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Abstract

Kinematic and kinetic data were collected of 6 male and 6 female healthy subjects. For downhill walking a dismountable slope of 6 m length and a grade of 19.3% was built. Planar net joint moments and mechanical power at the knee joint were calculated for the sagittal view using force platform records based on standard inverse dynamics procedures. On the basis of a two dimensional knee model the patello femoral joint compressive forces were calculated. While the maximal extension moment for level walking was only 1.2 +/- 0.5 Nm/kg bw at a knee flexion angle of 20 degrees it was 2.6 +/- 0.6 Nm/kg bw at an angle of 40 degrees for downhill walking. This increased moment and knee flexion angle yields a 3 to 4 times bigger femoropatellar joint compressive force for downhill walking compared to level walking. Due to a smaller moment arm of female subjects the patello femoral joint compressive forces were bigger for females compared to males (14 N/kg bw for male subjects, 18 N/kg for female subjects during level walking and 50 N/kg bw for male subjects, 70 N/kg for female subjects during downhill walking). The femoropatellar joint compressive force for downhill walking is comparable to running, squatting or downstairs walking. Based on this investigation downhill walking must be considered a strenuous task for the femoro patellar joint and explains well why patients with anterior knee pain or osteoarthritis have problems during downhill walking.

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... Follow-up examinations were scheduled at 1, 3, and 6 months after the operations. The evaluations of knee scores and functional scores were based on The Knee Society Clinical Rating System, (16) and The Knee Society Total Knee Arthroplasty Roentgenograhic Evaluation and Scoring System was adapted for radiographic examinations. ...
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Article
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Article
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Chapter
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Chapter
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Article
Full-text available
Estimates of knee joint loadings were calculated for 12 normal subjects from kinematic and kinetic measures obtained during both level and downhill walking. The maximum tibiofemoral compressive force reached an average load of 3.9 times body-weight (BW) for level walking and 8 times BW for downhill walking, in each instance during the early stance phase. Muscle forces contributed 80% of the maximum bone-on-bone force during downhill walking and 70% during level walking whereas the ground reaction forces contributed only 20% and 30% respectively. Most total knee designs provide a tibiofemoral contact area of 100 to 300 mm2. The yield point of these polyethylene inlays will therefore be exceeded with each step during downhill walking. Future evaluation of total knee designs should be based on a tibiofemoral joint load of 3.5 times BW at 20 degrees knee flexion, 8 times BW at 40 degrees and 6 times BW at 60 degrees.
Article
The patellofemoral pain syndrome is of high socioeconomic relevance as it most frequently occurs in young working patients. As its etiology is often unknown there is no standard treatment protocol. Several studies analyzed the different causes of patellofemoral pain and their different therapies. Static problems (pes planovalgus, instabilities, leg length differences) or chronic overuse of the knee extensor mechanism have to be identified and treated. After exclusion of intra-articular pathologies, the treatment of patellofemoral pain syndrome begins with conservative management. Stretching of the flexor and extensor muscles and training of the quadriceps muscle are the main approaches. If conservative treatment fails and patellofemoral pain persists, there are several surgical procedures for realignment of the patella in the trochlear groove and reduction of the patellofemoral pressure. Overweight patients exhibit chronic mechanical overuse of the patellofemoral joint. This leads to a higher rate of cartilage degeneration and problems at the inserting tendons and stabilizing tissues.
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