Squamous esophageal histology and subsequent risk of squamous cell carcinoma of the esophagus. A prospective follow-up study from Linxian, China
Cancer Prevention Studies Branch, National Cancer Institute, Bethesda, MD 20892. Cancer
(Impact Factor: 4.89).
Linxian, China, has some of the highest rates of esophageal cancer in the world. Previous authors have proposed that esophagitis, atrophy, and dysplasia may be precursor lesions of esophageal cancer in such high risk populations.
To examine the relationship between squamous esophageal histology and subsequent esophageal cancer in Linxian, the authors prospectively followed 682 participants of a 1987 endoscopic survey for 3.5 years and compared their initial biopsy diagnoses with the occurrence of squamous cell carcinoma during this follow-up period.
Squamous cell carcinoma of the esophagus was identified in 52 (7.6%) of the participants during the follow-up period. After adjusting for potential confounding factors, relative risks (95% confidence intervals) for squamous cell carcinoma incidence by initial histologic diagnoses were as follows: normal, 1.0 (reference); basal cell hyperplasia, 2.1 (0.4-9.8); mild dysplasia, 2.2 (0.7-7.5); moderate dysplasia, 15.8 (5.9-42.2); severe dysplasia, 72.6 (29.8-176.9); dysplasia not otherwise specified, 22.9 (6.7-78.0); and carcinoma in situ, 62.5 (24.1-161.9).
In this study, moderate dysplasia, severe dysplasia, and carcinoma in situ were the only histologic lesions associated with a significantly increased risk of developing squamous cell carcinoma of the esophagus within 3.5 years after endoscopy. Increasing grades of dysplasia were associated with increasing risk, but severe dysplasia were associated with increasing risk, but severe dysplasia and carcinoma in situ had similar degrees of risk, findings that suggest a continuous spectrum of esophageal intraepithelial neoplasia, without morphologically distinguishable dysplasia and in situ carcinoma. A longer follow-up will be necessary to fully evaluate the less severe diagnostic categories, which may take more than 3.5 years to affect the occurrence of squamous cell carcinoma in this high risk population.
Available from: Pierre Lao-Sirieix
- "In this study , we considered high - grade ESD as the outcome of interest in our screening programme , because it is the clinically most important precursor lesion of ESCC and the point in the spectrum of ESD at which therapeutic intervention would be recommended . The results of a previous study from China reported that the relative risk for development of ESCC is considerably higher in subjects with high - grade ESD than in those with low - grade ESD ( Dawsey et al , 1994b ; Wang et al , 2005 ; Taylor et al , 2013 ) , suggesting that subjects with high - grade ESD need to be treated as soon as possible , but those with low - grade ESD can be followed by repeated examinations , without urgent treatment ( Wang et al , 2005 ; Taylor et al , 2013 ) . Furthermore , one of the major recent advantages of ESCC - screening programme is that curative endoscopic treatments are now available using a combination of endoscopic resection and radiofrequency ablation , with promising results ( Pech et al , 2007 ; Bergman et al , 2011 ) . "
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Oesophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) is a fatal disease with 5-year survival rates of <5% in Northern Iran. Oesophageal squamous dysplasia (ESD) is the precursor histologic lesion of ESCC. This pilot study was conducted to assess the feasibility, safety, and acceptability of non-endoscopic cytological examination of the oesophagus and to provide initial data on the accuracy of cytological atypia for identifying patients with ESD in this very-high-risk area.
Randomly selected asymptomatic participants of the Golestan Cohort Study were recruited. A cytological specimen was taken using a capsule sponge device and evaluated for atypical cells. Sections of the cytological specimen were also stained for p53 protein. Patient acceptability was assessed using a visual analogue scale. The cytological diagnosis was compared with a chromoendoscopic examination using Lugol's solution.
Three hundred and forty-four subjects (43% male, mean (s.d.) age 55.6 (7.9) years) were referred to the study clinic. Three hundred and twelve met eligibility criteria and consented, of which 301 subjects (96.5%) completed both cytological and endoscopic examinations. There were no complications. Most of the participants (279; 92.7%) were satisfied with the examination. The sensitivity and specificity of the cytological examination for identifying subjects with high-grade ESD were 100 and 97%, respectively. We found an accuracy of 100% (95% CI=99-100%) for a combination of cytological examination and p53 staining to detect high-grade ESD.
The capsule sponge methodology seems to be a feasible, safe, and acceptable method for diagnosing precancerous lesions of the oesophagus in this population, with promising initial accuracy data for the detection of high-grade ESD.
Available from: Neal Freedman
- "One of the highest risk regions for ESCC is in north-central China, which includes the county of Linxian
. Previous studies by our group in this region have shown that esophageal squamous dysplasia (ESD) is the clinically relevant precursor lesion of ESCC
[9,10] and that ESD can be accurately identified with the use of Lugol’s iodine staining during endoscopy and confirmed with biopsy
. However, endoscopy is time-consuming, invasive, and also requires specially trained personnel and equipment to perform the examination, take biopsies, and make appropriate pathologic diagnoses, so frequent endoscopy for ESCC early detection screening in high-risk asymptomatic populations in underdeveloped settings with inadequate health resources remains a major challenge
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ABSTRACT: Esophageal cancer is the sixth leading cause of cancer death worldwide; current early detection screening tests are inadequate. Esophageal balloon cytology successfully retrieves exfoliated and scraped superficial esophageal epithelial cells, but cytologic reading of these cells has poor sensitivity and specificity for detecting esophageal squamous dysplasia (ESD), the precursor lesion of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC). Measuring telomere length, a marker for chromosomal instability, may improve the utility of balloon cytology for detecting ESD and early ESCC.
We examined balloon cytology specimens from 89 asymptomatic cases of ESD (37 low-grade and 52 high-grade) and 92 age- and sex-matched normal controls from an esophageal cancer early detection screening study. All subjects also underwent endoscopy and biopsy, and ESD was diagnosed histopathologically. DNA was extracted from the balloon cytology cells, and telomere length was measured by quantitative PCR. A receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve was plotted for telomere length as a diagnostic marker for high-grade dysplasia.
Telomere lengths were comparable among the low- and high-grade dysplasia cases and controls, with means of 0.96, 0.96, and 0.92, respectively. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve was 0.55 for telomere length as a diagnostic marker for high-grade dysplasia. Further adjustment for subject characteristics, including sex, age, smoking, drinking, hypertension, and body mass index did not improve the use of telomere length as a marker for ESD.
Telomere length of esophageal balloon cytology cells was not associated with ESCC precursor lesions. Therefore, telomere length shows little promise as an early detection marker for ESCC in esophageal balloon samples.
Available from: Reza Malekzadeh
- "ESCC develops by progression from dysplastic lesions within the squamous epithelium of the esophagus.3 In other words, esophageal squamous dysplasia (ESD) is the premalignant precursor lesion for ESCC.14,15 Various factors may cause dysplastic changes in normal epithelial cells of the esophagus, including Tobacco smoking, opium consumption, nass chewing, hot tea consumption, an excessive alcohol consumption, drinking mate, low intake of fresh fruits and vegetables, environmental factors, low socioeconomic status and viral infections.16-21 "
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ABSTRACT: Esophageal cancer (EC) is the eighth most common cancer and sixth most frequent cause of cancer mortality worldwide. Esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) is the most common type of EC. ESCC develops by progression from premalignant lesions, which are called esophageal squamous dysplasia (ESD). Prevention is the most effective strategy for controlling this disease. Generally, two methods may be defined for ESCC prevention. The aim of the first preventive method is to prevent the initiation of ESD by avoiding the known risk factors, or primary prevention. Secondary prevention focuses on detection of the disease in its early curable stage, thus preventing its progression into advanced stages. Endoscopy with iodine staining and biopsy is the diagnostic choice for ESD. However it is invasive and expensive, and not accepted by asymptomatic ESD cases. Therefore, it is necessary to find a non-endoscopic screening method. Despite the large number of studies conducted worldwide, no approved method has been developed for ESCC screening. Regarding the multi-factorial nature of ESCC, it is proposed that the use of a combination of various criteria, such as cytological examination, risk factors, genetic alteration, and molecular markers may result in the development of a comprehensive and effective ESCC screening program.
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