1982) analytic-identity theory of social conduct, subjects in the partner-aware conditions ate less when they had received masculine (vs. feminine) feedback, whereas subjects in the partner-unaware conditions ate less when they had received feminine (vs. masculine) feedback. Implications for understanding eating disorders such as anorexia and bulimia are discussed.
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A solution is suggested for an old unresolved social psychological problem.
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The influence of the ingestion of particular beverages and foods on the overall nutrient intakes and meal patterns of humans was investigated by paying 323 adults to maintain 7-day diaries of everything they ingested, time of ingestion, and subjective and social conditions. Ingestion of noncaloric beverages, diet sodas, and coffee or tea, were associated with low overall intakes but were not found to influence the amount eaten over the course of the day or in individual meals. Fifteen different calorie containing drink or food types were found, in general, to add to the total calories ingested in meals or over the day without displacing calories ingested in other forms. The results indicate that individual foods or beverages are ingested independent of other constituents and that intake within meals or over the entire day is elastic and readily influenced by nonregulatory factors.
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1. 1. The present investigation represents an attempt to obtain data relevant to the problems of development and stimulus control of social facilitation of feeding in the domestic chick. 2. 2. Chicks were reared in pairs or in isolation for four days following hatching. Under these conditions the paired birds ate significantly more than the isolates as indicated by greater weight gains. 3. 3. On the fifth day after hatching these same chicks were divided into four subgroups: isolation, visual social contact, partial social contact (paired but separated by wire screen), and complete social contact. With respect to amount eaten, the results indicated (a) that the method of rearing had no effect, (b) that there was no interaction between rearing and the immediate test condition, and (c) that complete social contact was necessary for the appearance of facilitation. 4. 4. Two additional experiments indicated that the results could not be accounted for by (a) differential weight loss in the isolated and social conditions, or (b) differential gain or loss due to compartment size or number of food cups available. 5. 5. Further observations of social interaction between chicks suggested that paired or grouped chicks may be led to eat more through pecking at one another's bills. It was demonstrated that a chick could be led to eat by simulating the movement of a companion's bill with a pencil. 6. 6. It was concluded that social facilitation of feeding does occur in young chicks, that unobstructed social interaction is necessary for its occurrence, and that it might be accounted for by bill pecking.
Article
Compared the effects of a model on the food intake of obese and nonobese females. 20 obese and 20 nonobese female Ss were paired with an experimental confederate who was either obese or nonobese. Analysis of the amount of food eaten revealed an interaction between weight status and type of confederate: obese Ss ate significantly more in the presence of an obese confederate. By contrast, nonobese Ss ate a similar amount in both conditions. There was a significant difference between the amount Ss ate and the amount they reported they had eaten, due largely to the fact that obese Ss underestimated the amount of food they had eaten. (French summary) (13 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
In a series of seven different experiments the amounts of food ingested by rats when feeding alone and when feeding together were compared. Taken together, the experiments demonstrated social facilitation of feeding and also of general activity, as struggling and crowding; the facilitation appeared only with rats that were unrestrained and freely competing, and independently of previous experience or of imitation or envy. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
2 experiments investigated the generality of socially enhanced consummatory behavior in chickens and the conditions that influence such enhancement. Exp I, with 24 Cornish Cross chickens, placed 2 consummatory responses (pecking and drinking) in competition. The design of the experiment contrasted 3 common interpretations of social facilitation of feeding in chickens: (a) the imitation of specific responses of another bird, (b) the arousing effect of another bird that energizes dominant responses (to a greater degree or at the expense of subordinate responses), and (c) the calming effect of another bird that results in the disinhibition of all responses inhibited by fear. The 1st 2 interpretations were cast into doubt since (a) social facilitation effects were found regardless of the behavior of the companion, and (b) both dominant and subordinate responses were enhanced in about the same proportion. The 3rd interpretation received some support. Additional evidence for the disinhibition interpretation was found in Exp II, which employed 8 Cornish Cross chickens. Ss placed in the test situation alone exhibited significantly more fear (as measured by the distress call) than Ss tested in pairs. (46 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Proposes a theory of social impact specifying the effect of other persons on an individual. According to the theory, when other people are the source of impact and the individual is the target, impact should be a multiplicative function of the strength, immediacy, and number of other people. Furthermore, impact should take the form of a power function, with the marginal effect of the Nth other person being less than that of the ( N–2)th. When other people stand with the individual as the target of forces from outside the group, impact should be divided such that the resultant is an inverse power function of the strength, immediacy, and number of persons standing together. The author reviews relevant evidence from research on conformity and imitation, stage fright and embarrassment, news interest, bystander intervention, tipping, inquiring for Christ, productivity in groups, and crowding in rats. (27 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
In four experimental situations involving competitive and non-competitive possibilities six macaques showed an increase in the amount of food consumed, this increase being to some extent a function of the degree of competition. Even in the noncompetitive situations, however, there was greater eating activity than under conditions of isolation, indicating facilitation of eating due to non-competitive social stimulation. Although attitudes of ascendance and submission did not appear during these experiments, the authors offer certain general observations which support the conclusion that social attitudes in monkeys arise from conditioning of eating behavior. Bibliography. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Reports 3 experiments to test the hypothesis that food intake of overweight individuals is more affected by external cues of a cognitive or social nature than the intake of normal-weight persons. Data indicate that food intake of people in general was affected by cognitive and social cues, but overweight persons were not more responsive to these cues than other persons. (17 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Subjects adjusted the sound pressure level of a 1,000-Hz tone or the luminance of a 10° target on a translucent screen to match their anticipated subjective tension in performing before audiences represented by 1–16 color slides of old or young males or females. Consistent with a new theory of social impact, “tension” was a multiplicative power function of the number texponent ≅ .6) of people in the audience and their ages, with older t37-year-old) audiences generating 2–3 times the tension of younger Iteen-age) audiences. Male audiences elicited 50%-40% more tension than females.
Article
There is a positive relationship between the amount people eat in a meal and the length of time since the previous meal (preprandial correlation). This study attempted to ascertain whether this correlation occurs due to environmental constraints on eating. Eight male and 30 female undergraduate students were instructed to list everything they ate and when they ate it. They were asked to make a recording in a diary of their eating and drinking throughout a 9 day period. They were also instructed to indicate whether the meal was spontaneous, in response to hunger or the desire for food, or constrained, determined by external factors. The amount of food energy in each meal was then calculated, and the amount remaining in the stomach at the beginning and end of each meal was estimated with a mathematical model. These data were then correlated with the duration of the intervals preceding and following the meals. The amoung eaten in the meals was found to be predictable on the basis of preprandial factors regardless of whether the meal was initiated spontaneously or under environmental restrictions. Significant preprandial correlations were found for both constrained and spontaneous meals. No relationship was found between the amount ingested in the meal and the following interval (postprandial correlation) even when only the meals preceding a spontaneous meal were correlated. There were no significant correlations between the proportion of the meals that were constrained and the magnitude of either the preprandial or postprandial correlations. The findings suggest that humans initiate eating either in response to an externally determined schedule or to a learned schedule when constraints are not present. Regulation then occurs by adjusting the amount eaten in a meal based in part upon the internal state of nutrient depletion/repletion.
Article
An experiment was conducted to assess the effects of a same-sex model on females' eating behavior. The model ate either a large or small quantity along with the subject in an ad lib satiation context, and either did or did not identify herself as a dieter. Subjects were 86 female undergraduates, split into normally dieting or nondieting subgroups. Number of sandwich quarters consumed ad lib following a small fixed preload was found to vary as a function of (a) model's consumption (b) model's dieter status and (c) subject's dieter status; there were no significant interactions. A subsequent taste-rating assessment of nut consumption, in which the model was present but could neither see nor be seen by the subject, indicated that the three factors which had previously affected sandwich consumption independently combined to affect nut consumption interdependently. The results were interpreted in terms of the effect of the model on the quantity and pattern of consumption, and conclusions were drawn about the dynamics of restrained and unrestrained eating and implications for therapy.
Article
1. Results were collected from thirty-three published and unpublished studies of gastric emptying. The volumes of the meals ranged from 50 to 1250 ml., and composition varied from pure carbohydrates to ordinary food. 2. From the published composition of the meals, their nutritive density, as kcal/ml. (4-18 KJ/ml.) was computed: it ranged from zero to 2-3 kcal/ml. 3. The volume of each meal, or test meal, delivered to the duodenum in 30 min was determined, assuming that gastric emptying was exponential. 4. The greater the nutritive density of a meal, the less was the volume transferred to the duodenum in 30 min. The original volume of meal given was not a determinant of the rate of emptying (ml./min). 5. The slowing of gastric emptying with a meal of high nutritive density was not sufficient to prevent an increased rate of delivery of energy to the duodenum (nutritive density times volume delivered in unit time) with a meal of high nutritive density. 6. Assuming an appropriate relationship for the interaction of a stimulus (kcal/ml.) and duodenal receptors, it was possible to predict a rate of gastric emptying for each meal, given its nutritive density. Knowing the initial volume of the meal, it was possible to predict the mean half time for its emptying. 7. There were eight sets of anomalous results: in four the volumes of meal given were less than 200 ml.; explanations of the anomalies in the other four results could not be provided. 8. The results are consistent with equal slowing of gastric emptying by the duodenal action of the products of digestion of isocaloric amounts of fat, protein and carbohydrate, for example, 4 g fat or 9 g carbohydrate, both 36 kcal, taking carbohydrate and protein as 4 kcal/g and fat as 9 kcal/g.
Article
The feeding behavior of 37 albino rats was used to demonstrate that significant postprandial correlations could be obtained from unordered raw data when actual intake was used as the measure of meal size. When meal duration was used instead, substantially lower correlations were obtained. It was further demonstrated that caution must be used when correlating ratio measures of feeding behavior. If the ratios are not independent then significant correlations can be obtained due to statistical bias alone. Implications and suggestions for the analysis of meal patterns were discussed.
Article
To investigate whether social influences cause increases in eating behavior, thirty undergraduate psychology students completed a diet diary for three 5-day periods. Subjects were instructed to either eat alone or eat with other people, actively eating with them for two of these periods. For the third period, subjects were instructed to eat as they normally would (with or without other people present). When instructed to eat with others present, subjects overall consumed more food, water, sodium, and alcohol than when they were instructed to eat alone. In the normal condition, food intake was 60% higher when the subjects ate with others present than when they ate alone. These results suggest that social facilitation has a causal influence on eating which increases food intake.
Article
The influence of social factors on the eating behaviors of humans was investigated by paying 153 adults to maintain 7-day diaries of everything they ingested and the number of other people present. Over 3800 meals were separated according to the number of other people present at the meal. Meal size, macronutrient composition, and the deprivation ratio was found to increase while the satiety ratio decreased as a function of the number of people present in a fashion best described by a power function. Meal duration and the rate of intake were best described as linear functions of the number of people present. Meals eaten in large groups were over 75% larger than when eaten alone. The findings suggest that social facilitation of naturally occurring meal intake by humans is an extremely potent influence on intake that is an instance of a very general phenomenon governing many forms of behavior.
Article
Two experiments were conducted to assess the effect of social influence pressures on eating in individuals differing in initial hunger; we assumed that conformity to a model would decline as hunger increased. In the first experiment, subjects' eating conformed closely to the model's eating, with subjects eating very little when the model ate very little, even after 24 h of food deprivation. In a second experiment, the conformity effect again dominated the results, even after lengthy deprivation. We discuss the implications and limitations of this powerful modelling effect on eating.
Article
Weekly variations in the nutrient intakes and the meal patterns of humans were investigated by paying 323 adult humans to maintain a 7-day diary of everything they ate, when they ate it, and their subjective states of hunger, depression, and anxiety. A marked weekly rhythm of nutrient intake was observed, with a greater total caloric intake and larger meal sizes on weekends associated with an increase in the duration of the meals and the number of other people present. The number of other people present had both significantly larger univariate correlations with meal size and multivariate Beta coefficients predicting meal size on weekends than on weekdays. The results support a hypothesis that the heightened intake on weekends results from increased social facilitation of intake resultant from a greater number of other people present at weekend meals and a greater flexibility to extend the duration of the meals on weekends.
Article
The amount eaten by humans in spontaneously ingested meals is positively correlated with the number of other people present. This could be due to a social facilitation or may occur as an artifact of a covariation produced by changes in intake occurring over weekends. This possibility was investigated by paying 315 adult humans to maintain 7-day diaries of everything they ingested, when and where they ingested it, and the number of other people present. During weekends, larger meals were ingested, in the presence of more people than during weekdays. However, strong, positive, and significant correlations between meal size and the number of other people present were found separately for meals eaten only during week-days and for those eaten only during weekends. The results suggest that the correlation results from a true social facilitation of eating and that this facilitation is an important determinant of the eating behavior of normal humans.
Article
Seasonal variations in the nutrient intakes and the meal patterns of humans were investigated by paying 315 adult humans to maintain a 7-day diary of everything they ate, when they ate it, and their subjective state of hunger. A marked seasonal rhythm of nutrient intake was observed with increased total caloric intake, especially of carbohydrate, in the fall, associated with an increase in meal size and a greater rate of eating. The subjects rated themselves hungrier at the end of the meal in the fall even though the larger meals resulted in a greater estimated amount of food in the stomach. In the winter and spring there was a strong negative relationship between the amount eaten in the meal and self-rated hunger at the end of the meal. This correlation was absent during the fall. The results suggest that even with modern heating and lighting seasonal rhythmicity of food intake persists in humans and is a major influence on eating that may act by suppressing satiety mechanisms.
Article
The amount eaten by humans in spontaneously ingested meals is positively correlated with the number of other people present. This could be due to a social facilitation or may be produced as an artifact of a covariation produced by a third factor. Possible covariations produced by time and location of eating, alcohol intake, and snack/meal ingestion were investigated by paying 78 adult humans to maintain 7-day diaries of everything they ingested, when and where they ingested it, and the number of other people present. The results demonstrate that, although the covariances exist, they could not account for the social correlation. Strong, positive and significant correlations between meal size and the number of other people present were found separately for meals eaten during the breakfast period, the lunch period and the dinner period, eaten in restaurants, at home and elsewhere, eaten accompanied by alcohol intake or without alcohol, and for only snacks or only meals. The results suggest that the correlation results from a true social facilitation of eating and that this facilitation is an important determinant of eating regardless of whether alcohol is ingested with the meal, a snack or a meal is eaten and regardless of when or where it is eaten.
Article
The amount eaten by humans in spontaneously ingested meals is positively correlated with the number of other people present. In order to investigate whether this social facilitation of eating was due to an increase in arousal, emotionality, hunger, or social interactions, analyses were performed on the data obtained from 82 adult humans. They were paid to maintain 7-day diaries of everything they ingested, when and where they ingested it, the number of other people present, and their subjective states of hunger, elation, and anxiety. The presence of other people was found to be associated with the duration of meals and not the rate of intake, whereas self-rated hunger was found to be associated with the rate of intake and not the duration of meals. Self-rated anxiety was not found to be associated with the number of people present, whereas self-rated elation was positively correlated with the presence of others. Multiple regression analyses suggested that the presence of other people facilitates intake and increases elation independently. It also suggested that social facilitation operates by independently increasing the size and the duration of meals and that it operates independently of the subjective state of the individual. These results contradict the predictions of increased arousal, increased hunger, and increased emotionality models but support attentional, disinhibitory, and time extension models of social facilitation.
Article
The relationship between the subjective state of hunger and objective food intake was investigated using a diary self-report method. Thirty-one adult humans were paid to record in a diary, for 7 consecutive days, everything that they either ate or drank, the time that they ingested it, and how hungry they were on a seven point scale. The diary entries were encoded and entered into a computer. Meals were identified according to 5 different definitions and meal compositions, estimated stomach contents, and intermeal intervals calculated. Univariate and multiple linear regression predictions of self-reported hunger and meal size were calculated from these data. Self-reported hunger was found to be related negatively to the energy content and the proportion of protein in the stomach at the time of meal ingestion. Meal size was also found to be related to these same factors and also positively to self-rated hunger. These results suggest that protein has a unique satiating property beyond its contribution to total food energy. When self-rated hunger and the premeal stomach contents were all used in a multiple regression prediction of meal size the premeal stomach contents influence became nonsignificant leaving subjective hunger as the only significant predictor of meal size. These results suggest that subjective hunger represents an intermediary step in the cause-effect sequence between gut filling and cessation of meal ingestion.
Article
The spontaneous food intake of 31 adult humans was investigated with diary self-reports of ingestive behaviors and subjective hunger over 7 consecutive days. Meals were identified, using five different definitions, and their composition of total calories, carbohydrate, fat, and protein was estimated from a computer file of the nutritive value of foods. These data were analyzed by intercorrelating meal sizes with intermeal intervals, estimated stomach contents and self-reported hunger with univariate and multiple correlation techniques. Human feeding was found to be regulated on the basis of preprandial factors; the premeal interval, estimated premeal stomach content, and self-reported hunger significantly correlating with the meal size. These correlations were significant regardless of whether the meal was evaluated as spontaneous or constrained by external factors, but were stronger when the meals occurred without other people being present. The postprandial relationship between the meal size and the duration of the postmeal interval, which is present in nonhuman species, was only present in humans when meals that were eaten alone were considered separately. This suggests that the species differences may be due to the social context of observation. The intake of carbohydrate, fat, and protein was found to have a suppressive effect on subsequent intake and subjective hunger through their contributions to total food energy ingested. Protein, however, was found to suppress subsequent intake and subjective hunger independent of its contribution to total calories, suggesting that the macronutrients have differing satiating properties.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
Article
The characteristics of fluid intake in humans were investigated using a diary self-report method. Thirty-six adult humans were paid to record in a diary, for 7 consecutive days, everything that they either ate or drank, the time that they ingested it, and how thirsty and hungry they were on seven point scales. The diary entries were encoded and entered into a computer. Draughts were identified according to five different bout definitions and three different definitions of fluid amount; total fluid ingested in both solids and liquids, excess fluid ingested above digestive requirements, and total fluid ingested in "drinks." The fluid and caloric compositions of the bouts, the estimated stomach contents at the beginning and end of the bouts, and prebout and postbout intervals were calculated. These variables were then interrcorrelated with univariate and multivariate techniques. Self-rated thirst and hunger were found to be equivalent in magnitude at the beginning of the draughts but self-rated hunger was more closely associated with the prebout interval and stomach contents of food and water than was self-rated thirst. Subjective thirst was found to be negatively related to the amount in the stomach regardless of composition. The amount of fluid ingested, regardless of its definition, was found to be primarily related to the amount of food ingested in the bout, not to the estimated prebout stomach contents or the prebout interval, and only slightly with self-rated thirst. "Drinks" which occurred independent of eating were relatively rare but were strongly correlated with the degree of subjective thirst. The amount of time that would elapse before the subsequent draught, the postbout interval, was related to the amount of food ingested in the bout and not to the amount of liquid ingested regardless of definition. It was concluded that the spontaneous intake of fluid by humans, under ad lib conditions, occurs in excess of requirements, is principly determined in amount and timing by eating, and water balance is left to regulation by the kidneys.
Article
The role of protein, carbohydrate and fat ingestion on self-rated mood and subsequent food intake was investigated using self-reports of spontaneous food intake. Eight male and 30 female undergraduate students were instructed to list everything they ate, when they ate it, and their mood at the time of ingestion. They were asked to make these entries in a diary throughout a nine day period. Mood was rated at the beginning of each meal on three seven point scales; elated-depressed, tired-energetic, and anxious-tranquil. The amount of protein, carbohydrate, and fat as well as the total amount of food energy in each meal and the intermeal intervals (IMIs) prior to and following the meals were calculated with a computerized analysis. The energy content and the amount of each of the macronutrients contained in the stomach at the beginning and end of each meal was estimated with a mathematical model. These data were then intercorrelated using bivariate and multivariate techniques. Momentary self-rated mood was not found to be related to prior macronutrient intake nor was it predictive of subsequent intake. Long term macronutrient intake, averaged over the nine recording days, was found to be related to the averaged mood of the subjects. Although no significant relationships were found between the absolute amounts of the macronutrients ingested and mood, significant correlations were found between the proportion of each macronutrient in the diet and the overall self-rated mood.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
Article
Circadian (24-hour) rhythms in the feeding behavior of humans were investigated using diary self-reports of spontaneous food intake. Eight male and 30 female undergraduate students recorded what they ate, when they ate it, and their mood at the time of ingestion in a diary over a consecutive nine day period. Self-ratings of depression, energy, and anxiety were made at the beginning of each meal on three seven-point scales. The total amount of food energy in each meal as well as the amount of protein, carbohydrate, and fat, the intervals prior to and following the meals, and the satiety and deprivation ratios were calculated. The food energy contained in the stomach at the beginning and end of each meal was estimated with a mathematical model. These variables were evaluated in relation to the time of meal occurrence during the day. Fluctuations in the levels of self-rated energy and anxiety, but not depression, were detected during the day. Clear 24-hour rhythms were identified for the amount eaten and the macronutrients ingested during the day with decreases for males and increases for females. The amount eaten per meal and the meal's content of carbohydrate or fat, but not protein, varied over the day with peaks at the lunch and dinner periods. A clear sex difference without circadian variation was apparent with the deprivation ratios. This suggests that males eat larger meals than females because of a heightened responsivity to deprivation and not to a smaller response to the satiating properties of food. Preprandial correlations were found for meals occurring either during the breakfast or the dinner periods. No postprandial correlations were found. These data demonstrate that the preprandial correlations are not an artifact produced by the 24-hour rhythm and suggests that they reflect a basic regulatory strategy employed by humans. As the day progressed, postmeal intervals and satiety ratios decreased, while premeal intervals increased. This suggests that humans obtain less satiety from a given amount of food later in the day than earlier. It is postulated that this represents eating which anticipates the overnight fast. These data clearly demonstrate the efficacy of the approach and the orderly, analyzable nature of the spontaneous eating behavior of humans.
Article
In the present study we used a bioassay system for measuring plasma cholecystokinin (CCK) to evaluate whether CCK has a physiologic role in regulating gastric emptying in humans. Plasma CCK levels and gastric emptying after ingestion of a mixed liquid meal were determined in five normal male volunteers. Fasting CCK levels averaged 0.8 +/- 0.1 pM and increased to 6.5 +/- 1.0 pM within 10 min of drinking the mixed meal. CCK levels remained elevated for up to 90 min. Gastric emptying after a meal was slow; at the end of the 90 min 68% of the original volume remained in the stomach. The rate of gastric emptying of water was then measured in the same individuals with a simultaneous infusion of either saline, or one of two doses of CCK (12 pmol/kg per h and 24 pmol/kg per h). With the saline infusion, plasma CCK levels did not increase above basal and gastric contents emptied rapidly. At the end of 90 min only 7% of the original volume remained in the stomach. The lower dose of CCK resulted in a plasma level of 3.4 pM which both reproduced the average postprandial plasma level and caused a significant delay in gastric emptying. The higher dose of CCK achieved plasma levels of 8 pM and resulted in a delay in gastric emptying that was similar to that seen with the mixed meal. Since exogenous CCK at concentrations which occur postprandially delays gastric emptying, we conclude that CCK is a physiologic regulator of gastric emptying.
Article
The effects of changes in portion size and social condition on food intake were compared for overweight and normal-weight men. Subjects believed they were participating in a luncheon test of the acceptability of lasagna. In Study 1, under conditions designed to mimic social dining in a cafeteria, subjects were given either 255 or 426 g of lasagna. All subjects at a particular session received the same size portion and could ask for as many helpings as they wished. While overweight subjects ate more than normal-weight subjects, changes in portion size had no significant effects on intake. In Study 2, the effects of social vs. isolated dining were compared. Overweight subjects ate more than normal-weight subjects, and both overweight and normal-weight subjects eating socially ate more than subjects eating alone. In both studies there was a significant relationship between preference rating and intake for overweight subjects but not for normal-weight subjects. The results support the existence of differences in intake between overweight and normal-weight individuals and also indicate the potential importance of environmental factors in the intake of both groups.
Article
1. Gastric emptying has until now been regarded as exponential in form, but this pattern does not account for all phases of a meal.2. A pattern of emptying in which the square root of the volume of meal remaining declines linearly with time has been shown to account for the experimental results with less error.
Article
Schachter's externality hypothesis suggests that overweight individuals are more likely to be induced to eat by salient external cues than normal weight individuals. While a range of studies have demonstrated the plausibility of this hypothesis in the case of sensory stimuli (e.g., taste cues), there is little evidence that the hypothesis applies to social stimuli. The current study examines this latter proposition by exposing male and female, overweight and normal weight subjects to a same-sex or opposite-sex peer model. Under the guise of engaging in a taste experiment, the subjects were either exposed to a model who tasted no crackers (no eat), one cracker (low eat), or twenty crackers (high eat). In addition, control model-absent conditions were also run for purposes of establishing baseline eating rates. If the externality hypotheses were to prevail in social domains, one would expect overweight subjects to be more prone to model the cracker-eating behavior of the peer than normal weight individuals. However, the findings indicate that all subject groups regardless of weight evidence a rather clear modeling effect and all subjects evidence social inhibition effects on their eating behavior as well. Several intriguing interactions among subject sex, model sex, subject weight, and social condition were also found. The discussion explores the relevance of an externality model of overweight eating in social domains, and focuses upon the interesting and somewhat distinct pattern of socially mediated eating exhibited by overweight females.
Social facilitation of eating: Effects of instructions to eat alone or with others
  • Redd
Redd, E. M.; de Castro, J. M. Social facilitation of eating: Effects of instructions to eat alone or with others. Physiol. Behav. 52(4):749-754; 1992.
Psychology of group influence
  • R B Zajonc
  • N J Compresence Hilisdale
Zajonc, R. B. Compresence. In: Paulus, P. B., ed. Psychology of group influence. Hilisdale, N.J.: Erblaum Press; 1980:35-60.