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Children's Emotional Associations with Colors

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Abstract

In this study children's emotional associations with colors were investigated. Sixty children (30 girls, 30 boys), equally divided into groups of 5-year-olds and 6 1/2-year-olds, were asked their favorite color and were then shown nine different colors, one at a time and in a random order. For each color, children were asked, "How does (the color) make you feel?" All children were able to verbally express an emotional response to each color, and 69% of children's emotional responses were positive (e.g., happiness, excitement). Responses also demonstrated distinct color-emotion associations. Children had positive reactions to bright colors (e.g., pink, blue, red) and negative emotions for dark colors (e.g., brown, black, gray). Children's emotional reactions to bright colors became increasingly positive with age, and girls in particular showed a preference for brighter colors and a dislike for darker colors. Boys were more likely than girls were to have positive emotional associations with dark colors. Potential sources for children's color-emotion concepts, such as gender-related and idiosyncratic experiences, are discussed.
... Bien que ces constats semblent antagonistes, il est possible qu'ils ne soient pas aussi opposés qu'il n'y paraît. En effet, le modèle des réseaux associatifs, en partie initié par Bower (1981) mois de la vie (e.g., Albert, Burke, Bena, Morrison, Forney, & Krajewski, 2013 ;Boyatzis & Varghese, 1994 ;Burkitt et al., 2003 ;Wang et al., 2014). Cependant, bien que la couleur ait déjà été utilisée pour induire des émotions (Piolat, & Gombert, 2003), aucune étude n'a, à notre connaissance, fait état de mesure concernant l'existence d'un changement d'état suite à la présentation de ce stimulus. ...
... Les couleurs pouvant faire appel à un effet de genre, telles que le bleu ou le rose, ont été exclues ainsi que le blanc et le noir qui sont des couleurs achromatiques dont les nuances, difficiles à obtenir, sont très sensibles au type d'éclairage (Bertalmío, Caselles, & Provenzi, 2009). L'Etude 1b, prenant en compte les nuances des couleurs (clair, vif, foncé), il a semblé judicieux d'utiliser la saturation intermédiaire (vif) pour les couleurs des corps présentés afin que le choix des participants ne soit pas influencé par la nuance (Boyatzis & Varghese, 1994). ...
... Néanmoins, le fait que cette couleur n'ait pas induit une baisse de l'état émotionnel, amène à penser que ce stimulus n'induit pas d'effets inverses à ceux attendus. En effet, --208 Etude 1. Induction émotionnelle par la couleur et attention -Étude inter-sujetcette couleur est, dans la littérature, souvent associée à une émotion agréable (e.g., Ballast, 2002 ;Boyatzis & Varghese, 1994 ;Kaya & Epps, 2004) et est utilisée comme support d'inductions émotionnelles de la joie (Kimstacz, 2001 ;Piolat & Gombert, 2003). Au vu de ces éléments, nous pouvons penser que l'induction de la joie par la couleur jaune est soutenable. ...
Thesis
De par le lien étroit qu’elles entretiennent avec la cognition, les émotions influencent nos comportements, nos perceptions ainsi que nos performances lorsqu’il s’agit d’apprendre. Si l’existence de ce lien semble faire consensus au sein de la communauté scientifique, la nature de celui-ci fait aujourd’hui encore débat. Ainsi, pour certains, les émotions seraient une entrave aux fonctions cognitives (e.g., Hadwin, Brogan, & Stevenson, 2005). Selon le RAM (Ellis & Moore, 1999), toutes émotions mobiliseraient une partie des ressources attentionnelles au détriment de la tâche à réaliser. Cependant, à l’inverse, d’autres études font état d’un effet facilitateur des émotions (e.g., Burkitt & Barnett, 2006). Cette apparente opposition pourrait être liée à l’interaction entre l’émotion induite et l’état initial des participants. Selon le modèle de la congruence émotionnelle (Bower, 1981), une information véhiculant une émotion de même nature que celle ressentie par l’individu (congruence) serait plus rapidement traitée qu’une information véhiculant une émotion non similaire (incongruence). Or, rares sont les études prenant en considération l’état des participants avant la tâche. De plus, un grand nombre de travaux étudie l’effet des émotions sur des processus cognitifs de haut niveau. Cependant, ceux-ci sont sous-tendus par l’activation de différents processus tels que l’attention qui est impliquée dans toutes tâches d’apprentissage. Il est possible, d’une part, que les émotions n’aient pas le même effet sur l’ensemble des processus cognitifs et d’autre part, que cet effet soit variable au cours du développement de l’individu. A l’heure actuelle, peu de travaux ont été conduits chez l’enfant et encore moins en milieu scolaire. Aussi, ce travail de thèse a pour objectif d’étudier l’influence des émotions sur les processus de focalisation et d’orientation de l’attention sélective chez l’enfant d’école maternelle et primaire. Pour ce faire, cinq études expérimentales ont été réalisées.
... La couleur peut en effet constituer une variable parasite pour l'enfant (ex., Largy et al., 2018) qui a déjà son propre vécu des couleurs dès 3, 4 ans. Les métaphores de l'enfant impactent ses émotions (ex., Zentner, 2001) et un lien a été mis en évidence entre genre et couleurs (Boyatzis & Varghese, 1994). De surcroît, bien que les systèmes éducatifs fondés sur la récompense et la punition aient été largement décriés, les codes couleurs sont encore largement en vigueur dans les classes pour récompenser ou sanctionner des comportements. ...
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... For example, the effect of the type, structure, and color of the robot students' emotions has been studied by several researchers. It is proven to be strongly related to gender stereotypes, like correlating pink with girls and blue with boys [31]. In the same way, educators also tend to use different types of robots for male and female students and encourage or discourage different types of play according to their gender. ...
Article
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