Personality Disorder, Personality Traits, Impulsive Violence, and Completed Suicide in Adolescents
This study was designed to assess the association between personality disorders, personality traits, impulsive violence, and suicide.
Personality disorders and traits in 43 adolescent suicide victims and 43 community controls were assessed from the parents, using semistructured interviews and self-report forms.
Probable or definite personality disorders were more common in suicide victims than in controls, particularly Cluster B (impulsive-dramatic) and C type (avoidant-dependent) disorders. Suicide victims also showed greater scores on lifetime aggression, even after controlling for differences in psychopathology between suicides and controls.
Personality disorders and the tendency to engage in impulsive violence are critical risk factors for completed suicide.
Available from: Rebecca J Houston
- "Accordingly, the prevention of suicide in youth demands a focus on the understanding and prevention of SA. Prior suicidal behavior, depression, and externalizing psychopathology (e.g., impulsive aggression, alcohol and drug use disorders, conduct problems) confer risk for SA and suicide during adolescence (Brent, Johnson, Perper et al., 1994; Fergusson, Woodward, & Horwood, 2000; Gould, King, Greenwald et al., 1998; Shaffer, Gould, Fisher et al., 1996). It has been argued that models of suicidal behavior during youth must account for the potential transmission of such risk factors from parents to offspring (Brent & Mann, 2006). "
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ABSTRACT: Parents with psychopathology such as alcohol use disorder (AUD) that confers risk for suicide attempt (SA) may have children who are more likely to develop such psychopathology and to attempt suicide, suggesting that risk may be "transmitted" from parents to children. We examined this phenomenon during the transition from childhood to adolescence, when risk for SA increases dramatically. A cohort of 418 children were examined at average age 9.4 (range 7-14) years at enrollment (Time 1, childhood) and approximately five years later, prior to reaching age 18 (Time 2, adolescence). One or both biological parents, oversampled for AUD, were also interviewed. Structural equation models (SEM) examined father-child, mother-child, and either/both parent-child associations. The primary outcome was SA over follow-up among offspring, assessed at Time 2. As hypothesized, parental antisocial personality disorder predicted conduct disorder symptoms in offspring both during childhood and adolescence (parent-child model, father-child model) and maternal AUD predicted conduct disorder symptoms during childhood (mother-child model). However, we did not find evidence to support transmission of depression from parents to offspring either during childhood or adolescence, and parent psychopathology did not show statistically significant associations with SA during adolescence. In conclusion, we conducted a rare study of parent-to-child "transmission" of risk for SA that used a prospective research design, included diagnostic interviews with both parents and offspring, and examined the transition from childhood to adolescence, and the first such study in children of parents with AUD. Results provided mixed support for hypothesized parent-child associations.
Available from: Gregory M Zimmerman
- "In addition, a small body of research has established that violence and suicide are strongly correlated (Lubell and Vetter 2006). An empirical relationship has been demonstrated between aggressiveness and suicide (e.g., Plutchik 1995; see also Dumais et al. 2005; Lester 2000:325–32); severe dating violence and attempted suicide (Coker et al. 2000); attacking someone with a knife or shooting at someone and suicide potential (i.e., " I want to hurt/kill myself " ) (Flannery, Singer, and Wester 2001); fighting and attempted suicide (Swahn, Lubell, and Simon 2004); impulsive violence and completed suicide (Brent et al. 1994); and sexual violence and suicide risk (Borowsky et al. 1997). Research has also shown that the strength of the association between violence and suicide increases as suicidal behavior increases in severity from ideation to attempt and completion (e.g., Garrison et al. 1993). "
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ABSTRACT: Although interpersonal violence and suicide are two of the leading causes of death among young Americans, analyses focusing simultaneously on violence and suicide in sociological inquiry are sparse. Analyses also tend to be limited by their focus on either the individual-level predictors of suicidal behaviors or the aggregate-level predictors of suicide rates, despite the recognition that psychological and sociological forces contribute independently as well as interactively to facilitate suicide. To address these issues, I use data from the Project on Human Development in Chicago Neighborhoods (PHDCN) to examine the direct and moderating effects of individual- and neighborhood-level violence on attempted suicide. Estimates from hierarchical logistic regression models indicate that individual acts of violent aggression, but not neighborhood levels of violence, increase the likelihood of attempting suicide. Furthermore, the well-established relationship between depression and attempted suicide is conditioned by individual- and neighborhood-level violence, such that the effect of depression is (1) amplified for individuals living in neighborhoods characterized by violence and (2) attenuated for individuals engaging in violent behavior. Finally, the combined effect of neighborhood violence and individual violent aggression on the depression/suicide relationship is greater than the partial moderating effects of these variables.
Available from: William C Wetsel
- "Our present results provide evidence for the importance of 5-HT in regulating responses to early life stress and suggest that the combination of 5-HT deficiency and stress may contribute to impaired behavioural inhibition. These results may have important implications for our understanding of the biological basis for impulsivity-related disorders, such as aggression, drug abuse and suicidal behaviour, the last of which represents a significant and poorly understood problem that has been linked to early life stress (Fergusson et al., 2000), 5-HT deficiency (Shaw et al., 1967) and impulsive-aggressive behaviour (Brent et al., 1994). "
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ABSTRACT: Aberrant serotonin (5-HT) signalling and exposure to early life stress have both been suggested to play a role in anxiety- and impulsivity-related behaviours. However, whether congenital 5-HT deficiency × early life stress interactions influence the development of anxiety- or impulsivity-like behaviour has not been established. Here, we examined the effects of early life maternal separation (MS) stress on anxiety-like behaviour and behavioural disinhibition, a type of impulsivity-like behaviour, in wild-type (WT) and tryptophan hydroxylase 2 (Tph2) knock-in (Tph2KI) mice, which exhibit ∼60-80% reductions in the levels of brain 5-HT due to a R439H mutation in Tph2. We also investigated the effects of 5-HT deficiency and early life stress on adult hippocampal neurogenesis, plasma corticosterone levels and several signal transduction pathways in the amygdala. We demonstrate that MS slightly increases anxiety-like behaviour in WT mice and induces behavioural disinhibition in Tph2KI animals. We also demonstrate that MS leads to a slight decrease in cell proliferation within the hippocampus and potentiates corticosterone responses to acute stress, but these effects are not affected by brain 5-HT deficiency. However, we show that 5-HT deficiency leads to significant alterations in SGK-1 and GSK3β signalling and NMDA receptor expression in the amygdala in response to MS. Together, these findings support a potential role for 5-HT-dependent signalling in the amygdala in regulating the long-term effects of early life stress on anxiety-like behaviour and behavioural disinhibition.
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