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Psychological, social and sexual effects of gestational trophoblastic disease on patients and their partners

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Abstract

The psychological, social and sexual effects of gestational trophoblastic disease in both patients and their partners are reviewed. The results suggest that despite the favorable prognosis of this disease, mood disturbances, sexual disturbances and fertility concerns can persist in both patients and their partners. Recommendations are made concerning providing supportive care to meet the needs of patients and their partners.

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... However, studies concerning sexual functioning and relationship satisfaction of patients with GTD are still limited. 49], and chemotherapy regimen [22,49]. ...
... However, studies concerning sexual functioning and relationship satisfaction of patients with GTD are still limited. 49], and chemotherapy regimen [22,49]. ...
... Considering the etiology of GTD, it is not surprising that feelings of self-blame, partner blame, guilt, anger, fear of recurrence, and concerns related to fertility loss may be significantly implicated in sexual dysfunction [22]. As many studies have reported good relationship functioning [37,39,41,49], in particular in cases of metastatic disease [49], the most likely way for these feelings to manifest is through sexuality rather than openly directing resentment and frustration towards a supportive partner [49]. Therefore, qualitative analyses might be better able to assess the psychological aspects of sexual relationships as opposed to the physical measures of sexual performance. ...
Article
Gestational Trophoblastic Disease (GTD) represents a spectrum of rare pregnancy-related disorders, including both premalignant and malignant entities. Although GTD’s medical outcomes have been widely explored, limited data are available regarding the related psychological, sexual and fertility issues. The present chapter aims to enhance comprehension of the psychosocial impact of GTD by discussing the main quantitative and qualitative evidence available in this field. Although patients globally report a good quality of life, clinically significant levels of anxiety and depression have been consistently found across studies. Similarly, despite the quality of couple relationships being generally satisfactory, they often complain of a lack of sexual desire. Moreover, pregnancy loss may raise significant and long-term fertility-related concerns. Specific socio-demographic and clinical factors have been identified as predictors of psychosocial outcomes. On a clinical level, research suggests there is a need to provide multidisciplinary care to patients.
... In spite of this, the available data specifically exploring the consequences of this delay of future pregnancies in terms of impact on perceived fer-tility 9,10 and psychological distress is limited, while many studies have shown the presence of fear for future pregnancy. [8][9][10][11][12] In one of the two studies that evaluated the impact of GTD on perceived fertility by using nonvalidated measures, 9,10 it has been found that 40% of women successfully treated for GTD felt that they had no control over their reproductive future. Moreover, 17% felt angry that their ability to have children had been compromised. ...
... This poses a challenge to the woman and her partner since both are required to rapidly shift their sense of hopefulness and joy related to the pregnancy to a necessary understanding of a potentially life-threatening condition. 12 In this study we decided to focus our attention on patients' reactions to the follow-up period, particularly on fertility concerns and psychological symptoms of depression and anxiety. Regarding perceptions of the impact of GTD on fertility and reproductive outcomes, our findings seem to be encouraging. ...
... Moreover, existing data have shown that only 16% of women successfully treated for GTD felt that their fertility was compromised, but a greater portion (57%) questioned their ability to have healthy children, 9 and 51% feared future pregnancies. 12 A possible target for future research could encompass the validation of a specific questionnaire for this disease with the ability to overcome these methodological limits. ...
Article
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Objective: To evaluate the impact of a forced delay in childbearing during thefollow-up period on the perceived fertility of patients with gestational trophoblastic disease (GTD), and to investigate how women react to the monitoring period, with particular attention to fertility concerns, personal perceptions of the impact of GTD on reproductive outcomes, and psychological symptoms of depression and anxiety. Study design: Twenty women treated for GTD at San Raffaele Hospital, Milan, took part in the study. Depression, anxiety, and infertility-related stress were assessed using the Beck Depression Inventory-Short Form, the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, and the Fertility Problem Inventory, respectively. Results: A significant difference in depression levels was found between women with hydatiform mole and women with gestational trophoblastic neoplasia (p = 0.02). On the contrary, anxiety and depression levels did not vary on the basis of time elapsed since diagnosis, presence of children, and age (< 35 years). A significant correlation was also found between anxiety (state and trait) and depression (rho(s) = 0.62, p = 0.002 and rho(s) = 0.59, p = 0.005. respectively). There was no association between infertility-related stress and anxiety or depression or time elapsed since diagnosis. Additionally, such stress did not change between women with or without children. Conclusion: Women with GTD diagnosis should be followed by a multidisciplinary team so as to be supported in the disease's psychological aspects, too.
... An advanced search of the biomedical and psychological literature databases from 1966 to 2010 revealed that limited data have evaluated the quality of life and emotional and sexual impact of molar pregnancy in patients and their partners [1][2][3][4][5][6][7][8]. This is surprising in a disease where the prevalence has been reported to vary from 1 in 200 to 1 in 2000 pregancies and where women undergo the stress of a surgical procedure, possible management with chemotherapy, loss of a pregnancy and delay in future childbearing. ...
... Molar pregnancy is more common at the end of the reproductive lifespan. Previous studies have reported that the delivery of a live child is the single strongest association with positive psychological recovery [1][2][3][4][5][6][7][8]. It follows that the preservation of the partnership between the affected woman and her partner is a relevant issue for long-term recovery. ...
... In contrast, time from diagnosis and chemotherapy did not impact upon outcome measures in multivariate analysis. This observation has been previously noted [5,6]. ...
Article
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Molar pregnancy is a complication of 1 in 200-2000 pregnancies whereby abnormal placental tissue proliferates in the absence of a fetus and may lead to metastases. The disease origin lies in dispermy or dual fertilisation of the egg. The aim of this study was to explore the impact of molar pregnancy upon the male partner. Institutional ethics committee approval and individual consent were obtained. All women listed on the state molar pregnancy database who were receiving active follow-up (n = 102) and a random sample of women who had been registered in the previous 30 years (n = 56) were sent a postal survey outlining the purpose of the study and an invitation for their partner to participate. Sixty-six women gave permission for their partner to participate in the study. Questionnaires included the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, Satisfaction with Life Scale and Sexual History Form 12. Responding partners were also invited to make comments about any aspect of particular concern. A reminder mail out was issued after 6 weeks. The response rate was 62% (N = 41). The key findings were that 32.5% and 12.5% of men met the case criteria for anxiety and depressive disorder, respectively. These figures represent a doubling of usual community rates for anxiety disorder. However, overall quality of life and sexual functioning outcomes were consistent with community samples. The presence of children played a protective role and was associated with significantly better psychological function and quality of life in univariate and multivariate analysis. Qualitative results complemented the quantitative data, with anxiety as the dominant emotional theme. There are high persisting levels of anxiety in male partners of women with molar pregnancy. Partners may benefit from therapy where anxiety disorders are detected. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
... Other authors also mention fear of getting pregnant again 6,13,17 . Wenzel et al. 22 described psychological, social and sexual consequences of gestational trophoblastic disease in 76 women after gestational trophoblastic disease of different severity. Anxiety, anger, fatigue, confusion, sexual problems and concern for future pregnancies are frequently seen in women with gestational trophoblastic disease independent of the length of time from diagnosis, type of treatment and diagnosis. ...
... Women with metastatic disease reported more mood disturbances as depression, anger and confusion. Women without children experienced greater anxiety about their attractiveness to their partner and reported a larger negative impact on their self-esteem 22 . ...
Article
To investigate whether a desire for pregnancy changed after etoposide, methotrexate, actinomycin D, cyclophosphamide and vincristine (EMA/CO) treatment for gestational trophoblastic disease and whether the incidence of infertility and adverse pregnancy outcome differed from the general population. A cohort study was performed. Data were collected from hospital records and questionnaires. The study was carried out in referral hospitals in The Netherlands. All women registered by the Dutch Working Party on Trophoblastic Disease and treated with EMA/CO were included. A questionnaire was sent to all surviving patients treated with EMA/CO from 1986 until 1997. Women who underwent a hysterectomy were excluded from the study. Pregnancy outcome and pregnancy wish after chemotherapy. Fifty patients were treated with EMA/CO. In 86%, a complete remission was achieved. A questionnaire was sent to 33 patients. Response rate was 82% (27/33). After EMA/CO, 18 of the patients experienced a regular menstrual cycle. Three patients had an amenorrhoea. Fourteen patients had a pregnancy wish. Twelve patients conceived; 21 pregnancies occurred. Sixteen pregnancies were term deliveries. Two pregnancies ended in a miscarriage and two congenitally abnormal children were delivered prematurely. After EMA/CO, 86% of women with a pregnancy wish achieved pregnancy. However, women can be so anxious about a new pregnancy that they refrain from it. A causative relation between the two congenitally abnormal children and EMA/CO cannot be determined because of the small sample. The rate of miscarriages is not higher than in the general population. We can reassure patients that pregnancy after EMA/CO has a high probability of success and a favourable outcome. To diminish the fear of getting pregnant in some patients, psychosocial care should be considered in addition to medical care.
... Hydatidiform Mole and Gestational Trophoblastic Neoplasia are both highly curable diseases [2]. Despite the fact that full recovery is generally expected, women diagnosed with GTD have to confront the loss of a pregnancy, a potentially life-threatening diagnosis, surgical treatment and/or chemotherapy and delays in future pregnancies [29]. Even if the psychological impact of this condition for both the woman and her partner is clearly predictable and understandable, clinicians and health care professionals have often overlooked psychological distress in GTD and only recently more attention has been paid to the psychological effects of GTD [30]. ...
... These women could therefore perceive their disease as more serious and perhaps feel a greater threat to their life. This is consistent with past GTD research, which indicates that women who require chemotherapy have greater mood disturbances and greater illness-related distress as well as have feelings of loss, anger, confusion and defectiveness [9,29]. However, after the three-way ANOVA there was no longer evidence of the effect of diagnosis on BDI scores. ...
Article
Full-text available
Gestational Trophoblastic Disease (GTD) comprises a group of disorders that derive from the placenta. Even if full recovery is generally expected, women diagnosed with GTD have to confront: the loss of a pregnancy, a potentially life-threatening diagnosis and delays in future pregnancies. The aim of the study is to evaluate the psychological impact of GTD, focusing on perceived fertility, depression and anxiety. 37 patients treated for GTD at San Raffaele Hospital, Milan, took part in the study. The STAI-Y (State-Trait Anxiety Inventory), the BDI-SF (Beck Depression Scale-Short Form) and the FPI (Fertility Problem Inventory) were used. Patients were grouped on the basis of presence of children (with or without), age (< or ≥35) and type of diagnosis (Hydatidiform Mole, HM, or Gestational Trophoblastic Neoplasia, GTN). Differences in the values between variables were assessed by a t-type test statistic. Three-way ANOVAs were also carried out considering the same block factors. The study highlights that women suffering from GTN had higher depression scores compared to women suffering from HM. A significant correlation was found between anxiety (state and trait) and depression. Younger women presented higher Global Stress scores on the FPI, especially tied to Need for Parenthood and Relationship Concern subscales. Need for Parenthood mean scores significantly varied between women with and without children too. We can conclude that fertility perception seems to be negatively affected by GTD diagnosis, particularly in younger women and in those without children. Patients should be followed by a multidisciplinary team so as to be supported in the disease's psychological aspects too.
... GTD diagnosis, treatment and follow-up represent a sudden and prolonged factor of stress, which forces the patient and her partner to find a new psychological accommodation [5]. This psychological distress is anticipated and understandable when the patient and her partner discover that their pregnancy is considered potentially cancerous. ...
Article
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Gestational Trophoblastic Disease encompasses a group of pregnancy-related disorders that derive from the placenta. Taking Leventhal's Common Sense Model as a starting point, this study aims to investigate how illness perception could influence patients' psychological adaptation to these rare diseases. Thirty-seven women completed: the Illness Perception Questionnaire-Revised, the Beck Depression Inventory Short Form, the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, and the Fertility Problem Inventory. Results show that the perception of severe illness consequences significantly predicts the level of anxiety patients reported at the time of questionnaire completion. Furthermore , mental representations of illness present a significant association with infertility related stress. Specifically, the belief in the efficacy of the treatment results in fewer feelings of discomfort and isolation from family and social context due to infertility related problems. Since patients' illness perception was found to have a specific impact on both anxiety and infertility-related stress, this variable should be considered in the planning of a clinical intervention.
... GTD diagnosis, treatment and follow-up present a sudden and prolonged factor of stress, which forces the patient and her partner to find a new psychological accommodation [7]. Fear of the disease, waiting for normalization of β-hCG during follow-up, concerns about fertility and worries regarding future pregnancies are the main determinants of anxiety and distress among GTD patients [8][9][10][11]. ...
Article
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Background: Gestational Trophoblastic Disease comprises a group of benign and malignant disorders that derive from the placenta. Using Leventhal's Common-Sense Model as a theoretical framework, this paper examines illness perception in women who have been diagnosed with this disease. Methods: Thirty-one women diagnosed with Gestational Trophoblastic Disease in a hospital in Italy were asked to complete the Illness Perception Questionnaire-Revised to measure the following: illness Identity, illness opinions and causes of Gestational Trophoblastic Disease. Results: High mean scores were observed in the Emotional representations and Treatment control subscales. A significant difference emerged between hydatidiform mole patients and those with gestational trophoblastic neoplasia on the Identity subscale. A significant correlation emerged between "time since diagnosis" and the Treatment control subscale. Discussion: This study is the first to investigate illness perception in Gestational Trophoblastic Disease. From a clinical perspective the results highlight the need for multidisciplinary support programs to promote a more realistic illness perception.
... These stresses include the loss of a pregnancy, a potentially life-threatening diagnosis, treatment with chemotherapy and/or surgery, and the delay of future pregnancy. It is not surprising that mood disturbances, sexual dysfunction and concerns over fertility occur in many patients and their partners [21]. In an analysis of 445 women treated at the Charing Cross Hospital 97% of those who wished to become pregnant succeeded and 86% of these had at least one live birth [22]. ...
... In the course of just a few months (August 2016 to January 2017) in Obs/Gyn Clinic Frequency of malignant Gestational Trophoblastic Neoplasms (GTN) is estimated at 1,03 cases in 1000 deliveries with 5 fold greater risk in patients younger then 20 and older than 40 years 1 . One of possible explanations for this increased risk could be in abnormal gametogenesis and atresia of follicles 2 . ...
Article
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Introducton. Frequency of malignant gestational trophoblastic neoplasms (GTN) is estimated at 1.03 cases in 1,000 deliveries with 5 fold greater risk in patients younger than 20 and older than 40 years. Serum value of human chorionic gonadotropin is the most relevant parameter in diagnosis of GTN. In placental site trophoblastic tumor (PSTT), serum levels of chorionic gonadotropin do not have the same significance as they do in other malignant GTN. Definite diagnosis of PSTT is almost always confirmed by immunohistochemistry. Case report. In the course of just a few months (August 2016 to January 2017) in the Clinic for Obstetrics and Gynecology ?Narodni front? in Belgrade, two GTN patients were admitted and treated, with almost equal ultrasonography (pictures), operative findings and postoperative outcome. Due to histopathological and immunohistochemical examinations two different types of malignant GTN were confirmed. The first patient (admitted in August 2016), 26 years old, was admitted for uterine bleeding 11 months after vaginal delivery and histopathological examination confirmed PSTT. The second patient (admitted in January 2017), 27 years old, was admitted 4 months after vaginal delivery because of uterine bleeding. Histopathological examination confirmed choriocarcinoma. Conclusion. Considering the fact that malignant GTN can appear in different types, with different ultrasonography pictures, this report is significant because two distinctly different malignant GTN entities could appear with equal clinical manifestations and equal ultrasound pictures even when they may have very different course of the disease treatment and outcome. Such cases need correct diagnosis which may be reached only after immunohistochemical analysis. The ultrasound patterns, both in gray scale, color flow, and Doppler values, were almost equal in both cases and guided the diagnostic procedures to the final treatment, even regardless of their very different histopathology.
... Reproductive concerns were measured at T0/T1/T2 with a Dutch version of the Reproductive Concerns Scale (RCS) (Garvelink, Ter Kuile, Louwe, Hilders, & Stiggelbout, 2015;Wenzel, Berkowitz, Robinson, Bernstein, & Goldstein, 1992;Wenzel, Dogan-Ates, et al., 2005). The Dutch version of the scale consists of 11 of the 14 original items, measured on a 5-point scale ranging from 0 (not at all) to 4 (very much). ...
Article
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This paper reports on the feasibility and preliminary effects of a decision aid (DA) about female fertility preservation (FP). We conducted a pilot multicentre randomized controlled trial of women with breast cancer aged 18-40 who were randomized to brochures or the DA. Over 18 months, 62 women were eligible, of which 42 were invited by their healthcare provider (74%) to participate in the study. A total of 36 women signed up for participation and 26 (72%) were randomized to brochures (n = 13) or the DA (n = 13). In both groups, many women (87%) read the brochures and eight women used all available brochures. In the intervention group, 7/13 women logged in to the DA. Women who received brochures had slightly less decisional conflict, whereas knowledge improved in both groups. Our results indicate that both brochures about FP and a detailed DA have beneficial effects with regard to knowledge, but the DA seemed to introduce slightly more decisional conflict (DC) than the brochures. Although we encountered challenges with recruitment, our design and measurements seem feasible and the effects of the information materials seem promising, hence justifying conducting a larger study.
Article
An evaluation of the performance of a Referral Center in the diagnosis, treatment and follow up of adolescents with gestational trophoblastic disease. In a 13-year prospective cohort study, between March 1987 and March 2000, 124 adolescents with gestational trophoblastic disease were followed up and/or treated by a multidisciplinary team. Adolescents underwent strict clinical and laboratory control after mole evacuation to guarantee adhesion to follow up, early diagnosis, and prompt treatment of persistent disease. The Student-Fischer t-test and the chi-square test were used for the statistic analysis of the results. Adolescents represented 21.3% of the 583 patients with gestational trophoblastic disease: 102 (82.3%) had uncomplicated hydatidiform moles, and 22 (17.7%) underwent chemotherapy for persistent gestational trophoblastic disease or a gestational trophoblastic tumor. Complications were diagnosed earlier (p < 0.001) in patients managed and treated at the referral center. Of the adolescents with complications, 81.8% were low risk, 54.5% were at the International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics stage I, and 90.9% were treated with chemotherapy only. Time to remission and follow up were shorter for uncomplicated hydatidiform moles (9.8 +/- 3.4 weeks and 8.8 +/- 1.8 months, respectively) than for persistent disease (16.2 +/- 5.8 weeks and 45 +/- 24.5 months, respectively). Adhesion to follow up was similar in the two groups (84.2% and 91.8%). To this date, 50% of the adolescents have had one or more gestations, and 82% of these pregnancies were normal. Adolescents comprise approximately 20% of all gestational trophoblastic disease patients and have high adhesion to follow up. The disease did not affect their reproductive capacity, and chances of a normal subsequent gestation were high.
Article
Current therapy for molar pregnancy and gestational trophoblastic neoplasias (GTNs) has resulted in high cure rates with preservation of fertility, even in the setting of chemotherapy for widespread metastatic disease. Data from the New England Trophoblastic Disease Center on later pregnancies following complete and partial mole, as well as persistent GTN show that patients can, in general, anticipate normal subsequent pregnancy outcome. Nevertheless, patients and their partners often express anxiety and fear related to the risk of disease recurrence and the outcome of subsequent pregnancies after treatment for gestational trophoblastic disease. These psychosocial sequelae may persist for years in both patients and their partners.
Article
The aim of this study was to determine how often patients with complete hydatidiform mole (CHM) who spontaneously achieve normal human chorionic gonadotrophin (hCG) levels subsequently develop persistent or recurrent gestational trophoblast disease. Four hundred and fourteen cases of CHM registered at the Hydatidiform Mole Registry of Victoria were reviewed retrospectively after molar evacuation. Maternal age, gestational age, gravidity and parity were determined for each patient, as well as the need for chemotherapy. Among the 414 patients, 55 (13.3%) required chemotherapy for persistent trophoblastic disease. None of the patients whose hCG levels spontaneously fell to normal subsequently developed persistent molar disease. Weekly hCG measurements are recommended for all patients until normal levels are achieved. For patients who attain normal hCG levels within 2 months after evacuation, it seems safe to discontinue monitoring once normal levels are achieved. Patients who fail to achieve normal hCG levels by 2 months after evacuation should be monitored with monthly hCG measurements for 1 year after normalisation to assure sustained remission.
Article
To evaluate the efficacy of a single prophylactic dose of actinomycin D (Act-D) in the reduction of postmolar gestational trophoblastic neoplasia (GTN) in adolescents with high-risk hydatidiform mole (Hr-HM). In a retrospective study, 60 adolescents with Hr-HM were selected from a cohort of patients with gestational trophoblastic disease (GTD) followed at Santa Casa, Porto Alegre, Brasil. Twenty-nine received a single dose of Act-D at the time of uterine evacuation as prophylactic chemotherapy (P-chem) (study group) and 31 patients with the same risk factors did not received P-chem (control group). Patient follow-up was the same in both groups. Each group was analyzed for number of adolescents with postmolar GTN, morbidity associated with postmolar GTN, and reproductive outcomes. Postmolar GTN was diagnosed in two (6.9%) adolescents (95% CI, 0.0-16.1) in the study group and in 9 (29.0%) patients (95% CI, 13-45) in the control group. The reduction of postmolar GTN with a single dose of Act-D used as P-chem was 76% (relative risk = 0.24; 95% CI, 0.06-0.99). Adverse effects of P-chem were minor. In the follow-up, when postmolar GTN were diagnosed, severity of disease was not increased, compliance with follow-up was not reduced, and reproductive outcomes after discharge were similar. P-chem with a single dose of Act-D reduced postmolar GTN in 76% during follow-up of adolescents with Hr-HM. Since this regimen may reduce treatment costs, without affecting compliance with follow-up, it can be adopted by any Trophoblastic Disease Center.
Article
Molar pregnancy is an unusual complication of pregnancy whereby abnormal placental tissue proliferates in the absence of a fetus. There is usually a protracted follow-up period where pregnancy is contra-indicated. Whilst the medical outcomes of the disease have been well explored, limited data have evaluated the impact on psychological symptomatology, sexual function, and quality of life. Institutional ethics approval and individual consent were obtained. All women listed on the hospital molar pregnancy register receiving active follow-up (n = 102) and a random sample of women who had been registered in the previous 30 years (n = 56) were sent a postal survey outlining the purpose of the study and an invitation to participate. Questionnaires included the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS), Satisfaction with Life Scale (SWLS), and Sexual History Form 12 (SHF-12). The response rate was 54%. The key findings were that 60%, 55%, and 18% of women scored > or =10 on the total HADS, > or =8 on HADS-A, and >8 on HADS-D, respectively. The presence of children played a protective role and was associated with significantly better psychological function and quality of life. SWLS were in the lower end of ranges reported for community controls (mean of 23.9). Chemotherapy had an adverse impact on quality of life ratings (SWLS for chemotherapy yes = 21.7, no = 25). Sexual dysfunction was similar to community samples and was independent of age, time since diagnosis, chemotherapy requirement, and presence of children. Qualitative results complemented the quantitative data with similar emotional themes identified as well as issues related to the medical condition, care, and support networks. Women with a molar pregnancy may benefit from a multidisciplinary approach to management that addresses their psychological and sexual needs in addition to medical aspects of care.
Article
Although women diagnosed with cancer during their childbearing years are at significant risk for infertility, we know little about the relationship between infertility and long-term quality of life (QOL). To examine these relationships, we assessed psychosocial and reproductive concerns and QOL in 231 female cancer survivors. Greater reproductive concerns were significantly associated with lower QOL on numerous dimensions (P<.001). In a multiple regression model, social support, gynecologic problems, and reproductive concerns accounted for 63% of the variance in QOL scores. Women who reported wanting to conceive after cancer, but were not able to, reported significantly more reproductive concerns than those who were able to reproduce after cancer (P<.001). These preliminary data suggest that at least for vulnerable subgroups, the issue of reproductive concerns is worthy of additional investigation to assist cancer survivors living with the threat or reality of infertility.
Article
To evaluate whether prophylactic chemotherapy (P-chem) with one bolus dose of actinomycin D (Act-D) during the uterine evacuation of patients with high-risk hydatidiform mole (Hr-HM) affects reproductive outcomes in subsequent pregnancies. From 1987 to 2006, 1090 patients with gestational trophoblastic disease (GTD) were evaluated at a Trophoblastic Disease Center in southern Brazil; 265 with Hr-HM were selected and retrospectively analyzed. From 1996 to 2006, 163 received one bolus dose of Act-D at the time of uterine evacuation (Hr-HM-chem group); 102 with the same risk factors did not get P-chem (Hr-HM-control group). In March 2009, the number of pregnancies, progression of first pregnancy, and association of low age and low parity with subsequent pregnancy were evaluated. The percentage of patients that became pregnant was similar in both groups (Hr-HM-control: 59.5%; Hr-HM-chem group: 45.7%; p=0.069) and independent of HM progression. Percentages of no pregnancies because of age (> or =40 years) or hysterectomy were also similar. Type of subsequent pregnancy was not statistically different between groups, and the rate of live births associated with pregnancies for which US showed a live fetus was high. Frequency of repeat GTD was unexpectedly high in both groups (4.2% and 6.3%; p=1.00). P-chem did not affect reproductive outcomes for patients with Hr-HM. Patients allowed to become pregnant again in both groups had high rates of live births associated with normal pregnancies. Chances of a subsequent pregnancy were higher in the low age and low parity subgroups.
Article
29 patients with trophoblastic tumors of the uterus were evaluated at the University of California, San Francisco. 8 patients admitted before 1956, did not receive chemotherapy; the mortality rate was 87.5&percnt;. 21 patients were treated with chemotherapy. The mortality due to disease was 10&percnt;. Toxicity was a prominent factor but was completely reversible when chemotherapy was stopped. None of the patients showed recurrent disease during follow-up evaluation 1–12 years after therapy was completed. It is postulated that continuing chemotherapy 4–6 months after clinical remission, and after the chorionic gonadotropin titer, becomes negative, decreases the risk of recurrent disease.Copyright © 1972 S. Karger AG, Basel
Article
To estimate serum human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) regression in uneventful complete hydatidiform moles before and after the introduction of routine first-trimester ultrasonography. Gestational age, maternal age, preevacuation hCG concentrations, serum hCG regression, and hCG disappearance time among a recent group of 137 women with uneventful complete hydatidiform moles that were found between 1994 and 2006 were evaluated retrospectively and compared with a historical cohort of 106 patients with complete moles that were found between 1977 and 1989. Gestational age, preevacuation hCG concentration, and hCG disappearance time were significantly lower in the recent complete hydatidiform mole cohort compared with the historic series. Ninety-nine percent of the recent cohort achieved hCG normalization within 19 weeks after uterine evacuation compared with 25 weeks in the historic group. Earlier serum hCG regression in the recent cohort of complete hydatidiform moles probably is a result of widely used first-trimester ultrasonography leading to detection and evacuation of complete moles at younger gestational ages, resulting in lower hCG levels at time of evacuation. : II.
Article
Little is known about patients' understanding of the causes, treatments, and implications of gestational trophoblastic disease (GTD). Clinical observation suggests that such health literacy is limited. We report on the perceptions of causes and treatment of GTD and its impact on fertility and reproductive outcomes. Cross-sectional analysis of 176 Australian women previously diagnosed with GTD (no longer receiving follow-up/treatment) recruited from a state-wide registry. Participants comprised 149 (85%) women with GTD who did not require chemotherapy and 27 (15%) women who required chemotherapy for malignancy or persistent molar disease. Data were collected from medical records and via self-report questionnaire. Participants were 94 women (53%) with partial mole, 75 (43%) with complete mole, 4 (2%) with choriocarcinoma, and 3 (2%) with hydatidiform mole not otherwise specified. Mean (SD) age at diagnosis and time since diagnosis were 32.1 (6.3) and 4.7 (3.3) years, respectively. Chance/bad luck was the most endorsed cause (n = 146, 83%); 23 (13%) thought GTD was hereditary and 10 (6%) identified a chromosomal etiology. Between 24% and 32% were unsure of the role of alcohol/drugs, venereal diseases, smoking, pollution, contraceptives, and lowered immunity. Surgical/medical procedure (n = 127, 72%) and healthy diet (n = 53, 30%) were the most endorsed treatments. Between 18% and 23% were unsure of the treatment effectiveness of diet, vitamins, exercise, complementary therapy, and contraception. All women treated with chemotherapy understood the rationale thereof; 23 (85%) perceived chemotherapy to be successful, and 19 (70%) could name the agent. Few women perceived a negative impact on their fertility (n = 28, 16%); 52 (30%) were reluctant to conceive again and 100 (57%) questioned their ability to have healthy children. After diagnosis, 111 (63%) had at least 1 live birth. Notwithstanding limitations, this study is the largest of its type to date. These descriptive data enhance our understanding of patients' experience on GTD, highlight the scope of GTD health literacy, and may be useful for clinicians to adjust the content of their patient education.
Article
Most women with gestational trophoblastic disease are of reproductive age. Because the disease is readily treatable with favourable prognosis, fertility becomes an important issue. Hydatidiform mole is a relatively benign disease, and most women do not require chemotherapy after uterine evacuation. A single uterine evacuation has no significant effect on future fertility, and pregnancy outcomes in subsequent pregnancies are comparable to that of the general population, despite a slight increased risk of developing molar pregnancy again. If women develop persistent trophoblastic disease, single or combined chemotherapy will be needed. Although ovarian dysfunction after chemotherapy is a theoretical risk, a term live birth rate of higher than 70% has been reported without increased risk of fetal abnormalities. Successful pregnancies have also been reported after choriocarcinoma. Only a few case reports have been published on fertility-sparing treatment in placental-site trophoblastic tumour, and the successful rate is about 67%. Women are advised to refrain from pregnancy for at least 6 months after a molar pregnancy, and at least 12 months after a gestational trophoblastic neoplasia. Most of the contraceptive methods do not have an adverse effect on the return of fertility. Finally, at least one-half of these women suffer from some form of psychological or sexual problems. Careful counselling and involvement of a multi-disciplinary team are mandated.
Article
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Although women diagnosed with cancer during their child- bearing years are at signifi cant risk for infertility, we know little about the relationship between infertility and long- term quality of life (QOL). To examine these relationships, we assessed psychosocial and reproductive concerns and QOL in 231 female cancer survivors. Greater reproductive concerns were signifi cantly associated with lower QOL on numerous dimensions ( P
Article
The focus of this article is choriocarcinoma (CC), a rare and aggressive obstetric/gynecologic cancer that occurs once in every 20,000 to 40,000 pregnancies. CC is a form of gestational trophoblastic disease, which is the result of abnormal trophoblastic activity encompassing a spectrum of nonmalignant and malignant disease. Forms of gestational trophoblastic disease include complete or partial mole, invasive mole, CC, placental site trophoblastic tumor, and epithelioid trophoblastic tumor.Typically asymptomatic, the first symptom of CC in 80% of cases is shortness of breath, indicative of metastasis to the lungs. CC affects women of all ages and can occur during pregnancy, after birth, or even years remote from the antecedent pregnancy. It is highly responsive to chemotherapy, with an overall remission rate greater than 90%. This case study presents the story of a pregnant adolescent thought to have an uneventful pregnancy until metastatic CC at term was diagnosed. Available treatments, outcomes and surveillance for the disease, psychosocial aspects, and implications for nursing care are discussed.
Article
To determine the risk for recurrent trophoblastic disease after spontaneous normalization of human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) levels in patients with hydatidiform mole and to determine the risk for tumor relapse after apparent remission following chemotherapy in patients with low- and high-risk persistent trophoblastic disease. From 1994 until 2004, 355 patients with hydatidiform mole were registered at the Dutch Central Registry of Hydatidiform Mole and were monitored by sequential hCG assays in serum at the department of Chemical Endocrinology of the Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Centre. HCG regression curves were analyzed together with clinical information collected from the Hydatidiform Mole Database. Among the 355 registered hydatidiform mole patients, 265 patients attained spontaneous normalization following evacuation. Of the 265 patients, one patient (0.38%) subsequently required chemotherapeutic treatment for recurrent trophoblastic disease (95% confidence interval 0.0% to 2.1%). HCG levels did not decline to normal (<2.0 ng/ml) spontaneously in 90 patients; those patients were subsequently treated. Relapse rates were 8.1% (6/74) and 6.3% (1/16) for the low- and high-risk category respectively. Our analysis indicates that relapse risk in hydatidiform mole patients with spontaneous normalization is extremely low (one in 265 patients) after two normal hCG levels (<2.0 ng/ml) are achieved. Our results support the suggestion that two subsequent normal hCG levels may be sufficient to ensure sustained remission after hydatidiform mole evacuation. In contrary, in order to assure sustained remission, the relapse rates after chemotherapy in the current study emphasize the need for surveillance of trophoblastic tumor patients even after complete remission has apparently been achieved.
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