Article

Functional anatomy of tendons and ligaments in the distal limbs (manus and pes). The Veterinary Clinics of North America

Service d'Anatomie--Clinique Equine, Ecole Nationale Veterinaire d'Alfort, Cecex, France.
Veterinary Clinics of North America Equine Practice (Impact Factor: 0.44). 09/1994; 10(2):273-322.
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT

Tendons and ligaments of the equine distal limbs have a prominent anatomic, functional, and clinical importance. This article reviews the descriptive and topographic anatomy of these structures in details. Special information is given about the mechanical properties and functional anatomy of the flexor tendons, accessory ligaments, and third interosseous muscle, as well as about their roles during the standing position and gaits.

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    • "The essential function of the TIOM is to support the metacarpophalangeal joint and protect it from hyperextension during the stance phase of the stride. The TIOM and flexor tendons play an important role in limiting the palmar bending of the third metacarpal bone when compressive forces act on the dorsal cortex of the bone (Wilson et al., 1991; Denoix, 1994; Dyson et al., 1995; Gibson and Steel, 2002). "
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    ABSTRACT: The third interosseous muscle (suspensory ligament, TIOM) is composed of connective tissue (CT) with a variable proportion of muscle (MT) and adipose tissue (AT). The aim of our study is to quantify the CT, MT and AT within the body and the branches of right thoracic and pelvic limbs TIOM in sound horses to determine whether there are differences in CT, MT and AT between age, sex, limbs and levels. Right limbs from 11 sound horses were collected. Samples from 6 levels of the TIOM were embedded in paraffin or in Tissue-Tek® . Most of the paraffin sections were shredded. Using the cryosection, some artefacts appeared. Cryoprotection was carried out, which produced the best results. Hematoxylin-phloxine-saffron and Hematoxylin-eosin gave a good contrast of colours between the tissues observed allowing the use of an image analysis programme to calculate percentage of each tissue within the TIOM. The percentage of MT and AT decreased significantly (P < 0.0001), whereas the percentage of CT increased significantly (P < 0.0001) with age and when descending from the proximal to the distal level of the TIOM. The percentage of MT was significantly higher (P < 0.0001) in females than males, while the percentage of CT was significantly higher (P < 0.0001) in males than females. The percentage of AT was significantly higher (P = 0.0278) in pelvic limbs than in thoracic limbs. These results confirm the variation in tissue composition within the TIOM of sound horses.
    No preview · Article · Mar 2013 · Anantomia Histologia Embryologia
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    • "Este mismo trastorno en los miembros posteriores puede representar un 20% de los caballos afectados (Dyson 2004). El daño preferencial de un tendón o un ligamento dependerá en gran medida de la carga funcional de estas estructuras en diferentes pasos o aires y en asociación con diferentes demandas locomotoras (Denoix 1994). Las fuerzas impuestas sobre los tendones y ligamentos son modificadas por el tipo de actividad, gradientes del terreno, superficie, tipo de herraje aplicado al casco y la conformación del caballo (Goodship y col 1994, Anderson y col 2004). "
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    ABSTRACT: Las lesiones de tendones y ligamentos son frecuentes en caballos. Las estructuras más afectadas son el tendón digital flexor superficial (SDFT) y el ligamento suspensor (LS). La forma clínica de estas patologías generalmente es crónica y de naturaleza degenerativa. Los tratamientos comúnmente empleados no producen curación definitiva del problema. Una gran mayoría de pacientes recaen o no vuelven a recuperar su capacidad atlética inicial. El avance del conocimiento molecular de la fisiopatología de las tendinopatías y desmopatías del hombre, caballo y otros animales ha permitido evidenciar la presencia de citocinas catabólicas, las cuales posiblemente sean responsables del trastorno general observado en estas patologías. El objetivo actual del tratamiento de estos problemas es la regeneración y no la reparación (cicatriz) del tejido lesionado. En el caballo se han descrito tratamientos experimentales y clínicos novedosos. Estos tratamientos incluyen la inyección de aspirados de médula ósea, células madre mesenquimales, factores de crecimiento recombinantes como el factor de crecimiento insulínico tipo I y plasma rico en plaquetas (también llamado concentrado autólogo de plaquetas), entre otros. Los resultados observados han sido prometedores cuando estas novedosas terapias han sido empleadas. Sin embargo, al igual que lo que sucede con otros tratamientos, es necesario realizar más investigaciones para demostrar que su uso clínico puede ser efectivo y seguro en caballos.
    Full-text · Article · Dec 2010 · Archivos de Medicina Veterinaria
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    • "The distal sesamoidean impar ligament (DSIL) originates via Sharpey's fibres on the distal palmar aspect of the navicular bone and inserts on the palmar aspect of the solar surface of the distal phalanx. It functions as part of the podotrochlear apparatus to stabilise the distal interphalangeal (DIP) joint in the late stance phase of the stride (Denoix 1994). Ageing changes in the DSIL have been described, characterised by change in fibroblast shape and increased proteoglycan content (Bowker et al. 2001). "
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    ABSTRACT: There is limited knowledge about the interpretation of alterations in the distal sesamoidean impar ligament (DSIL) detected using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and their correlation with histopathology. There would be: 1) a correlation between histopathology and MRI findings; and 2) a relationship between MR abnormalities at the origin and the insertion of the DSIL, between insertion and body; and origin and body. Fifty limbs from 28 horses were examined using high-field MRI and histopathology. MR abnormalities of the DSIL, its origin on the navicular bone and its insertion on the distal phalanx were graded. Sections of the axial third of the DSIL were examined histologically and graded according to fibre orientation, integrity of fibroblasts, collagen architecture and vascularity. Associations between MRI and histology findings were tested by Spearman rank correlation and Chi-squared tests. There were significant correlations between the presence of a cystic structure in the distal third of the navicular bone, or a distal border fragment, or increased signal intensity in fat suppressed images at the insertion of the DSIL on the distal phalanx and the histological grade of the body of the DSIL. There were significant associations between a cystic structure in the distal third of the navicular bone and the presence of either a distal border fragment or entheseous new bone at the insertion of the DSIL, swelling of the DSIL and increased signal intensity in the DSIL in fat suppressed images; between distal elongation of the flexor border of the navicular bone and the presence of one or more distal border fragments and between swelling of the body of the DSIL and irregularity of its palmar border or increased signal intensity in fat suppressed images in the DSIL. The presence of a cystic structure in the distal third of the navicular bone detected using MRI, a distal border fragment or increased signal intensity at the insertion of the DSIL are suggestive of significant alterations in the infrastructure of the DSIL.
    Full-text · Article · May 2010 · Equine Veterinary Journal
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