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Effect of Level and Source of Dietary Fiber on Food Intake in the Dog

Authors:
  • WALTHAM Petcare Science Institute

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The effects of dietary fiber on challenge meal intake and on the perception of hunger in dogs were evaluated. A program of testing variants of a standard low energy diet, to which one of five fiber containing raw materials was added, was undertaken. Diets were fed to a group of six dogs for 12-d periods in a latin square design and in amounts that corresponded to the food allowance for weight reduction. Behavioral characteristics of dogs were recorded on videotape for 30-min periods after introduction of test diets. On two occasions during each 12-d feeding period dogs were presented with a challenge meal. At the end of each 12-d feeding period all dogs entered a 6-d washout period. There was no significant effect of diet on the intake of the challenge meal or on intake of food during the subsequent washout period. In addition, diet had no apparent effect on the perception of hunger, as represented by behavioral characteristics during the 30-min period after presentation of test diets. It was concluded that inclusion of moderate levels of raw materials, composed primarily of insoluble fiber, in a commercial low energy diet had no apparent beneficial effects on satiety, when fed to dogs on an energy intake corresponding to allowances for weight reduction.
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... Such therapeutic dog foods generally include proportional increases in protein, vitamins, and minerals relative to energy to allow energy restriction without nutrient deficiencies while minimizing muscle loss. 2 They may also include increased fiber, which has been reported in some studies to be effective at promoting weight loss in pet dogs, 4,5 although other studies have failed to show a benefit of increased fiber. 6,7 Here, we performed a randomized, blinded, prospective 24-week study to compare weight loss by pet dogs in the home setting using two therapeutic foods. The first food was designed to be a relatively caloriedense food with high protein and high fat (HP/HF), similar to the Atkins approach, which has been effective for weight loss in humans. ...
... Butterwick et al reported that inclusion of different amounts and types of dietary fiber does not affect energy intake in dogs. 6,7 In contrast, Jewell and colleagues found that increasing fiber reduces voluntary energy intake (ie, increases satiety) and adiposity but not total grams of intake in beagle dogs. 4,14 Also, Weber et al reported lower voluntary food intake with a high-fiber/high-protein food than a moderate-fiber/high-protein or a high-fiber/ moderate-protein food, 15 and Bosch et al recently reported that fermentable fiber appears to improve satiety in dogs. ...
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Little is known about the relative effectiveness of different weight loss foods for pet dogs in the home setting. Here, we performed a randomized, blinded, 24-week prospective study in 73 client-owned adult dogs to compare weight loss in the home setting using an energy-dense high-protein/high-fat food (HP/HF) or a lower density high-fiber food (HFIB). Investigators recommended amounts of food according to the resting energy requirement for the dog's ideal body weight and a target of 2% weight loss per week. Every 4 weeks, investigators measured body weight, and every week, owners recorded the amount of food dispensed and whether their dog consumed all that was offered. In dogs completing the study according to protocol, those fed HFIB (n=32) lost more weight (P=0.009) than those fed HP/HF (n=30). Sex, clinic, initial weight, amount of energy offered by owners, and frequency of eating all the food offered were not significant factors. According to owners' records, there was no difference in the amount of energy offered to the two groups or in the frequency of supplementary energy intake, frequency of vomiting, or stool quality. In summary, in the home setting, a high-fiber food is more effective than a high-protein/high-fat food for weight loss in obese pet dogs.
... The addition of predominantly insoluble fiber sources results in reduced caloric consumption, weight loss, and more rapid satiation in some studies, whereas others have shown no effect in dogs. 27,[56][57][58][59][60][61] Studies in cats have shown a similar ability to decrease caloric density of diets and decrease voluntary intake. 62,63 Importantly, many of these trials examine multiple variables, including varying macronutrient profiles and concurrent caloric restrictions, making definitive conclusions about fiber effects difficult. ...
Article
Dietary fiber describes a diverse assortment of nondigestible carbohydrates that play a vital role in the health of animals and maintenance of gastrointestinal tract homeostasis. The main roles dietary fiber play in the gastrointestinal tract include physically altering the digesta, modulating appetite and satiety, regulating digestion, and acting as a microbial energy source through fermentation. These functions can have widespread systemic effects. Fiber is a vital component of nearly all commercial canine and feline diets. Key features of fiber types, such as fermentability, solubility, and viscosity, have been shown to have clinical implications as well as health benefits in dogs and cats. Practitioners should know how to evaluate a diet for fiber content and the current knowledge on fiber supplementation as it relates to common enteropathies including acute diarrhea, chronic diarrhea, constipation, and hairball management. Understanding the fundamentals of dietary fiber allows the practicing clinician to use fiber optimally as a management modality.
... Increased fibre intake is a common nutritional intervention used for weight management in dogs with an expansive amount of supporting literature; fibre has been found to improve body condition through multiple mechanisms (Baer et al., 1997;Butterwick et al., 1994;Silvio et al., 2000). While a previous review concluded that the results on fibre as an isolated strategy to promote weight loss appear mixed (Roudebush et al., 2008), this is likely due to differences of the design among studies. ...
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Dogs possess the ability to obtain essential nutrients, established by the Association of American Feed Control Officials (AAFCO), from both animal- and plant-based ingredients. There has been a recent increase in the popularity of diets that limit or completely exclude certain plant-based ingredients. Examples of these diets include ‘ancestral’ or ‘evolutionary’ diets, raw meat-based diets and grain-free diets. As compared to animal sources, plant-derived ingredients (including vegetables, fruits, grains, legumes, nuts and seeds) provide many non-essential phytonutrients with some data suggesting they confer health benefits. This review aims to assess the strength of current evidence on the relationship between the consumption of plant-based foods and phytonutrients (such as plant-derived carotenoids, polyphenols and phytosterols) and biomarkers of health and diseases (such as body weight/condition, gastrointestinal health, immune health, cardiovascular health, visual function and cognitive function) from clinical trials and epidemiological studies. This review highlights the potential nutritional and health benefits of including plant-based ingredients as a part of balanced canine diets. We also highlight current research gaps in existing studies and provide future research directions to inform the impact of incorporating plant-based ingredients in commercial or home-prepared diets.
... Pulses like lentils, peas, chickpeas, field beans, and cowpeas are rich in protein and other nutrients and are part of the human diet world over. Pulse ingredients have been used in the pet food industry for over four decades and represent a valuable source of protein to complement animal-based ingredients (Butterwick et al., 1994). When used to complement the nutritional profile of other ingredients, pulses can be used as nutrient-rich vehicles to meet the nutritional requirements of dogs and other companion animals (Mansilla et al., 2019). ...
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As part of the efforts to look for new feed resources, an experiment was conducted to ascertain the effects of replacing part of the soybean meal protein with red gram and lentil on the nutritional profile of dogs as influenced by the frequency of feeding. Fifteen adult Spitz dogs were divided into three equal groups and fed three diets containing soybean meal (SBM) alone or in combination with red gram (RGM) and lentil (LTL) as the protein sources. The entire study duration of 10 weeks was divided into two equal periods wherein the dogs were fed either twice or once daily. Results indicated that the food intake was similar (P > 0.05) among the three groups, irrespective of the frequency of feeding. The digestibility of dry matter, organic matter, and carbohydrates were higher (P < 0.05) in the LTL group when the dogs were fed twice daily. However, the digestibility of nutrients remained similar (P > 0.05) when the dogs were fed once daily except for crude fiber digestibility, which was found higher (P < 0.05) in the LTL group. The fecal quality data indicated a lower (P < 0.05) pH accompanying higher water content in dogs under the RGM group. The blood metab-olites measured at three different periods during the study did not vary (P > 0.05) among the dietary groups. It is concluded that both red gram and lentil could effectively replace a part (50%) of the soybean meal protein without any adverse effects on the nutrient utilization and metabolic profile of dogs. Moreover, based on the results, lentil appears to have the edge over red gram as a potential vegetable protein source when used in the diet of dogs. K E Y W O R D S blood metabolites, digestibility, dog, fecal quality, lentil, red gram, soybean meal
... Compared with the amino acid (AA) composition of protein from grain ingredients, such as corn gluten meal, which is high in methionine and cysteine and deficient in lysine, pulse ingredients are typically low in methionine and cysteine and high in lysine (NRC, 2006). Pulse ingredients have been used in pet foods for more than 25 yr (Butterwick et al., 1994) but likely at much lower inclusion rates than they are currently estimated to be at (some greater than 40%) in grain-free diets (Mansilla et al., 2019). ...
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Grain based ingredients are replaced in part by pulse ingredients in grain-free pet foods. Pulse ingredients are lower in methionine and cysteine, amino acid (AA) precursors to taurine synthesis in dogs. While recent work has investigated plasma and whole blood taurine concentrations when feeding grain-free diets, supplementation of a grain-free diet with various nutrients involved in the biosynthesis of taurine has not been evaluated. This study aimed to investigate the effects of supplementing a complete grain-free dry dog food with either methionine (MET), taurine (TAU), or methyl donors (choline) and methyl receivers (creatine and carnitine; CCC) on postprandial AA concentrations. Eight healthy Beagle dogs were fed 1 of 3 treatments or the control grain-free diet (CON) for 7 d in a 4 × 4 Latin square design. On d7, cephalic catheters were placed and one fasted sample (0 min) and a series of 9 post-meal blood samples were collected at 15, 30, 60, 90, 120, 180, 240, 300 and 360 min. Data were analyzed as repeated measures using the PROC GLIMMIX function in SAS (Version 9.4). Dogs fed MET had greater plasma and whole blood methionine concentrations from 30 - 360 min after a meal (P < 0.0001) and greater plasma homocysteine concentrations from 60 - 360 min after a meal (P < 0.0001) compared to dogs fed CON, TAU and CCC. Dogs fed TAU had greater plasma taurine concentrations over time compared to dogs fed CON (P = 0.02), but were not different than dogs fed MET and CCC (P > 0.05). In addition, most AA remained significantly elevated at 6 h post-meal compared to fasted samples across all treatments. Supplementation of creatine, carnitine and choline in grain-free diets may play a role in sparing the methionine requirement without increasing homocysteine concentrations. Supplementing these nutrients could also aid in the treatment of disease that causes metabolic or oxidative stress, including cardiac disease in dogs, but future research is required.
... Beans, Digestibility, Glucose Tolerance, and Antinutritional Factors Fava beans are pulses, a subset of legumes. Other legumes such as peas have been increasingly included in dog diets as a protein and fiber source (48,49). Pulse ingredients have been controversially associated with grain-free diets and the occurrence of DCM in dogs (13). ...
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Fava bean, which is available in high and low-tannin varieties, is not an approved pet food ingredient and was not included in the ‘assumed to be safe’ category based on its ability to cause favism and hemolytic anemia in susceptible humans. The effects of 7-day feeding of test canine diets containing moderate protein (~27%) were compared to two control commercial diets with normal (NP, grain-containing, ~25% protein) or high protein (HP, grain-free, ~41% protein). Fava bean diets were formulated either with or without Candida. utilis fermentation processing to reduce antinutritional factors. Glucose tolerance, body weight, cardiovascular function, and blood parameters were investigated in beagles fed the NP or HP diets or a randomized, crossover, 2 × 2 Latin square design of the fava bean diets: unfermented high-tannin (UF-HT), fermented high-tannin (FM-HT), unfermented low-tannin (UF-LT) and fermented low-tannin (FM-LT). After 7 days, HP decreased red blood cells (RBC) (P < 0.05) compared to NP, while FM increased RBC compared to UF. HP increased blood bicarbonate, calcium, phosphorus, urea, cholesterol, and albumin:globulin ratio, while decreasing bilirubin, liver enzymes and total protein. Sodium:potassium ratio was increased in UF-HT, decreased in FM-HT, and intermediate in LT regardless of fermentation. Blood phosphorus was increased in HT. Blood amylase was increased in FM-HT, decreased in FM-LT, being intermediate in UF regardless of fava bean variety. Blood direct bilirubin was decreased in HT regardless of fermentation. Of note, left ventricular end-systolic volume and cardiac output were increased in NP compared to HP-fed dogs, but were normal and had no significant differences among the fava bean diets. As expected, plasma taurine, cystine, and cysteine levels were increased in HP- compared to NP-fed dogs. Plasma cysteine levels were increased in HT- compared to LT-fed dogs and in FM- compared to UF-fed dogs. Taken together, these results show that fava bean appears to be safe as a dog food ingredient at least in the short term, and its nutritional value appears improved by fermentation. Moreover, blood chemistry parameters and cardiovascular function were impacted by protein content which merits further investigation with longer term feeding trials.
... Cães com 15% ou mais do seu peso corporal ideal constituído por tecido adiposo são considerados obesos (GOSSELIN et al., 2007). Fatores como idade, gênero, status gonadal e raça são importantes influenciadores para o desenvolvimento do sobrepeso e obesidade nessa espécie (CARCIOFI et al., 2005;GERMAN, 2006;DIEZ;NGUYEN, 2006), bem como o comportamento dos tutores, que insistem na oferta de petiscos e a não prática de exercícios físicos (MARKWELL; BUTTERWICK, 1994). ...
... Pulses are a subset of legumes, harvested as a dry crop, with low concentrations of lipid. They include peas, lentils, chickpeas, and dry beans (Marinangeli et al. 2017) which have been used as ingredients in dog food for their protein and fiber for more than 2 decades (Butterwick et al., 1994;Rice and Ihle, 1994). As a source of protein, the amino acid (AA) profile in peas, lentils, chickpeas, and beans are generally high in lysine and low in methionine (NRC, 2006) and serve as a complementary protein to both animal and plant-derived ingredients. ...
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In July 2018, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) warned about a possible relationship between dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) in dogs and the consumption of dog food formulated with potatoes and pulse ingredients. This issue may impede utilization of pulse ingredients in dog food or consideration of alternative proteins. Pulse ingredients have been used in the pet food industry for over 2 decades and represent a valuable source of protein to compliment animal-based ingredients. Moreover, individual ingredients used in commercial foods do not represent the final nutrient concentration of the complete diet. Thus, nutritionists formulating dog food must balance complementary ingredients to fulfill the animal’s nutrient needs in the final diet. There are multiple factors that should be considered, including differences in nutrient digestibility and overall bioavailability, the fermentability and quantity of fiber, and interactions among food constituents that can increase the risk of DCM development. Taurine is a dispensable amino acid that has been linked to DCM in dogs. As such, adequate supply of taurine and/or precursors for taurine synthesis play an important role in preventing DCM. However, requirements of amino acids in dogs are not well investigated and are presented in total dietary content basis which does not account for bioavailability or digestibility. Similarly, any nutrient (e.g. soluble and fermentable fiber) or physiological condition (e.g. size of the dog, sex, age) that increases the requirement for taurine will also augment the possibility for DCM development. Dog food formulators should have a deep knowledge of processing methodologies and nutrient interactions beyond meeting AAFCO nutrient profiles and should not carelessly follow unsubstantiated market trends. Vegetable ingredients, including pulses, are nutritious and can be used in combination with complementary ingredients to meet the nutritional needs of the dog.
... Different high-fiber foods were fed in restricted amounts corresponding to the energy allowance recommended for weight reduction (4,9,10) or for body weight maintenance (11). Challenge meals were offered for 15 or 20 minutes at three or six hours after introduction of the high-fiber food. ...
Research
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Dog foods bearing satiety claims Free-choice feeding is effortless for dog owners, but it exposes their pets to risk for becoming overweight. Dog foods carrying satiety claims purport to promote prevention of overweight, increase the feeling of fullness and satisfy fussy appetites. Satiety is the state that inhibits further eating resulting from the signals elicited by food ingestion. The satiating power of canine satiety foods is generally accredited to their high contents of fibers. These fibers represent various indigestible plant constituents and are poor in available calories. More fiber dilutes the caloric content of food. In other words, extra food volume can be supplied for a fixed number of calories. Satiety claims are made by light foods and veterinary weight-reduction diets. Dogs fed on satiety foods would be satiated after consuming fewer calories than when they are given regular foods. For weight-reduction diets, which are typically fed in restricted quantities, the satiety claim of controlling hunger between meals is enticing. Less hunger may diminish begging and scavenging activity. Research data question some of the satiety claims. Time-limited feeding of high-fiber in place of low-fiber foods increases food consumption, but nevertheless reduces calorie intake through distastefulness of high-fiber food rather than by satiety. Offering a calorie-restricted amount of high-fiber food for weight reduction does not suppress hunger between meals. The positive research message is that putting out high-fiber food once daily and taking it away after 45 minutes will curb canine obesity development or induce some weight loss. Crude fiber For petfood labeling, fiber is quantified by the analysis of crude fiber. This analyte contains variable proportions of dietary cellulose, hemicelluloses and lignin, and may exclude other fibers. Regular dry dog foods have 2-4% crude fiber. Dry light foods contain 6-12% and veterinary weight-reduction diets up to 22%. When comparing commercial foods, the impact of a high versus low crude fiber content in itself cannot be interpreted. This relates to the analytical method and the fact that incorporating more fiber into food not only replaces carbohydrates, proteins and/or fats, but also impairs their digestion. Time-limited wet feeding A 1949 paper deals with feeding dogs on a high-fiber, wet diet (1). Excess amounts of food were administered for 45 minutes per day. The dogs had stabilized food intake and body weight on a commercial wet food and were then were switched to a diet consisting of the commercial food mixed with cellulose and water. Moisture content remained unchanged at 70% and cellulose
... However, total daily calorie intake was lower for dogs fed the high fiber diet when compared to dogs on the low fiber diet (65.3 vs 79.4 kcal/kg BW/d, respectively). Conversely, Butterwick et al. (1994) did not detect any beneficial effects on food intake by dogs by including soluble or insoluble fiber in diets, as all dogs had similar energy intakes. A study by Jewell et al. (2000) determined that dogs fed high fiber food (19.4% crude fiber, as-fed basis) decreased energy consumption by 27% (implying satiety) and lost more than five times the fat mass as dogs fed low fiber (1.7%, as-fed basis) food. ...
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A method is described that allows rapid estimation of total, soluble, and insoluble dietary fiber as the non-starch polysaccharides (NSP) in plant foods. It is a modification of an earlier, more complex procedure. Starch is completely removed enzymatically, and NSP is measured as the sum of its constituent sugars released by acid hydrolysis. The sugars may, in turn, be measured by gas chromatography (GC), giving values for individual monosaccharides, or more rapidly by colorimetry. Both GC and colorimetry are suitable for routine measurement of total, soluble, and insoluble dietary fiber in cereals, fruits, and vegetables. Values obtained are not affected by food processing so the dietary fiber content of various processed foods and mixed diets can be calculated simply from knowing the amount in the raw materials. The additional information obtained by GC analysis is valuable in the interpretation of physiological studies and in epidemiology where disease is related to type and amount of dietary fiber.
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Summary Ten adult female pointers were used in metabolism trials conducted to evaluate the efficacy of substituting portions of a corn- soybean meal basal diet with 20% tallow, 20% lard or 30% meat and bone meal, and to com- pare cooked and uncooked high energy feed- stuffs (rice, oats and corn). Three metabolism trials were performed in which the corn-soy basal served as the control and the fats and meat and bone meal as the experimental treatments. Three additional metabolism trials compared the utilization of cooked and un- cooked rice, oats and corn. Feed and feces were anlayzed for dry matter content, and digest- ibilities of starch and cellulose were subsequently determined. Fecal moisture and nitrogen balance data were also collected. In all trials, dry matter digestibility was found to be un- affected by treatment. The starch present in all diets was highly digestible. Cooking of oats significantly improved starch digestibility of
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Individuals embarking on a weight reducing program often experience fatigue, headaches, and feelings of hunger. The first symptoms accompany the ketotic state and can be overcome by increasing the carbohydrate intake. This can be achieved by ingesting bread. The addition ofcellulose to the bread appears to provide added satiety and to diminish hunger reactions. While bread does not cause weight loss it does assist one who tries to lose weight and permits the dieter to exercise freedom in selecting foods. The feeling of fullness created by eating bread and intensified with bread containing cellulose helps a dieter control food intake. At the same time, only by restricting high calorie food intake can there be any substantial weight loss. A bread diet can readily be used by members of families as it requires no exotic or strange food inclusions and it assists the dieter in the transition from the weight loss program to a weight maintenance pattern once the desired weight has been achieved. Overweight college-age men who followed this program lost an average of 8.77 kg in 8 weeks while eating reduced calorie high fiber bread whereas those consuming ordinary enriched white bread lost 6.26 kg in the same period. All the subjects were fed a nutritious variety of foods in addition to either 12 slices of reduced calorie high fiber bread which provided 25.5 g crude fiber per day or 12 slices of enriched white bread which contained 1.02 g crude fiber per day. The precise role of bread consumed can only be surmised. Bread itself is not high in calories. It can be reasoned that it curbs hunger pangs enabling the dieter to resist foods that otherwise would cause excessive caloric intake. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 32: 1703-1709, 1979.
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The objectives of this study were to examine widely divergent fiber sources for their efficacy as ingredients in a meat-based dog diet and to determine the effects of these fibers on fecal excretion responses and mean retention time of marked fiber in the gastrointestinal tract of the dog. Fiber sources tested included beet pulp (BP), tomato pomace (TP), peanut hulls (PH), wheat bran (WB) and alkaline hydrogen peroxide-treated wheat straw (AHPWS). Diets were isonitrogenous (5.3% N) and iso-total dietary fiber (TDF; 12.5%). Thirty female English Pointers (five/treatment) were used in the experiment. Intakes of DM and OM were similar among treatments. The highest intakes of ether extract (EE) occurred on the TP, PH and WB treatments. Dogs fed PH ingested the most crude fiber (23.6 g/d), NDF (53.5 g/d), ADF (34.3 g/d) and TDF (59.7 g/d). Digestibilities of DM and OM for all fiber treatments were lower than the control (87.6 vs 81.8% for DM; 90.2 vs 85.4% for OM), but values were similar among fiber sources. The highest EE and N digestibilities occurred on the control and AHPWS treatments. No differences were noted among exogenous fiber-containing treatments in fiber component digestibility. Digestible energy and ME values generally were similar among treatments. Among fiber sources, BP resulted in the greatest amount of wet feces excreted (270 g/d) and the lowest fecal DM (30.3%). No differences among fiber sources were noted in frequency of defecation or mean retention time. Iso-TDF diets (containing, on average, 12.5% TDF) appear to be utilized similarly, regardless of the diversity in sources of fiber tested.
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Energy intake, fecal energy output, and gastrointestinal symptoms were measured in 12 females who consumed either approximately 23 g/d supplementary fiber or a 4 g/d fiber control. Fiber supplements were crackers containing psyllium gum, wheat bran, or a combination of the two fiber sources. After 1 wk on the control cracker, subjects consumed the three high-fiber crackers and the control cracker for 2-wk periods in a balanced design. Gum and combination supplements gave increased bloating and flatulence. Increase in abdominal pain was reported with gum supplement. Mean daily fecal energy was 96 kcal/d with control crackers and was increased by 63 kcal with high-fiber crackers. Gum and combination supplements significantly decreased intake of digestible energy by 153 and 115 kcal/d, respectively. This suppression was not dependent upon fiber intolerance. Wheat bran supplement had no effect on energy intake.
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This paper sets out to provide a review of the effect of fibre upon the motivation to eat and ultimately upon the amount of energy consumed. In addition the authors suggest various ways in which the analysis and understanding of the effects of fibre may be extended by embracing different types of experimental design and varying the assessment procedures. In the course of this work it became obvious that some important pieces of information had yet to be demonstrated. In particular it seems necessary for studies to measure the actual amounts of energy ingested in addition to tapping motivational indices. Moreover, the evaluation of the motivation to eat could become more sensitive and more comprehensive. Evidence suggests that fibre does exert effects on the short-term control of food consumption. The action appears to be expressed both within and between meals. Both of these effects may be clinically relevant. It has yet to be determined the extent to which these effects are influenced by the mode of administration of the fibre, the type of fibre and the amount.
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Twenty normal weight female volunteers divided into high and low restraint groups consumed breakfast meals of high and low-fibre content (12.0 g and 3.0 g fibre respectively) on two separate occasions. Visual analogue scales were used to record hunger, fullness, desire to eat, and a measure of prospective consumption for 21/2 hours after each meal. At this point, a tray of pre-weighed lunch foods was offered and subjects were requested to eat as much or as little as they desired. The two breakfast meals (of equal weight) were based on toast, breakfast cereal, milk, butter and orange marmalade. No significant difference in energy intake at lunch was found after the high and low fibre breakfasts, or between the restraint groups. There was no significant difference between ratings after the high and low-fibre meals except for fullness, which was greater after the high-fibre breakfast. The effect of fibre overall, was relatively weak compared to the differences between the two restraint groups, with the high restraint group consistently expressing significantly less hunger before, during and after the breakfasts compared to the low restraint group.