Development of the Leeds Dependence Questionnaire (LDQ): A questionnaire to measure alcohol and opiate dependence in the context of a treatment evaluation package

Leeds Addiction Unit, UK.
Addiction (Impact Factor: 4.74). 06/1994; 89(5):563-72. DOI: 10.1111/j.1360-0443.1994.tb03332.x
Source: PubMed


The Leeds Dependence Questionnaire (LDQ) has been developed as part of a treatment evaluation package. The LDQ is a 10-item, self completion questionnaire designed to measure dependence upon a variety of substances; it has been shown to be understood by users of alcohol and opiates. The questionnaire was designed to be sensitive to change over time and to be sensitive through the range from mild to severe dependence; the follow-up data are insufficient to demonstrate change over time, but are encouraging. It is expected that both clinicians and researchers will find it useful to have a single measure relating to substance use, but not limited by specific substances. All items are scored 0-1-2-3; there are no normative data. The procedure for establishing content validity is described and estimates of concurrent, discriminant and convergent validities are reported; these validities are thought to be satisfactory. A principal components analysis produced a single factor accounting for 64% of the variance. Cronbach's alpha was 0.94. Test-retest reliability was found to be 0.95.

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    • "Covariates were not included in the models of associations between pain and drinking outcomes or in the models of associations between pain and negative affect because we were primarily interested in the bivariate associations among these constructs, without the additional influence of covariates. Covariates in both the COMBINE and UKATT studies included: demographic variables (gender, marital status, employment, income, and minority status), baseline dependence severity [assessed via the Alcohol Dependence Scale (ADS; Skinner & Horn, 1984) in COMBINE and the Leeds Dependence Questionnaire (LDQ; Raistrick et al., 1994) in UKATT], number of alcohol dependence symptoms based on the "
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    ABSTRACT: Physical pain and negative affect have been described as risk factors for alcohol use following alcohol treatment. The current study was a secondary analysis of 2 clinical trials for alcohol use disorder (AUD) to examine the associations between pain, negative affect and AUD treatment outcomes. Participants included 1,383 individuals from the COMBINE Study (COMBINE Pharmacotherapies and Behavioral Interventions for Alcohol Dependence; COMBINE Study Research Group, 2003; 31% female, 23% ethnic minorities, average age = 44.4 [SD = 10.2]), a multisite combination pharmacotherapy and behavioral intervention study for AUD in the United States, and 742 individuals from the United Kingdom Alcohol Treatment Trial (UKATT Research Team, 2001; 25.9% female, 4.4% ethnic minorities, average age = 41.6 [SD = 10.1]) a multisite behavioral intervention study for AUD in the United Kingdom. The Form-90 was used to collect alcohol use data, the Short Form Health Survey and Quality of Life measures were used to assess pain, and negative affect was assessed using the Brief Symptom Inventory (COMBINE) and the General Health Questionnaire (UKATT). Pain scores were significantly associated with drinking outcomes in both datasets. Greater pain scores were associated with greater negative affect and increases in pain were associated with increases in negative affect. Negative affect significantly mediated the association between pain and drinking outcomes and this effect was moderated by social behavior network therapy (SBNT) in the UKATT study, with SBNT attenuating the association between pain and drinking. Findings suggest pain and negative affect are associated among individuals in AUD treatment and that negative affect mediated pain may be a risk factor for alcohol relapse. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).
    Full-text · Article · Jun 2015 · Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology
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    • "Current IQ was measured by the two subtest form of the Wechsler Abbreviated Scale of Intelligence (WASI; The Psychological Corporation, 1999). Alcohol (and other drug) dependence was measured by the Leeds Dependence Quesionnaire (LDQ; Raistrick et al., 1994), and all participants completed the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS; Zigmond and Snaith, 1983), as well as a comprehensive assessment of general, injury, clinical, and family history demographics. "
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    ABSTRACT: Verbal fluency in patients with psychosis following traumatic brain injury (PFTBI) has been reported as comparable to healthy participants. This finding is counterintuitive given the prominent fluency impairments demonstrated post-traumatic brain injury (TBI) and in psychotic disorders, e.g. schizophrenia. We investigated phonemic (executive) fluency (3 letters: 'F' 'A' and 'S'), and semantic fluency (1 category: fruits and/or vegetables) in four matched groups; PFTBI (N=10), TBI (N=10), schizophrenia (N=23), and healthy controls (N=23). Words produced (minus perseverations and errors), and clustering and switching scores were compared for the two fluency types across the groups. The results confirmed that PFTBI patients do show impaired fluency, aligned with existing evidence in TBI and schizophrenia. PFTBI patients produced the least amount of words on the phonemic fluency ('A') trial and total score, and demonstrated reduced switching on both phonemic and semantic tasks. No significant differences in clustering performance were found. Importantly, the pattern of results suggested that PFTBI patients share deficits with their brain-injured (primarily executive), and psychotic (executive and semantic), counterparts, and that these are exacerbated by their dual-diagnosis. These findings add to a very limited literature by providing novel evidence of the nature of fluency impairments in dually-diagnosed PFTBI. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
    Full-text · Article · Apr 2015 · Psychiatry Research
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    • "Impulsivity was measured using the Barratt Impulsivity Scale-11 (BIS-11) (Patton, Stanford, & Barratt, 1995). Substance abuse symptoms were measured using the Leeds Dependence Questionnaire (LDQ) (Raistrick et al., 1994). Participants provided demographic information (gender, age, language , occupation) and self-reported height and weight (in order to calculate BMI = weight [kg] / height [m 2 ]). "
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    ABSTRACT: The characteristic relentless self-starvation behaviour seen in Anorexia Nervosa (AN) has been described as evidence of compulsivity, with increasing suggestion of transdiagnostic parallels with addictive behaviour. There is a paucity of standardised self-report measures of compulsive behaviour in eating disorders (EDs). Measures that index the concept of compulsive self-starvation in AN are needed to explore the suggested parallels with addictions. With this aim a novel measure of self-starvation was developed (the Self-Starvation Scale, SS). 126 healthy participants, and 78 individuals with experience of AN, completed the new measure along with existing measures of eating disorder symptoms, anxiety and depression. Initial validation in the healthy sample indicated good reliability and construct validity, and incremental validity in predicting eating disorder symptoms. The psychometric properties of the SS scale were replicated in the AN sample. The ability of this scale to predict ED symptoms was particularly strong in individuals currently suffering from AN. These results suggest the SS may be a useful index of compulsive food restriction in AN. The concept of 'starvation dependence' in those with eating disorders, as a parallel with addiction, may be of clinical and theoretical importance. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
    Full-text · Article · Dec 2014 · Eating Behaviors
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