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Simultaneous administration of childhood vaccines: An important public health policy that is safe and efficacious

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... В настоящее время широко практикуется одновременное введение первых 3-х доз АбКДС или АцКДС с другими «детскими» вакцинами, такими, как пневмококковая конъюгированная вакцина (ПКВ), инактивированная полиомиелитная вакцина (ИПВ) или оральная полиомиелитная вакцина (ОПВ), а также коревая, краснушная и паротитная, конъюгированная менингококковая, ротавирусная, гемофильная типа b (Hib)-вакцина и вакцина против ветряной оспы [24]. Доказано, что такое сочетание не приводит к интерференции в отношении выработки иммунного ответа на любой из присутствующих антигенов (включая антигены коклюша), как во время их применения в рамках первичной иммунизации, так и при введении в качестве бустерных доз [25,26]. ...
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The review provides information about the current features of the spread of whooping cough among children and adolescents. It is shown that there is a shift in morbidity to an older age group of the population, which is facilitated by changes in the properties of the pathogen and the widespread use of drugs based on cell-free technology as primary vaccination. Information is given about the possibility of preventing morbidity among schoolchildren and adults by introducing additional revaccinating doses against whooping cough with special drugs in the vaccination calendars. Information is given on effective protection of newborns against this infection by immunization of pregnant women. In our country, there is an opportunity to expand pertussis immunoprophylaxis among children of preschool-school age and adults within regional programs and individual vaccination with acellular pertussis-diphtheria-tetanus vaccines, which has a high profile of safety and immunological effectiveness.
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Background Japan amended the recommended age for the Bacille Calmette–Guérin (BCG) vaccination to less than 6 months after 2005, but subsequently amended the recommended age to 5–8 months (latest amendment, <1 year) in April 2013 due to the increasing incidence of BCG-associated osteitis/osteomyelitis since 2005. Methods We collected data on BCG-associated vaccine adverse events (VAEs) in the population aged <1 year between April 2013 and March 2017. The incidence of BCG-associated VAE was analyzed using census and vaccine coverage data from the government website. We compared the incidence of VAEs in patients vaccinated at less than 6 months with those vaccinated at 6 months or older. Results Among the 581 BCG-associated VAEs recorded during the study period, 354 (61%) were male, and the average age at vaccination was 5.7 months. The incidence of VAEs per million population aged <1 year at vaccination was highest for suppurative lymphadenitis (63.7), followed by skin lesions (38.4), and BCG-associated osteitis/osteomyelitis (3.1). Disseminated BCG and anaphylaxis were rare (1.1 and 1.6%, respectively). The incidence of VAEs in the population vaccinated at <6 months of age was higher for BCG-associated osteitis/osteomyelitis (3.8) and disseminated BCG (1.3) than in the population vaccinated at ≥6 months. Conclusions The population vaccinated at <6 months of age was more likely to develop BCG-associated osteitis/osteomyelitis than the population vaccinated at ≥6 months of age, indicating that the change in the recommended vaccination age in 2013 might have contributed to the subsequent decrease in the incidence of BCG-associated osteitis/osteomyelitis.
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Objective: To evaluate the safety of concomitantly administering inactivated poliomyelitis vaccine produced from Sabin strains (sIPVs) with other vaccines. Methods: A descriptive analysis was carried out on adverse events following immunization (AEFI) based on the administration of sIPV alone or concomitant with other vaccines (from 2015 to 2020) using data from the national AEFI surveillance system of China (CNAEFIS). All adverse reactions (ADRs) of the concomitant immunization were coded using a medical dictionary for regulatory activities (MedDRA) before comparison. Results: The CNAEFIS reported a total of 9130 sIPV-related AEFI cases, including 6842 AEFI cases collected after immunization with sIPV alone and 2288 AEFI cases collected after immunization of sIPV concomitant with other vaccines. The combination of sIPV with diphtheria, tetanus and pertussis vaccine (DTaP) was correlated with the highest frequency of AEFI, which accounted for 53.50% of all 2288 AEFI cases. After MedDRA-based coding, the most frequent ADR was fever (70.18%), followed by erythema and swelling at the injection site (6.95%), induration at the injection site (3.85%), dermatitis allergy (3.56%) and urticaria (1.55%). A statistically significant difference (P < .001) was found between sIPV immunization and sIPV immunization concomitant with other vaccines for general reactions (95.36% and 93.22%, respectively) and abnormal reactions (4.64% and 6.78%, respectively). Conclusion: No new safety signal is found for sIPV administered concomitantly, although its administration with other vaccines may increase the occurrence of abnormal reactions. Vaccine manufacturers should focus on the safety of administering sIPV with DTaP and carry out relevant clinical studies when necessary.
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Introduction The evidence relating vaccination to febrile seizures and epilepsy is evaluated with an emphasis on febrile seizures (FS), Dravet syndrome (DS), West syndrome, and other developmental and epileptic encephalopathies. Methods A systematic literature review using search words vaccination/immunization AND febrile seizures/epilepsy/Dravet/epileptic encephalopathy/developmental encephalopathy was performed. The role of vaccination as the cause/trigger/aggravation factor for FS or epilepsies and preventive measures were analyzed. Results From 1428 results, 846 duplicates and 447 irrelevant articles were eliminated; 120 were analyzed. Conclusions There is no evidence that vaccinations cause epilepsy in healthy populations. Vaccinations do not cause epileptic encephalopathies but may be non-specific triggers to seizures in underlying structural or genetic etiologies. The first seizure in DS may be earlier in vaccinated versus non-vaccinated patients, but developmental outcome is similar in both groups. Children with a personal or family history of FS or epilepsy should receive all routine vaccinations. This recommendation includes DS. The known risks of the infectious diseases prevented by immunization are well established. Vaccination should be deferred in case of acute illness. Acellular pertussis DTaP (diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis) is recommended. The combination of certain vaccine types may increase the risk of febrile seizures however the public health benefit of separating immunizations has not been proven. Measles-containing vaccine should be administered at age 12–15 months. Routine prophylactic antipyretics are not indicated, as there is no evidence of decreased FS risk and they can attenuate the antibody response following vaccination. Prophylactic measures (preventive antipyretic medication) are recommended in DS due to the increased risk of prolonged seizures with fever.
Article
Full-text available
Routine childhood vaccinations are key for the protection of children from a variety of serious and potentially fatal diseases. Current pediatric vaccine schedules mainly cover active vaccines. Active vaccination in infants is a highly effective approach against several infectious diseases; however, thus far, for some important viral pathogens, including respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), vaccine development and license by healthcare authorities have not been accomplished. Nirsevimab is a human-derived, highly potent monoclonal antibody (mAb) with an extended half-life for RSV prophylaxis in all infants. In this manuscript, we consider the potential implications for the introduction of an anti-viral mAb, such as nirsevimab, into the routine pediatric vaccine schedule, as well as considerations for coadministration. Specifically, we present evidence on the general mechanism of action of anti-viral mAbs and experience with palivizumab, the only approved mAb for the prevention of RSV infection in preterm infants, infants with chronic lung disease of prematurity and certain infants with hemodynamically significant heart disease. Palivizumab has been used for over two decades in infants who also receive routine vaccinations without any alerts concerning the safety and efficacy of coadministration. Immunization guidelines (Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices, Joint Committee on Vaccination and Immunization, National Advisory Committee on Immunization, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, American Academy of Pediatrics, The Association of the Scientific Medical Societies in Germany) support coadministration of palivizumab with routine pediatric vaccines, noting that immunobiologics, such as palivizumab, do not interfere with the immune response to licensed live or inactivated active vaccines. Based on the mechanism of action of the new generation of anti-viral mAbs, such as nirsevimab, which is highly specific targeting viral antigenic sites, it is unlikely that it could interfere with the immune response to other vaccines. Taken together, we anticipate that nirsevimab could be concomitantly administered to infants with routine pediatric vaccines during the same clinic visit.
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