The microvascular changes in cases of hereditary multi-infarct disease of the brain
A report on a cerebro-vascular disease with autosomal dominant inheritance, characterised by stroke-like episodes beginning in early adulthood and progressive dementia, afflicting one family living in Sweden was presented in 1977. Another afflicted member showing gait and coordination disturbances and impaired cognitive functions is now introduced. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed multiple brain lesions indicating ischaemic injuries. Previous autopsy studies of other cases revealed white matter atrophy, multiple infarcts and lacunes. In one patient who had died from a cerebral haemorrhage, obliteration of intracerebral arteries, occasionally with organised thrombi was present. Autopsy material has now been reinvestigated with special attention to changes of intracerebral arterioles. Cases with long duration of the disease presented pronounced fibrous thickening of the wall of numerous intracerebral arterioles, degeneration of smooth muscle cells of the media and obliteration of the lumen. Immunohistochemistry showed marked expression of fibrillary collagen types I, III and V and of the basal lamina components collagen type IV and laminin. These depositions are probably induced by some primary dysfunction of smooth muscle cells or endothelial cells. Perivascular reactive astrocytes with endothelin-1-like immunoreactivity were present in some brain regions. Endothelin-1 is the most powerful vasoconstrictor peptide known to date. Structural remodelling of intracerebral arterial vessels, actions of different vasoactive factors and rheological disturbances may all interfere with local blood flow in this disease and cause the parenchymal changes of the brain.
[Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This study was designed to investigate the effect of long-term electroacupuncture at Baihui (DU20) and Zusanli (ST36) on cerebral microvessels and neurons in CA1 region of hippocampus in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR). A total of 45 male Wistar rats and 45 SHR were randomly grouped, with or without electroacupuncture (EA) at DU20 and ST36, once every other day for a period of 8 weeks. The mean arterial pressure (MAP) was measured once every 2 weeks. Cerebral blood flow (CBF) and the number of open microvessels in hippocampal CA1 region were detected by Laser Doppler and immunohistochemistry, respectively. Nissl staining and Western blotting were performed, respectively, to determine hippocampus morphology and proteins that were implicated in the concerning signaling pathways. The results showed that the MAP in SHR increased linearly over the observation period and was significantly reduced following electroacupuncture as compared with sham control SHR rats, while no difference was observed in Wistar rats between EA and sham control. The CBF, learning and memory capacity, and capillary rarefaction of SHR were improved by EA. The upregulation of angiotensin II type I receptor (AT1R), endothelin receptor (ETAR), and endothelin-1 (ET-1) in SHR rats was attenuated by electroacupuncture, suggesting an implication of AT1R, ETAR, and ET-1 pathway in the effect of EA.0Comments 4Citations
- "It has been well accepted that a reduction in the number of small arterioles and capillaries per volume of tissue (rarefaction) plays a major role in the elevation of vascular resistance and, consequently, of blood pressure. On the other hand, impairment of cerebral perfusion resulting from rarefaction contributes to hypoperfusion of the brain, leading to neuronal dysfunction and progressive cognitive failure [6, 7]. Therefore, besides lowering of blood pressure, attenuation of rarefaction and resultant hypoperfusion in cerebral tissue is reasoned as an essential goal for the treatment of cognitive dysfunction following hypertension. "
[Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study was to determine changes in klotho, endothelin (ET) receptors, and superoxide production in kidneys of aged rats and whether these changes are exacerbated in aged rats with cognitive impairment. Twenty aged rats (male, 27 months) were divided into an Old Impaired group (n=9) and an Old Intact group (n=11) according to a cognitive function test. A group of 12-month-old rats (n=10) was used as a Young Intact group. Serum creatinine was increased significantly in the Old Impaired group, suggesting impaired renal function. Aged rats showed glomerulosclerosis and tubulointerstitialfibrosis. These pathological changes were markedly aggravated in the old cognitively impaired than in the old cognitively intact animals. Notably, aged rats demonstrated a significant decrease in klotho protein expression in renal cortex and medulla. Protein expression of IL-6, Nox2, ETa receptors and superoxide production were increased whereas mitochondrial SOD (MnSOD) and ETb receptors expression were decreased in kidneys of the aged rats. Interestingly, these changes were more pronounced in the old impaired than in the old intact rats. In conclusion, the aging-related kidney damage was exacerbated in aged rats with cognitive impairment. Klotho, ETB, and MnSOD were downregulated but ETa, IL-6, Nox2, and superoxide production were upregulated in the aging-related kidney damage. These changes were more pronounced in rats with cognitive impairment.0Comments 19Citations
- "One possibility is that the same aging mechanism may affect both brain and kidneys in some aged animals. For instance, overactivation of the endothelin system may damage both brain and kidneys by impairing microvascular function in these organs (Zhang et al. 1994; Kuiper et al. 2008; Seccia et al. 2008; Soleman et al. 2010). On the other hand, the impaired kidney function results in accumulation of metabolic toxic products which could impair brain function (e.g., cognition). "
[Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Several hereditary small vessel diseases (SVDs) of the brain have been reported in recent years. In 1977, Sourander and Wålinder described hereditary multi-infarct dementia (MID) in a Swedish family. In the same year, Stevens and colleagues reported chronic familial vascular encephalopathy in an English family bearing a similar phenotype. These disorders have invariably been suggested to be cerebral autosomal dominant arteriopathy with subcortical infarcts and leucoencephalopathy (CADASIL) but their genetic identities remain unknown. We used molecular, radiological and neuropathological methods to characterize these disorders. Direct DNA sequencing unexpectedly confirmed that affected members of the English family carried the R141C mutation in the NOTCH3 gene diagnostic of CADASIL. However, we did not detect any pathogenic mutations in the entire 8091 bp reading frame of NOTCH3 or find clear evidence for NOTCH3 gene linkage in the Swedish DNA. This was consistent with the lack of hyperintense signals in the anterior temporal pole and external capsule in Swedish subjects upon magnetic resonance imaging. We further found no evidence for granular osmiophilic material in skin biopsy or post-mortem brain samples of affected members in the Swedish family. In addition, there was distinct lack of NOTCH3 N-terminal fragments in the cerebral microvasculature of the Swedish hereditary MID subjects compared to the intense accumulation in the English family afflicted with CADASIL. Several differences in arteriosclerotic changes in both the grey and white matter were also noted between the disorders. The sclerotic index values, density of collagen IV immunoreactivity in the microvasculature and number of perivascular macrophages were greater in the English CADASIL samples compared to those from the Swedish brains. Multiple approaches suggest that the Swedish family with hereditary MID suspected to be CADASIL has a different novel disorder with dissimilar pathological features and belongs to the growing number of genetically uncharacterized familial SVDs.0Comments 30Citations
- "We suggest that despite previous suspicions the original Swedish family described by the eponym hereditary MID (Sourander and Wålinder, 1977) is not NOTCH3 gene causing CADASIL. While several of the clinical, radiological and pathological features in the brain closely resemble CADASIL (Zhang et al., 1994) and those of the first English family (Stevens et al., 1977), our evidence including absence of temporal pole hypersignals on MRI (O'Sullivan et al., 2001) and most pertinently genetic evidence indicates the Swedish disorder is a novel SVD. We failed to detect a single mutation within the entire exon coding region of NOTCH3 in affected members of the Swedish family. "