DSM-III personality disorders in the community

ArticleinAmerican Journal of Psychiatry 151(7):1055-62 · August 1994with3 Reads
DOI: 10.1176/ajp.151.7.1055 · Source: PubMed
The aims of this study were to estimate the prevalence and investigate the comorbidity and potential consequences of DSM-III personality disorders in the community. A total of 810 adults were examined in the second stage of the Eastern Baltimore Mental Health Survey in 1981, part of the National Institute of Mental Health Epidemiologic Catchment Area program. The subjects were directly examined by psychiatrists using a semi-structured method that allowed diagnosis of all DSM-III personality disorders as well as other DSM-III psychiatric disorders. The prevalence of personality disorders in these adults was 5.9% (9.3% when provisional cases were included). Men had higher rates than women, and subjects who were separated or divorced had the highest rates. There was little comorbidity among specific personality disorders. Subjects with personality disorders were significantly more likely to have a history of sexual dysfunctions, alcohol use disorders, and drug use disorders as well as suicidal thoughts and attempts. In addition, they reported significantly more life events in the past year. Among subjects with any axis I disorder, those with personality disorders were judged by the psychiatrists to be more in need of treatment; however, only 21% were receiving treatment. Personality disorders are relatively common in the community. They are associated with axis I disorders and life events. Only one-fifth of the individuals who qualify for diagnoses of personality disorders in the community are receiving treatment.
    • "Although there is considerable variation across different prevalence studies, part of which can be attributed to methodological differences, the evidence is consistent with this prediction (Sansone & Sansone, 2011). In particular, one of the first studies which attempted to examine the prevalence of personality disorders in the USA, found that the obsessive–compulsive disorder is the most prevalent one in the population (14.9%) and that the antisocial personality disorder is among the least prevalent disorders (0.4%) (Samuels, Nestadt, Romanoski, Folstein, & McHugh, 1989). One of the most recent prevalence studies in the USA found also that the obsessive–compulsive disorder is the most prevalent (7.9%) and that the antisocial personality disorder is among the least prevalent ones (3.6%) (Sansone & Sansone, 2011). "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Personality traits such as low emotional stability and low empathy have a considerable negative impact on an individual's mating success. This impact is more severe in cases where such traits reach extreme levels and are classified as personality disorders. Several evolutionary models have been proposed to account for the relative high prevalence of these apparently maladaptive traits. The present paper contributes to the explanatory power of these models by putting forward the hypothesis that in ancestral human societies selection pressures on personality traits that predict success in intimate relationships had been weak. The reason why is that mate choice had been controlled by parents, mainly fathers, who did not place considerable weight on these traits in a prospective son- and daughter-in-law, and who were willing to impose substantial costs on their children in order to benefit themselves from a marriage alliance.
    Full-text · Article · May 2016
    • "ormance (King, 2000), domestic violence[2] (Berger-Jackson, 2003), child molestation and sexual offense (Bogaerts, et. al., 2008; Dudeck, et. al., 2007), incarceration (Lindsay, et. al., 2006; Narisco, 2007), poor work habits and performance (Furnham, 2007; Kyrios, et. al. 2007; Lynch & Horton, 2004), and pathological gambling (Bagby, et. al. 2008; Samuels, et. al., 1994). People diagnosed with one personality disorder often suffer from other personality disorders. In one study the majority of patients meeting criteria for a diagnosis of a personality disorders also were diagnosed with an additional personality disorder. The most prevalent personality disorders for the first diagnosis were avoidant, bor"
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Personality disorders are the most common serious mental illness. People suffering from these disorders tend to exhibit emotional patterns and behaviors that seem troubling to the majority of people and are not necessarily explicable by immediate environmental stimuli. Nevertheless, many clinicians are unfamiliar with the most recent research on these disorders and the latest approaches to treatment. This study will review the current diagnostic conceptualization of personality disorders, their clinical treatment, and their relationship to cultural characteristics and culture-specific disorders.
    Full-text · Article · Apr 2016 · Personality Disorders: Theory, Research, and Treatment
    • "The reanalyzed data provided the first dimensional ratings of DSM–III PDs, which described associated sociodemographic correlates. Limitations included that during the development of the study methodology, there were no validated diagnostic instruments for DSM–III for research settings, the inclusion of which might have improved the quality of the study design (Lee et al., 2010; Samuels et al., 1994; Samuels et al., 2002). Given the low prevalence of Cluster A PDs detected, it is also possible that selection biases might have affected how well samples from these studies represented the underlying population. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Personality disorder (PD), outcomes of diverse comorbid physical health conditions, and the associated burden on health service resources have seldom been studied at a population level. Consequently, there is limited evidence that might inform a public health approach to managing PD and associated mental and physical disability. A review was conducted of population-based studies examining the prevalence of PD and associations between physical comorbidities and service utilization. The prevalence of any PDs were common (4.4% -21.5%) among populations spanning England, Wales, Scotland, Western Europe, Norway, Australia, and the United States. Preliminary evidence supports associations between PDs from Clusters A and B and physical comorbidities, namely cardiovascular diseases and arthritis. PD appears to increase health care utilization, particularly in primary care. In order to facilitate rational population health planning, further population studies are required. (PsycINFO Database Record
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