Article

Music Therapy in Pain and Symptom Management

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Abstract

The use of music therapy in pain and symptom management in the care of patients with long-term and life-threatening illnesses can be an effective non-pharmacologic approach to help ameliorate pain and suffering. By altering affective, cognitive, and sensory processes, music may decrease pain perception by distraction, change in mood, increased control, use of prior skills, and relaxation. This article reviews the background of the use of music therapy in pain management, explores a theoretical framework, and describes methods and techniques. Three case studies are provided to demonstrate the work.

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... As a movement of research toward specificity began, research found that music alters specific physiologic responses, such as heart rate and respiration rate (Lusk and Lash, 2005). Music has also been found to alter mood and elicit relaxation responses (Magill-Levreault, 1993). Music is able to elicit pleasure, which is assumed to motivate (Stige, 2006). ...
... Music is able to elicit pleasure, which is assumed to motivate (Stige, 2006). Music as a distraction is able to alter thoughts, emotions, or mood by inducing relaxation (Magill-Levreault, 1993). Music, as is pain, is a subjective sensory and emotional experience. ...
... There are three possible ways that music may modify pain (Magill-Levreault, 1993). ...
Thesis
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An emphasis on improved pain management for the patients at Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre motivated this research entitled Music Therapy As An Intervention For Pain Perception. The research proceeds as a naturalistic inquiry using abductive reasoning by the music therapist in the General Medicine Units. The majority of the patients in the General Medicine Units are awaiting placement to a rehabilitation program, long term care centre, nursing home or assisted home care. The research acts as an evaluation study reflecting on the effectiveness of a pre-existing music therapy program. The music therapist leads the music therapy sessions with an eclectic approach under the philosophy that each patient is individual, and how he or she responds to pain and treatment will be unique. The music therapist tailors each session to meet the need of each patient. Data is collected using triangulation; all observations related to pain perception are recorded after each music therapy session inclusive of patient comments. A survey is added to provide a numerical component to the study reflecting patient pain pre and post each session. Pain is rated on a scale of 1-10; 10 represents the most amount of pain imaginable. The aim of combining these data is to produce predictive generalizations about the use of music therapy as an intervention for pain perception. It is hypothesized that individuals will experience a reduction in pain perception with the exception of those who are symptomatic of depression. It is proposed that pain perception will initially be increased for those symptomatic of depression as a result of self-awareness through the music therapy process. A literature review about pain management, music and music therapy combined with the data from the research contributed to the evolution of three theories; 1. Music therapy is able to influence biological events such as emotions and memories, which has an impact on the perception of pain. 2. Music therapy can provide a healthy distraction to an individual’s pain, including the side effects of pain medication such as nausea, by blocking pain messages. 3. Music therapy is able to decrease anxiety, alleviate symptoms of depression, motivate and provide enjoyment contributing to quality of life. Improved quality of life can lead to a decrease in pain perception. There is a large emphasis on biological processes in this research project as this is where the parallels between music therapy and pain are most evident.
... The use of music as a nonpharmacologic method (Bailey, 1986;Magill-Levreault, 1993) for treating pain has been incorporated into the practice of music therapy over the past several years. One of the most widely known applications of music in the medical field has been audioanalgesia, and many studies have shown it to work as an analgesic agent (Robson & Harold, 1962;Hanser, Larson, & O'connell, 1983;Curtis, 1986;Brown, Chen, & Dworkin, 1989;O'Callaghan, 1996b;Colwell, 1997). ...
... Standley (1986) reviewed studies of music in medicine and reported that music facilitated pain relief in studies involving dentistry, podiatry, terminal cancer, respiratory care, obstetrics, spinal fusion, cardiac care, post-operative care, and kidney dialysis. These modifications may be achieved through distraction, suggestion, relaxation, or masking effects (Curtis, 1986;Sedei-Godley, 1987;Brown, Chen, & Dworkin, 1989;Davis, 1992;Magill-Levreault, 1993O'Callaghan, 1996b;Colwell, 1997). ...
... Therefore, music can be used as a distraction to reduce pain intensity, decrease anxiety, aid in relaxation, or be used as a vehicle for supportive psychotherapy. As cited by Magill-Levreault (1993) and Melzack and Wall (1965), music as a cognitive coping strategies can distract one's attention away from pain perception by offering a chance to create a pleasant image. As a third perspective, there are spinal mechanisms involved in the modulation of pain based on the Gate Control Theory (Melzack, 1973). ...
Article
The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of live music via the iso-principle on pain management in palliative care. A total of forty subjects participated in this study and were evenly divided into two groups: control (recorded classical selections) and experimental (live music via the iso-principle). Groups were matched on the basis of gender and amount of previous music therapy experience. Self-rating of pain using a Graphic Rating Scale (GRS) and pulse rate were measured before music and after music. A univariate analysis of variance was applied to analyze the data obtained from this study. Results from a comparison of pre-test to post-test indicated that there were significant differences between pre-test and post-test on both dependent variables for each group. In other words, both music therapy techniques facilitated subjects’ pain relief and relaxation. Besides, results of a univariate analysis of variance showed that there was a statistically significant difference on self-rating of pain between groups. Live music via the iso-principle was more effective than recorded music on pain management. A statistically significant difference in pulse rate between groups by gender also existed. This study supports that the use of live music via the iso-principle is an effective tool for pain management in palliative care.
... Therapeutic uses of music may moderate pain perception through active focus or distraction, mood alteration (e.g., reduced anxiety, provision of pleasing activity, enjoyment, improved environment), enhanced control (e.g., information agent), utilization of prior skills, and promotion of relaxation through sensory, cognitive, and emotional pathways (Gfeller, 2008;Magill-Levreault, 1993). The multi-dimensional nature of music may modify these pathways, stimulate endorphin production, and promote endogenous pain modulation (Beck, 1991). ...
... In three palliative care case studies (palliative care is intended to provide comfort and pain relief), Magill-Levreault (1993) demonstrated that the "dynamic and multidimensional qualities of music" provide an effective therapeutic tool to "soothe pain and ease suffering" (p. 47). ...
... Music therapy could be implemented as a rehabilitative tool for various emotionally distressed outcomes such as depression, mood disturbances, anxiety, nausea, fear, anger, sadness, and pain. [34,35] Music therapy is the use of therapeutic skill of music and musical elements (structured and audible sounds) by music therapists to support, sustain, and reinstate psychological, physical, emotional, and spiritual wellbeing. [36] Music therapy can be used as a therapeutic tool to promote wellness, alleviate chronic emotional pain, and express feelings and in helping emotionally disturbed individuals. ...
... Previous research indicated that music therapy alters automatic thoughts and emotional distress. [35] In consonance with our findings, music therapy was confirmed to be a therapeutic tool in helping individuals with emotional pains. [37] Previous research supported that music therapy is a helping strategy that improves healthy emotional state and alleviating the feeling of patients with life-limiting illnesses. ...
Article
Background: Music therapy combined with cognitive restructuring could provide a mechanism to improve patients' sense of control over emotional distress. This study evaluates the effect of music therapy combined with cognitive restructuring therapy on emotional distress in a sample of Nigerian couples. Methods: The participants for the study were 280 couples in south-east Nigeria. Perceived emotional distress inventory (PEDI) was used to assess emotional symptoms. Repeated measures with analysis of variance were used to examine the effects of the intervention. Mean rank was also used to document the level of changes in emotional distress across groups. Effect sizes were also reported with partial η. Results: There were no significant baseline differences in emotional distress level between participants in the music therapy with cognitive restructuring group and waitlisted group. Significant decreases in the level of emotional distress were observed in the music therapy with cognitive restructuring group, but the waitlisted group demonstrated no significant change in their score both at posttreatment and 3 follow-up assessments. Conclusion: Our findings suggest music therapy with cognitive restructuring therapy is effective for reducing emotional distress of couples. In addition, the positive effect of the music therapy with cognitive restructuring therapy program can persist at follow-up. Therefore, therapists have to continue to examine the beneficial effects of music therapy with cognitive restructuring therapy on emotional distress level of couples both in Nigeria and in other countries.
... Asimismo, muchos de los tratamientos que se aplican suelen ser dolorosos y estresantes, y pueden provocar dolor, náuseas y fatiga, así como disminuir el sistema inmunitario 29 . Seguidamente, se muestran algunos de los efectos ----en el área física----de la musicoterapia como terapia coadyuvante llevados a cabo con enfermos oncológicos adultos: disminuir la percepción del dolor [30][31][32][33] ; disminuir la tensión y fatiga, y promover estados de bienestar y relajación [34][35][36][37][38][39] ; ayudar a una mejor tolerancia y afrontamiento de los tratamientos, disminuyendo las náuseas [40][41][42][43] . ...
... Al igual que las emociones y los sentimientos, las funciones y los procesos cognitivos pueden verse modulados ya desde el mismo momento del diagnóstico. Varios son los autores que han trabajado aspectos relacionados con la dimensión cognitiva, destacando los siguientes efectos: distracción y evasión del sufrimiento o preocupaciones y recordar y/o evocar aspectos agradables, positivos y significativos 52,61,62 ; abordar y procesar aspectos no resueltos y/o reformular y reestructurar cognitivamente la situación, aumentar las estrategias de afrontamiento y/o aumentar la sensación de control 32,38,62 , y ofrecer una experiencia creativa [63][64][65][66] . ...
Article
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El cáncer puede comportar distrés físico y emocional. El distrés puede ser una reacción normal y adaptativa de los pacientes oncológicos, pero puede también dificultar el ajuste psicológico y, en algunas ocasiones, puede llevar a trastornos psicopatológicos. Las intervenciones psicológicas, así como otras modalidades de tratamiento, suelen ir dirigidas a reducir los síntomas de distrés y a mejorar la calidad de vida de los pacientes con cáncer. Numerosos estudios han demostrado la eficacia de la musicoterapia en contextos médicos y oncológicos. El objetivo de este artículo es presentar la musicoterapia como una intervención coadyuvante, que ofrece un enfoque multimodal y holístico, y que permite cubrir las necesidades físicas, psicosociales y espirituales de los pacientes con cáncer.
... Early research and descriptive palliative care music therapy articles primarily came out of Australia, the United States, Canada and the United Kingdom [4e11]. Such articles addressed a number of topics including: lyrical themes written by palliative care patients [10]; pain and symptom management [6]; and music and emotion in palliative care [11]. This paper will provide an overview of the development of music therapy techniques used in palliative care, and will also take a look at research demonstrating the efficacy of music therapy with this population within the framework of said music therapy techniques. ...
... Clements-Cort es [26] found that both live and recorded music listening by palliative care patients resulted in statistically significant reduced pain perception with the magnitude of the effect being much greater for live music. Other case studies have also identified that listening to music helps reduce pain perception and increases feelings of relaxation [2,6,7,32]. More specifically Kemper and Danhauer [33], found that classical music listening resulted in patients experiencing reduced tension and prescribed music had patients commenting on feelings of improved mental clarity, increased relaxation, as well as reduced feelings of sadness, tension and fatigue. ...
Article
Music therapy is increasingly becoming an intervention used in palliative care settings around the globe. While the specialty of palliative care music therapy is relatively young having emerged in the late 1980s, there is a strong and growing body of evidence demonstrating its efficacy in assisting a variety of issues common at end-of-life. There are multiple music therapy techniques that are implemented with clients in palliative care and they can be categorized in four broad areas: receptive, creative, recreative and combined. These techniques will be presented with respect to their development by clinicians as supported by the descriptive and research literature. Information is also provided on the use of music therapy in facilitating the grieving and bereavement process. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
... The hypoalgesic effect of TENS depends on the activation of opioid and non-opioid circuits located at the spinal and supraspinal level [25,30,39,44,56]. Some authors have reported significant age-related changes in these spinal [35,36] and supra-spinal circuits [26,34]. For instance, Hoskins and colleagues observed reduced spinal opioid-induced antinociception responses in older rats [35], a finding that could be explained by the age-related changes in the affinity of spinal opioid receptors [36]. ...
... Some authors have reported significant age-related changes in these spinal [35,36] and supra-spinal circuits [26,34]. For instance, Hoskins and colleagues observed reduced spinal opioid-induced antinociception responses in older rats [35], a finding that could be explained by the age-related changes in the affinity of spinal opioid receptors [36]. Taken together, these findings could help to explain the blunted TENS response observed in elderly individuals. ...
Article
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Despite its widespread clinical use, the efficacy of transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) remains poorly documented in elderly individuals. In this randomized, double-blind, cross-over study, we compared the efficacy of high-frequency (HF), low-frequency (LF) and placebo (P) TENS in a group of 15 elderly adults (mean age 67 ± 5 years). The effect of HF, LF and P-TENS was also evaluated in a group of 15 young individuals (26 ± 5 years; same study design) to validate the effectiveness of the TENS protocols that were used in the elderly group. Each participant came to the laboratory on three separate occasions to receive, in random order, HF, LF and P-TENS. Pain intensity and pain perception thresholds were assessed before, during and after TENS, using an experimental heat pain paradigm. For the young group, there was a significant decrease in pain intensity during and after HF and LF-TENS when compared to baseline, with both HF and LF-TENS being superior to P-TENS. In the older group, HF and LF-TENS did not reduce pain when compared to baseline, and no difference was observed between the two active TENS sessions and P-TENS. HF, LF and P-TENS all increased the pain thresholds in young individuals; whereas in older individuals, only LF-TENS increased pain thresholds. Taken together, these results suggest that TENS is effective in young, but not in older individuals. Future studies should be conducted to confirm these results in pain populations and to identify strategies that could enhance the effect of TENS in the elderly. Full text : http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4770382/v
... [33] Relaxation combined with music alters thoughts, emotions and elicit relaxation responses. [34] Relaxation technique has been described to be a powerful measure in reducing the stress level of people. [35,36] The author remarked that pharmacological intervention could be alternated with relaxation technique because it is a cheap and simple way to relieve stress, anxiety, and fatigue. ...
... [25] Likewise in France, research showed that music therapy with relaxation is a powerful strategy that alters negative thoughts, emotions and elicits relaxation responses. [34] In line with our finding, Uyar and Korhan [40] reported a reduction of pain intensity and severity of anxiety among stressed patients exposed to music session in Turkey. A significant reduction in psychological deficits and symptoms among people in Iowa was found during classical music intervention. ...
Article
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Background: Living in Nigerian environment is enough stress. In our time, many students could not cope with the stress of school environment like ours and others are still suffering from different health problems attributed to stress. Based on this, we investigated the effect of music therapy with relaxation technique on stress management among university students in southeastern Nigeria. Methods: Participants for the study were 142 university students in the Southeastern Nigeria. Perceived stress scale (PSS) was used to measure the symptoms of stress. Statistical tool used was repeated measures with analysis of variance (ANOVA) to ascertain the effectiveness of music therapy with relaxation. Among other tools used was Partial η to examine the effect sizes and level of changes inthemanagement of stress across groups. Results: The finding indicated that there were no baseline differences in levels of stress management between participants in the treatment and waitlist control conditions. Results revealed significant improvement in stress management for participants in the music therapy with relaxation group, whereas the waitlist control group showed no significant change in their score over the same period. Furthermore, the positive effect of music therapy with relaxation was maintained at follow-up. Conclusion: The findings of this study suggest that the efficacy of music therapy with relaxation technique for improving the students' stress management can be consistent at follow-up. Hence, music therapists, counsellors and psychotherapists should continue to investigate the beneficial effects of music therapy with relaxation on stress management among university students in every part of the world.
... Dicha variable, además de ser evaluada mediante instrumentos específicamente diseñados para medirla, puede ser también sensible a otras variables relacionadas con aspectos físicos (dolor, relajación, tensión, etc.) y/o psicológicos (ansiedad, tristeza,…), que están interconectados y que se ven mutuamente influenciados. Las intervenciones musicoterapéuticas pueden tener una influencia en los procesos fisiológicos y psicológicos, y pueden contribuir a una disminución tanto del malestar físico como del distrés emocional (50)(51)(52) . ...
Article
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Aim: To evaluate the effectiveness of a music therapy treatment on mood and quality of life of colorectal cancer patients. Method: Eighteen subjects (14 women and 4 men) who were diagnosed with colorectal cancer participated in a music therapy program consisting of eight weekly group music therapy sessions, 90 minute-session. Participants completed the following instruments before and after the intervention (pre/post): the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS), the Profile of Mood States-Short Form A (POMS-A), the Global Quality of Life Scale and the Functioning Scales of the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer-Quality of Life Core Questionnaire-C30 (EORTC-QLQ-C30). A 3 item Numerical Rating Scale (NRS) for Anxiety, Sadness and Physical Distress was administered at the beginning and end of each session (pre/post session). An Observation Behavior Form (designed ad hoc) was used to evaluate mood after each session. A Music Therapy Program Satisfaction Questionnaire (designed ad hoc) was administered at the end of the program. Results: Although all the obtained scores pointed to a desirable change direction, non significant changes were found in the POMS-A, HADS nor EORTC QLQ-C30. A significant improvement was found in the Anxiety, Sadness and Physical Distress NRS items. The Music Therapy Program Satisfaction Questionnaire showed that participants perceived this type of intervention as very useful and very satisfactory. © 2015, Spanish Association of Anglo-American Studies. All rights reserved.
... c o m / e u j i m While in such cases, acute pain is related to a certain clinical condition or medical procedure, music listening interventions are also used in the treatment of patients with chronic pain due to long-term illness. For example, music listening may be beneficial for elderly patients with chronic osteoarthritic pain [8]; patients with chronic nonmalignant pain [9]; hospitalized individuals with cancer pain [10][11][12]; home-dwelling persons with dementia [13]; or patients with likewise long-term and life-threatening illnesses in palliative [14,15] or hospice care [16]. Recent technological developments (i.e., handheld devices and smartphones), allow for the patient-controlled use of music within a large variety of clinical and ambulatory applications. ...
... Some studies reported that music might distract patients from anxiety and worries and reduce pain and distress (17,18). However, another study showed that listening to music during or after the biopsy had no significant pain reduction in patients (19). ...
Article
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Objective:The aim of this investigation is to investigate the effect of a pre-procedure animated video and music on blood pressure, pain score, anxiety score and pulse rate in patients undergoing transrectal ultrasound (TRUS)-guided biopsy.Materials and Methods:One hundred and two male patients who underwent a TRUS-guided prostate biopsy were randomised into two groups. A control group: no music or with a video included (n=51) and an experimental group: pre-education with an animation video and music included (n=51) during the procedure. Before and after the TRUS biopsy, the state-anxiety inventory score (STAI), pain visual analogue scale (VAS), heart rate and blood pressure were obtained from each patient and compared. Blood pressure and pulse were recorded by the urologist. Student’s t-test and a paired t-test were used for variables with a normal distribution and Mann-Whitney U test and Wilcoxon-rank tests were used for variables that did not show a normal distribution (p
... The question whether music is noise or not, can be approached from many perspectives. Music is appreciated by many and is also used as one kind of therapy to ameliorate pain and suffering (Guzzetta, 1989;Chlan L, 1998;Magill-Levreault, 1993). On the other hand, there are many professional musicians whose hearing problems are known to be caused by music. ...
... Her response was made from a long career of experiences with cancer suf ferers and their families (Bailey 1983;Bailey 1984;Magill 1993;Magill 2001;Magill, Chung, and Kennedy 2000). Both of us emphasise the importance of the immediate family and the people working in the hospital ward. ...
Article
Th er e has an emer ging inter est in spirituality in music therapy . This paper offers some definitions of spirituality and r eligion as sometimes the two terms ar e confounded. My position is that if spirituality is about the individual, ineffable and implicit; r eligion is about the social, spoken and explicit. Such definitions ar e an attempt to explicate the practices wher eby spirituality is achieved. Spirituality lends meaning and purpose to our lives, these purposes help us transcend what we ar e. The ability to rise above suffering, to go beyond the pr esent situation to a r ealm wher e life takes on another , per haps deeper , significance is an important factor in palliative car e. Music therapy facilitates the pr ocess of connecting to that which is spiritually significant for the patient, ther eby transforming experiences of suffering into those of meaning. This has been traditionally termed transcendence – to rise above the immedi -ate situation, and is the basis of hope.
... La persistencia de las secuelas físicas en pacientes supervivientes de cáncer de mama es un hecho. Al tratarse de pacientes que han pasado por una experiencia de tratamientos oncológicos, se decidió incluir el ítem Malestar Físico en este estudio y considerarla como una variable que, si bien no incide de manera directa con el estado de ánimo, sí que puede modularlo e influenciarlo (85)(86)(87)(88) . Se ha reducido este tipo de malestar en todas las sesiones, y esta disminución ha resultado ser significativa en 7 de las 8 sesiones que configuran el programa. ...
Article
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Introduction: Even when the oncologic treatments are completed, breast cancer patients still may experience physical and psychological distress. Aim: The purpose of this study is to evaluate the effectiveness of a music therapy treatment on mood and quality of life of breast cancer survivors. Method: Eleven free-disease women participated in a music therapy program. Treatment consisted of 8 weekly group music therapy sessions, 90 minutes/session. Participants completed the following instruments before and after the intervention (pre/post): HADS (Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale), POMS-A (Pro-fle of Mood States), Quality of Life EORTC-QLQ-30 (European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer-Quality of Life Core Questionnaire-30). A 3 item Numerical Rating Scale (NRS) for Anxiety, Sadness and Physical Distress was administered at the beginning and ending of each session (pre/post session). An Evaluation Questionnaire was administered at the end of the program. Results: The POMS-A results showed a statistical significant improvement in the Total Mood Disturbance Scores and in the Tension Subscale. No significant changes were found in the Anxiety and Depression HADS subsca-les. Quality of Life only significantly improved in the Emotional Functioning EORTC Subscale. A significant improvement has been found in the 3 NRS items. The Evaluation Questionnaire shows that participants have perceived this type of intervention as very useful and at a very satisfactory level. © 2015 Spanish Association of Anglo-American Studies. All rights reserved.
... La persistencia de las secuelas físicas en pacientes supervivientes de cáncer de mama es un hecho. Al tratarse de pacientes que han pasado por una experiencia de tratamientos oncológicos, se decidió incluir el ítem Malestar Físico en este estudio y considerarla como una variable que, si bien no incide de manera directa con el estado de ánimo, sí que puede modularlo e influenciarlo (85)(86)(87)(88) . Se ha reducido este tipo de malestar en todas las sesiones, y esta disminución ha resultado ser significativa en 7 de las 8 sesiones que configuran el programa. ...
... La persistencia de las secuelas físicas en pacientes supervivientes de cáncer de mama es un hecho. Al tratarse de pacientes que han pasado por una experiencia de tratamientos oncológicos, se decidió incluir el ítem Malestar Físico en este estudio y considerarla como una variable que, si bien no incide de manera directa con el estado de ánimo, sí que puede modularlo e influenciarlo (85)(86)(87)(88) . Se ha reducido este tipo de malestar en todas las sesiones, y esta disminución ha resultado ser significativa en 7 de las 8 sesiones que configuran el programa. ...
Article
Full-text available
Introduction: Even when the oncologic treatments are completed, breast cancer patients still may experience physical and psychological distress. Aim: The purpose of this study is to evaluate the effectiveness of a music therapy treatment on mood and quality of life of breast cancer survivors. Method: Eleven free-disease women participated in a music therapy program. Treatment consisted of 8 weekly group music therapy sessions, 90 minutes/session. Participants completed the following instruments before and after the intervention (pre/post): HADS (Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale), POMS-A (Profile of Mood States), Quality of Life EORTC-QLQ-30 (European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer-Quality of Life Core Questionnaire-30). A 3 item Numerical Rating Scale (NRS) for Anxiety, Sadness and Physical Distress was administered at the beginning and ending of each session (pre/post session). An Evaluation Questionnaire was administered at the end of the program. Results: The POMS-A results showed a statistical significant improvement in the Total Mood Disturbance Scores and in the Tension Subscale. No significant changes were found in the Anxiety and Depression HADS subscales. Quality of Life only significantly improved in the Emotional Functioning EORTC Subscale. A significant improvement has been found in the 3 NRS items. The Evaluation Questionnaire shows that participants have perceived this type of intervention as very useful and at a very satisfactory level.
... In ancient times Music Therapy 9 primitive people performed their healing rituals with music. Greek philosophers used music as a therapy with the mentally disturbed (Fischer, 1990& Magill-Levreault, 1993. In Roman times, Alexander the Great believed that music created men filled with inspiration and energy. ...
... The Music and Art therapies are non pharmacological therapies offering a range of calming and expressive benefits to patients and their families. Music therapy has been used to alter mood, promote relaxation, improve communication and break the cyclical nature of pain 29 . Theoretical models and methods of treatment have been developed and are being used by music therapists in area of pain management, music and neurological sciences, psychotherapy and integrative medicine. ...
... However, participants did report feeling distraction from their physical discomfort, inferring that the therapy can improve wellbeing. It is believed by some that pain relief is possible with the use of imagery, as the creation of beautiful scenes in the patient's mind can cause them to be distracted from their pain (Magill-Levreault, 1993;O'Callaghan, 1996a). Although participants acknowledged that music therapy was able to provide distraction from physical symptoms, they would not use music therapy as the primary agent for pain and symptom relief. ...
... In the Supportive Care Program of the Pain Service to the Neurology Department of Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, a music therapist is part of a supportive team, together with a psychiatrist, a nurseclinician, a neuro-oncologist, a chaplain and a social worker. Music therapy is used to promote relaxation, to reduce anxiety, to supplement other pain control methods and to enhance communication between the patient and their family (Bailey 1983(Bailey , 1984Magill Levreault 1993). As depression is a common feature symptom in the patients who receive this program then music therapy is potentially an influence on this parameter and upon enhancing quality of life. ...
Article
Hospitals and clinics worldwide have incorporated music therapy in their work with cancer patients and in palliative care. As the music therapy profession has developed internationally, so has its role in palliative care. The arts and creative arts therapies are being seen as a form of spiritual care in healthcare settings, particularly where individuals are confronting life-threatening illnesses. By offering opportunities to engage in the arts and develop creative expression, people with cancer can be enabled to mourn, grieve, celebrate life, be empowered to endure their situation, and find healing and meaning. In many studies we find that music therapy is not simply used with the identified patients but also with their families and carers. As well as noting the importance of work with patients and their families, music therapists also emphasise the importance of music for their own healing. This is necessary to meet personal needs when working with the dying and in the context of a broader hospital milieu of colleagues and friends. The World Health Organisation's recommendations for cancer relief and palliative care are to affirm life and regard dying as a normal process, to provide relief from pain and distressing symptoms, to integrate the psychological and spiritual aspects of patient care, to offer a support system to help patients as actively as possible until death, and to offer a support system to help the family cope during the illness and in their own bereavement. Music therapy has the potential to meet all of these recommendations.
... Ces activités mobilisent les ressources psychiques des patients et permettraient d'adoucir ou de mieux supporter les effets secondaires des traitements spécifiques (chimiothérapie, radiothérapie, etc.). De plus, ces techniques ont montré une efficacité sur la diminution de l'intensité des symptômes liés au cancer [5][6][7][8][9][10][11][12][13][14]. Le but principal de ces approches complémentaires est avant tout d'améliorer le confort du patient, et de préserver au maximum sa qualité de vie, ce qui rejoint un des objectifs principaux des soins palliatifs [15,16]. ...
Article
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Background Complementary therapies such as relaxation and music therapy have demonstrated efficacy in the management of symptoms and improved quality of life for patients with advanced cancer. Art therapy allows patients to use the creative process to express their concerns and feelings. Objective We used a qualitative study to assess the impact of art therapy sessions on pain and other symptoms presented by patients with advanced cancer patients in a palliative care unit (PCU). Materials and methods Twelve consecutive inpatients were included in this prospective study. We conducted semi-structured interviews to assess patients’ perceptions of the impact and value of the intervention on their physical and psychological symptoms. Results Patients reported that the sessions were relaxing and allowed them to distance their concerns related to their disease. Art therapy allowed them not only to improve and sometimes to restore communication with their families and caregivers, but also had helped to restore a desire to do as well as to be involved in new projects. Conclusion Art therapy seems to act as a multimodal therapy on physical, cognitive, social and emotional symptoms experienced by palliative care inpatients.
... The concept of artistic accurate empathy and the clinically tested spiritually oriented music-based intervention model (Gallant and Holosko, 2001) enables social workers, music therapists and helping professionals to deal constructively with anticipatory grief of clients experiencing an end-of-life issue. Within the spiritual context (Aldridge, 2000;Magill, 1984;Magill, 1993;Ricciarelli, 2003;Salmon, 2001), there are unique phases, tasks, and psychological issues of dying, and creative artistic processes can be provided for organizing music therapy approaches to deal with these issues. The therapist can select supportive music and enabling interventions by tracking the patient' s movements through phases and tasks of dying (West, 1995), as illustrated in Table 1 and Figure 1. ...
... The U sequence is a music therapy technique specifically developed for pain management [87,88]. A single session of music therapy is effective in significantly reducing cancer pain when used along with standard palliative care in cancer patients with moderate to severe pain, chronic pain and anxiety/depression, by altering affective, cognitive, and sensory processes, music may decrease pain perception by distraction, change in mood, increased control, use of prior skills, and relaxation, reduces opioid requirements, improve QoL [89][90][91][92][93][94][95][96][97]. Cepeda et al. [92] shows that music therapy was best for short term pain after surgery [93]. ...
Book
Toxicity of traditional pain modulation with pain killers are well reported and toxic effects and potential dependence of synthetic opioids are not completely understood yet. Famous celebrities like Bruce Lee, Chris Penn, Elvis Presley, Heath Ledger, Anna Nicole Smith died from opioid overdose. Over 100 million Americans are living with chronic pain, and pain is the most common reason that patients seek medical attention. Postoperative pain is not adequately managed in greater than 80% of patients in the US, although rates vary depending on such factors as type of surgery performed, analgesic/anesthetic intervention used, and time elapsed after surgery. In France, work productivity loss contributed almost 90% of the total costs incurred by patients with fibromyalgia. The US spent 17.8% of it ‘ s GDP on healthcare in 2015, expected to increase to 20% or higher by 2025. Approximately 70 to 85% of the western population will develop low back pain at least once during their lifetime. Of the people that consult their general practitioner for low back pain, one year later about 60% still report pain. Asia, Africa, and Latin America are collectively home to more than 50% of cancer patients; with more than half of global cancer-related mortality occurring in Asia alone. Migraine is now ranked as the second most disabling disorder worldwide reported by the Global Burden of Disease Study 2016.
... A review of eleven studies done on the role of music therapy in hospice and palliative care concluded that pain, physical comfort, fatigue and energy, anxiety and relaxation, time and duration of treatment, mood, spirituality and quality of life are the variables positively affected by music therapy intervention and stressed for further research [15]. Another study pointed music as a valuable adjuvant therapy for pain reduction and symptom management based on music's ability to decrease pain perception by distraction, change in mood, increased control, use of prior skills, and relaxation [16]. A recent review on the role of music based interventions on motor or non motor symptoms of Parkinson's disease has put forth music as a starting point in rehabilitation of Parkinson's patients indicating the need for more methodologically sound studies for the development of adequate, and increasingly specific and effective music therapy approaches [17]. ...
... Patients develop personal and subjective associations with the music. Furthermore, patients may feel more in control of their environment (Magill-Levreault, 1993) if they can select their music. ...
... La musique dans la gestion de la douleur: [40] La musicothérapie peut être utilisée comme un moyen non-pharmacologique de gestion de la douleur chez les patients chroniques. En effet, la musique en jouant sur les processus affectifs, cognitifs et sensoriels, peut diminuer la perception de la douleur chez le patient. ...
Thesis
L'homme a toujours associé médecine et musique pour le mieux-être du malade. De la Préhistoire à la Renaissance, en passant par l'Antiquité et le Moyen-Age, la musique a toujours été un outil du guérisseur. Aujourd'hui, on redécouvre les bienfaits de la musique dans ce domaine et ses propriétésthérapeutiques. La musicothérapie s'est surtout développée ces quarante dernières années et de nombreuses techniques sont utilisées notammentdans le domaine de la psychanalyse.La musique trouve également sa place à l'hôpital. Elle peut stimuler le nourrisson prématuré, distraire l'enfant hospitalisé, permettre la rééducation du jeune polyhandicapé. Elle permet également au patient de se relaxer lors d'examens stressants et participe à une meilleure gestion de la douleur lorsque celle-ci est présente dans certaines pathologies. Enfin, il est très intéressant d'utiliser la musique avec les personnes âgées en institution: elle leur apporte une distraction et elle fait référence à des souvenirs permettant d'entrer en communication avec ces personnes souvent isolées (notamment cellesatteintes de la maladie d'Alzheimer).En fait la musique rime avec distraction, moyen de communication, relaxation: autant de facteurs permettant un mieux-être du malade. Le soin du corps est fondamental dans la guérison mais on reconnaît aussi l'importance du mental dans celle-ci. C'est pourquoi, ces nouvelles thérapies non pharmacologiques qui prennent en charge la personne dans sa globalité, gagnent à être découvertes etpourquoi pas développées dans l'intérêt du malade et de l'équipe soignante.
... Music therapy research specific to cancer treatment has primarily focused either on patients who are hospitalized or on outpatients receiving chemotherapy treatment. Music therapy clinicians and researchers have used interventions to decrease pain and nausea, improve mood, increase physical strength, increase family communication, and increase quality of life Blodt [6] Curtis [14] Magill-Levreault [18] McDougal-Miller [20] Sabo et al. [35] Standley [38] Zimmerman, L., et al. [40]. Anecdotal and empirical reports indicate music therapy interventions are effective in alleviating pain perception and nausea in cancer patients Curtis [14] Sabo & Michael [35] Standley [38] Zimmerman et al. [40]. ...
Article
This paper focuses on effect of the bonny method of guided imagery and music (GIM) as a complementary therapy is noninvasive, non-pharmacologic adjunct to mainstream treatment. This study investigates the effect of GIM on mood, quality of life and immune system and examines physical and emotional symptoms and side effects as well. It is proposed Guided Imagery and Music can be effective on patients' strength and control of the physical and emotional symptoms associated with cancer. The results reports GIM can provide self-help guidance to enhance body and soul at times when one feels vulnerable and life seems out of control. The results show that the Bonny Method of Guided Imagery and Music (GIM) improves physical and emotional function, immunity and life quality of patient cancer to manage stress and symptoms of aging, regardless of health status.
... Several studies in the literature show that music can support patients during medical and surgical office procedure during which the patient is awake, with reducing pain, anxiety, and stress, focusing the patient's attention away from the negative stimulus to something desirable and relaxing and creating a positive environment during the procedure [5][6][7][8][9]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Video-assisted endoscopic radiofrequency inferior turbinate volume reduction (RFVTR) is one of the most common surgical therapies for inferior turbinate hypertrophy (ITH). Despite all the technical and surgical advancement, it is advisable to reduce as low as possible the intraoperative discomfort. The aim of this study is to evaluate the role of music in reducing patient discomfort during RFVTR. Materials and methods: Twenty-three patients with chronic nasal obstruction due to ITH and candidate to RFVTR are included. Before the procedure each patient filled in a completed Italian version of the state anxiety questionnaire (State-Trait Anxiety Inventory), SNOT 22 questionnaire, VAS, and chose their favourite music to be played during RFVTR. All patients evaluate the intraoperative discomfort with a visual analog scale (VAS) and for each patient, vital parameters such as blood pressure and heart rate were recorded 15 minutes before the procedure, during and after RFVTR. Results: The intraoperative VAS scores during listening to music (5.7 ± 2.42 vs 6.7 ± 1.97; p< 0.05) were significantly lower, such as systolic BP (133.5 ±17.2 vs 136.78 ±16.8; p< 0.05) and heat rate (80.3 ±14.9 vs 81.7 ±15.5; p NS). During our survey, most of the patients preferred listening to classical music and none preferred rock music. No correlation was found between STAI 1-2 and intraoperative surgical discomfort evaluated both with VAS and cardiac parameters (systolic BP and HR). Conclusions: Music can be useful as a complementary method to control anxiety and reduce perception of pain in an office-based procedure, such as the RFVTR. The patient is more relaxed and experiences less discomfort; thus the surgeon and nurse can work with more confidence.
... The U sequence is a music therapy technique specifically developed for pain management [80,81]. A single session of music therapy is effective in significantly reducing cancer pain when used along with standard palliative care in cancer patients with moderate to severe pain, chronic pain and anxiety/depression, by altering affective, cognitive, and sensory processes, music may decrease pain perception by distraction, change in mood, increased control, use of prior skills, and relaxation, reduces opioid requirements, improve QoL [82][83][84][85][86][87][88][89], [91]. ...
Article
Many non-physiologic factors (psychological, familial and societal attitudes, life stressors, and cultural or spiritual) contributing to the experience of and response to pain. Emotional stress, for example, anxiety and depression assume a key job in understanding of agony. Endless agony is related with expanded dimensions of burdensome side effects, anxiety, and insomnia paying little heed to disability status. it has both modifiable factors (mental health, co-morbidities, smoking, alcohol, obesity, physical activity/exercise, sleep, nutrition, economic status and occupational) and non-modifiable factors (age, sex, cultural and socioeconomic background, history of trauma/ injury/ interpersonal violence, heritage). The relationship between increased BMI and chronic pain in adults seems intuitive and may be related, in part, to increased weight-bearing on joints, reduced physical activity and deconditioning. Patient with physical disabilities may have co-occurring chronic pain, but the prevalence and specific associated factors are unknown. Neuropathic pain (NeP) can be the result of a variety of conditions, including metabolic disease, infection, malignancy, trauma, medications, and toxins; estimates of 60% among those with chronic pain. Chronic pain affects 20% of the European population and is commoner in women, older people, and with relative deprivation. Its administration in the network remains commonly unacceptable, somewhat as a result of absence of proof for successful intercessions. Additionally, family and guardians' convictions and demeanors towards torment, either decidedly and contrarily to endure and express torment are imperative. Hazard factors incorporate socio-demographic, clinical, psychological, and biological factors. Pain increases depression risk 3-5-fold. Pain, rather than chronic disease, is associated with the recurrence of depressive and anxiety disorders; 50–80% of chronic pain patients report insomnia of a severity that warrants clinical attention. It is estimated that approximately one in five of the adult population in Europe suffers chronic pain, which is therefore more prevalent than asthma or diabetes. Chronic pain has long-term biological, psychological and social causes and consequences that are important in prevention and management.
... Nineteen papers were found to describe patients' experience with music therapy in the palliative setting, and examined in full detail. Of these, nine were excluded as seven were case studies with the music therapists describing their interaction with the patients (Clements-Cortes, 2004;Dimaio, 2010;Magill-Levreault, 1993;Marom, 2008;O'Callaghan, 1996b;Pawuk & Schumacher, 2010;Salmon, 1993), one was not conducted in a palliative setting (O'Callaghan & McDermott, 2004), one described music therapists' experience with patients' incomplete music therapy legacies (Thomas & Crappsley, 2009;O'Callaghan, Petering, Thomas & Crappsley, 2009), and one was written in Japanese (Mihara et al., 2006). (Nakayama et al., 2009), and Singapore (Leow et al., 2010). ...
Article
Background: Music therapy is a popular form of complementary therapy used in the hospice in Western countries, as people who are terminally ill have several needs arising directly from the disease process. In the area of palliative care, no systematic review has been conducted on the experience of patients using music therapy from the qualitative perspective. Hence, a synthesized summary of the experience of music therapy is presented. Objectives: The aim of this review was to critically analyse and synthesize existing evidence related to terminally ill patients' experiences of using music therapy in the palliative setting. Inclusion criteria: This review considered quantitative descriptive studies, and qualitative research with adult participants who were terminally ill receiving palliative care in a hospital, an in-patient hospice, a nursing home, or their own homes, regardless of their diagnosis who had undergone at least one music therapy session with a trained music therapist and were not cognitively impaired. Healthcare workers who have witnessed patients participating in music therapy were also included in the review. Search strategy: Only published primary research studies were included in the review. This review was limited to papers in English. A three-step search strategy was undertaken. First, an initial limited search of CINAHL and MEDLINE was done. Second, an extensive search using all identified keywords and index terms across all included databases was done. Finally, a hand search of the reference lists and bibliographies of included articles was conducted METHODOLOGICAL QUALITY: Papers selected for retrieval were assessed by two independent reviewers for methodological validity prior to inclusion in the review using the standardised critical appraisal instruments from the Joanna Briggs Institute Qualitative Assessment and Review Instrument (QARI) for qualitative papers, and Joanna Briggs Institute Meta Analysis of Statistics Assessment and Review Instrument (JBI-MAStARI) for quantitative descriptive papers. Any disagreement that arose between the reviewers was resolved through discussion with a third reviewer. Data collection: Information was extracted by two reviewers from each paper using the Joanna Briggs Institute Qualitative Assessment and Review data extraction tool (QARI) for qualitative papers, and the Joanna Briggs Institute Meta Analysis of Statistics Assessment and Review Instrument (JBI-MAStARI) for quantitative descriptive papers. Any disagreement that arose between the reviewers was resolved through discussion with a third reviewer. Data synthesis: Qualitative findings were pooled using the JBI-QARI while quantitative data were presented in narrative format. Results: A total of 10 studies were identified, and of these, 3 were included in the review. Only qualitative papers were included in the studies as the quantitative descriptive papers did not meet the inclusion criteria. Two synthesized findings were developed - "Music therapy should be used in palliative settings to promote social interaction and communication with family, friends, other patients, and healthcare workers", and "Music therapy should be promoted in palliative care setting to provide support for holistic needs of patients". Conclusion: From the meta-syntheses of review, it was shown that patients experienced improved social interaction and communication with the people around them, and a more holistic care for as their physical, psychological and spiritual needs were met. No papers relating to the patients' expectations of music therapy was found. Implications for research: Further research should be conducted to explore the expectations of terminally ill patients with music therapy as no such paper was found from the systematic review. Quantitative studies to find out the effectiveness of music therapy in promoting social interaction and communication and in providing holistic care for patients can be done to quantify the findings. It can also be investigated if the quality of life of terminally ill patients improve after receiving music therapy, since music therapy has been found to have positive benefits for the patients. Also, qualitative studies that aim to find out the experiences of terminally ill patients through the interviewing of the patients should also be done, as the papers found either reported on the perception of healthcare providers, or through the analysis of patients' song lyrics. Implications for practice: The use of music therapy should be encouraged in the palliative setting as the review has shown that music therapy is able to promote social interaction and communication with family members, healthcare workers and the people in their lives, and provides holistic care for patients by relieving physical symptoms, facilitating "moving on" to the next phrase of their life, improving their personal well-being, and providing an outlet for spirituality.
... Data is kept on a user's account based on music listening sessions. Music therapy has been shown to be a useful tool for improvement of sleep quality, reduction of anxiety [4] and pain management [8]. This tool is helpful for finding appropriate music for these ailments and tracking a users self-reported statistics, but is used at-home. ...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Music therapy is utilized worldwide to connect communities, strengthen mental and physiological wellbeing, and provide new means of communication for individuals with phonological, social, language, and other communication disorders. The incorporation of technology into music therapy has many potential benefits. Existing research has been done in creating user-friendly devices for music therapy clients, but these technologies have not been utilized due to complications in use by the music therapists themselves. This paper reports the iterative prototype design of a compact and intuitive device designed in close collaboration with music therapists across the globe to promote the usefulness and usability of prototypes. The device features interchangeable interfaces for work with diverse populations. It is portable and hand-held. A device which incorporates these features does not yet exist. The outlined design specifications for this device were found using human centered design techniques and may be of significant use in designing other technologies in this field. Specifications were created throughout two design iterations and evaluations of the device. In an evaluation of the second iteration of this device it was found that 5/8 therapists wanted to incorporate it into their practices.
... Hypnosis 81]. A single session of music therapy is effective in significantly reducing cancer pain when used along with standard palliative care in cancer patients with moderate to severe pain, chronic pain and anxiety/depression, by altering affective, cognitive, and sensory processes, music may decrease pain perception by distraction, change in mood, increased control, use of prior skills, and relaxation, reduces opioid requirements, improve QoL [82][83][84][85][86][87][88][89], [91]. Cepeda et al., shows that music therapy was best for short term pain after surgery [86]. ...
Article
Aristotle (4th century B.C.) defined pain as emotion, being the opposite of pleasure. Whereas, Buddha stated "Pain is the outcome of sin", as evidence that an individual was possessed by demons. In some religions it is the cost of attachment. Spiritual counseling thus may be more of a preference than medical management. Many non-physiologic factors (psychological, familial and societal attitudes, life stressors, and cultural or spiritual) contributing to the experience of and response to pain. Emotional stress, for example, anxiety and depression assume a key job in understanding of agony. Endless agony is related with expanded dimensions of burdensome side effects, anxiety, and insomnia paying little heed to disability status. it has both modifiable factors (mental health, co-morbidities, smoking, alcohol, obesity, physical activity/exercise, sleep, nutrition, economic status and occupational) and non-modifiable factors (age, sex, cultural and socioeconomic background, history of trauma/ injury/ interpersonal violence, heritage). The relationship between increased BMI and chronic pain in adults seems intuitive and may be related, in part, to increased weight-bearing on joints, reduced physical activity and deconditioning. Patient with physical disabilities may have co-occurring chronic pain, but the prevalence and specific associated factors are unknown. Neuropathic pain (NeP) can be the result of a variety of conditions, including metabolic disease, infection, malignancy, trauma, medications, and toxins; estimates of 60% among those with chronic pain. Chronic pain affects 20% of the European population and is commoner in women, older people, and with relative deprivation. Its administration in the network remains commonly unacceptable, somewhat as a result of absence of proof for successful intercessions. Additionally, family and guardians' convictions and demeanors towards torment, either decidedly and contrarily to endure and express torment are imperative. Hazard factors incorporate socio-demographic, clinical, psychological, and biological factors. Pain increases depression risk 3-5-fold. Pain, rather than chronic disease, is associated with the recurrence of depressive and anxiety disorders; 50-80% of chronic pain patients report insomnia of a severity that warrants clinical attention. It is estimated that approximately one in five of the adult population in Europe suffers chronic pain, which is therefore more prevalent than asthma or diabetes. Chronic pain has long-term biological, psychological and social causes and consequences that are important in prevention and management.
... epression is a common mental health problem affecting 322 million people worldwide. About 4.1% of Bangladeshi metabolic syndrome [14][15][16] , but very few studies investigated effects of music therapy on depression. Music has a beneficial role when combined with standard care [17][18][19] . ...
Article
Full-text available
Background :Non linear measure of heart rate variability (HRV) is an emerging method to detect changes in cardiac autonomic nerve function in major depressive disorder (MDD). Objective: To observe the effect of music therapy on non linear measures of HRV in newly diagnosed MDD patients. Methods: This prospective interventional study was done in the Department of Physiology, Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujib Medical University (BSMMU), Shahbag, Dhaka in 2018 on 60 newly diagnosed MDD patients aged 20-40 years, both male and female. They were further subdivided into 30 patients with only antidepressant medication (Mirtazapine) and 30 patients received music therapy with Raga kafi (Rabindrasangeet) along with the same medication for 3 months. Age, sex and BMI matched healthy control were also enrolled. HRV non linear parameters were recorded by Power Lab 8/35. For statistical analysis paired sample ‘t’ test and independent sample ‘t’ test were done. Result: SD1, SD2 and SD1/SD2 were found significantly lower in MDD patients compared to healthy control at baseline. After 3 months of music therapy, significant increment of these parameters occurred with trend of improvement in cardiac autonomic nerve function (CANF) in these patients. Conclusion: This study concluded that music therapy can improve CANF by increasing parasympathetic and reducing sympathetic activity in MDD patients. J Bangladesh Soc Physiol. 2019, June; 14(1): 7-13
Article
Music is universal. As a successor to the book The Social Psychology of Music, this book aims to provide social psychological answers to the numerous questions concerning music. Given the prominence music plays in our lives, it is still however imperilled by modern culture. Forewarning an imminent danger to music, it was warned in the previous book that the digital revolution would pave the way for legal and illegal online music stores and computer applications that would completely change the way people accessed music. With its ubiquity, music has been downgraded as insignificant or 'cheap'. This book deems that the best way to safeguard music is to comprehend the rightful place it occupies in our everyday modern life, and those more complex factors that rationalize our most profound experiences of music. The chapters in this book argue that the social and applied psychology approach to music can tackle issues such as: why some pieces elicit strong emotional reactions; what makes a good musician, or why some composers are forgotten easily; whether music can boost retailers' profits; whether there is a link between musical subculture and suicide; and whether music can be used to help sick patients. Using social and applied psychology to understand some questions about music helps to safeguard it by allowing people to make effective arguments concerning 'music as a manifestation of the human spirit'; against modern-day pressures such as neo-conservative protesters, accountants, and the digital revolution by demonstrating its social and financial value.
Article
Investigating the effects of music on pain and anxiety perception during office hysteroscopy. Prospective randomized trial (Canadian Task Force classification I). Major university medical center. Three hundred fifty-six patients were enrolled between July 2012 and January 2013 INTERVENTIONS: Hysteroscopy was performed in a dedicated ambulatory room, using vaginoscopy and without any type of anesthesia by the same surgeon, a gynaecologist with special interest in hysteroscopy. A Bettocchi hysteroscope with a 5 mm diameter was used. Data collected included age, body mass index, number of vaginal delivery, the previous surgery on endometrium (curettage and/or hysteroscopy), educational level. For each patient vital parameters such as blood pressure, heart rate and respiratory rate were recorded, 15 min before the procedure and during the hysteroscopy (after traversing the cervix). Waiting time before surgery and the duration of the procedure were also recorded. Moreover, a completed Italian version of the state anxiety questionnaire (state-trait anxiety inventory [STAI]) and a Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) were administered to each patient before and after the procedure. Student's t test and Mann-Whitney U test was used whenever appropriate to compare the two groups. P values 0.05 were considered statistically significant. Regarding vital parameters during surgery, systolic blood pressure and heart rate were significantly lower in Music Group (MG) than No Music Group (NMG). Women in the Music Group experienced significantly lower anxiety after hysteroscopy and less pain during the procedure. Women in the Music Group experienced a significant drop in both anxiety and pain scores after hysteroscopy. Concerning the comparison between the diagnostic procedures of NMG and MG, post operative STAI Y1 and VAS were significantly lower in MG. Moreover, concerning the comparison between the operative procedures of NMG and MG, post operative VAS was significantly lower in MG. Music can be useful as complementary method to control anxiety and reduce pain perception. The patient is more relaxed, and experiences less discomfort.
Article
The ageing population presents significant challenges for the provision of social and health services. Strategies are needed to enable older people to cope within a society ill prepared for the impacts of these demographic changes. The ability to be creative may be one such strategy. This review outlines the relevant literature and examines current public health policy related to creativity in old age with the aim of highlighting some important issues. As well as looking at the benefits and negative aspects of creative activity in later life they are considered in the context of the theory of “successful ageing”. Creative activity plays an important role in the lives of older people promoting social interaction, providing cognitive stimulation and giving a sense of self-worth. Furthermore, it is shown to be useful as a tool in the multi-disciplinary treatment of health problems common in later life such as depression and dementia. There are a number of initiatives to encourage older people to participate in creative activities such as arts-based projects which may range from visual arts to dance to music to intergenerational initiatives. However, participation shows geographical variation and often the responsibility of provision falls to voluntary organisations. Overall, the literature presented suggests that creative activity could be a useful tool for individuals and society. However, further research is needed to establish the key factors which contribute to patterns of improved health and well-being, as well as to explore ways to improve access to services.
Article
Résumé Objectif de l’étude Évaluer l’effet de séances d’intervention musicale Music Care© sur le bien-être, la douleur et l’anxiété dans le cadre d’un atelier destiné à un public de demandeurs d’emploi en parcours d’insertion, notamment les adhérents du PLIE. Méthodes Étude de faisabilité. L’ensemble des adhérents a suivi de 1 à 6 séances d’intervention musicales Music Care©, sous la forme d’un cycle de 3 séances individuelles espacées de 15 jours, renouvelable une fois, soit une durée d’atelier allant de 1,5 mois à 3 mois. Le critère de jugement principal, mesuré à chacune des séances, était l’évolution du score de bien-être mesuré sur une échelle visuelle analogique (EVA). L’évolution du score de douleur et d’anxiété (EVA) a été analysée en critères secondaires. Résultats Une amélioration significative du bien-être (de 3,9 (±2,0) avant la séance à 5,7 (±2,0) après la séance, correspondant à une hausse de 46 %) a été observée dès la première séance d’intervention musicale (p < 0,0001). Concernant les critères secondaires de douleur et d’anxiété, une baisse significative a également été observée dès la première séance (p < 0,0001). L’effet de l’intervention musicale a été maintenu jusqu’à la fin de l’atelier. Conclusion Dans les limites de cette étude pilote, ces résultats confirment l’intérêt de l’intervention musicale Music Care© dans la prise en charge du bien-être, de la douleur et de l’anxiété des demandeurs d’emploi.
Article
Zusammenfassung. In den letzten 25 Jahren wurden 52 Beiträge zum Thema Musiktherapie und Krebs veröffentlicht. Musiktherapie kann sowohl rezeptiv als auch aktiv angewandt werden. In den vorhandenen internationalen Forschungsstudien steht die rezeptive Anwendung (z.B. während Chemotherapie) im Vordergrund. Es besteht noch ein Bedarf an Studien zur aktiven Musiktherapie in der Behandlung von erwachsenen Krebspatienten.
Article
Music has been used in a variety of settings by nurses and other providers to ease their patients’ physical, emotional, and spiritual distress. In end-of-life settings, music has been shown to improve quality of life. Nurses have noted the usefulness of music in practice but perceive that they have limited knowledge and skills about how to use music and lack the resources to implement its use. Drawing on knowledge from music therapy and music-thanatology, we describe the receptive approach to the use of music in palliative care and hospice settings. This approach is characterized by active listening and using techniques that are accessible to nurses who may not have music training. Nurses can help patients select music that evokes memories or feelings and helps divert their attention from emotional and physical distress. Music may be an effective tool for reviewing one’s life, through which a patient moves toward acceptance of death by giving meaning to his or her life. Near the end of life, prescriptive music may be used during bedside vigils to accompany the patient in the transition from life to death.
Article
Full-text available
Background: Undoubtedly, diabetes and its complications is one of the greatest diseases in worldwide with considerable concern for medical knowledge. There are different kinds of psychological treatments which may reduce the signs and symptoms of diabetic complications. Majority of researches indicated that consulting, music therapy and relaxation play significant and effective role on diabetes. Materials and Method: In this semi-experimental study 75 patients with diabetes type 2, according to subjects’ characters, were invited to participate in the study. They were divided into the intervention and control group randomly. The intervention group was stratified into 6 groups with 5 patients in each group. The intervention programs were carried through 10 sessions of music and relaxation therapy (consist of imagery, progressive muscle and breathing relaxation) and home practice for three months. Blood pressure, total cholesterol, triglyceride, HbA1c and fasting blood glucose were measured before and after of study. All patients also filled out the questionnaire related to biography and some diabetes risk factors before and after the study. Results: A total of 73 patients (intervention group=28 and control group=45) completed the 3-month study period. The result showed that there were significant difference between FBS (p=0.03), systolic (p=0.02) and diastolic blood pressure (p=0.0001) in intervention group compared to control group. Conclusion: we suggest that combined relaxation and music therapy is a feasible and effective treatment on diabetes. Therefore, adding relaxation and music therapy to other treatments such as physical activity and diet, in people with type 2 diabetes, may help them to control and mange their diabetes
Article
The purpose of this study was to explore the impact of group music therapy on levels of self-reported negative affect (NA) among men and women on a residential unit of an integrated dual diagnosis treatment program. More specifically, we sought to determine if, and to what degree engagement in composition, receptive (listening), re-creation (performing), and improvisation experiences would result in a shift-namely, a decrease-in the intensity of self-reported NA. Participants were adults in residential treatment who had been diagnosed with co-occurring substance use disorders (SUDs) and mental illnesses (Mis), predominantly mood and anxiety disorders. Twenty group-music-therapy sessions were held on the unit. Three researcher-developed visual analogue scales were used to assess pre and postsession levels of anxiety, anger, and sadness. In total, 89 surveys were analyzed. Results indicate that nearly a third of the participants who were involved in the treatment groups reported a decrease in anxiety, sadness, and anger combined, with more than half of the responses in each of these three emotional states indicating a decrease. While these are encouraging results, generalization of findings is limited primarily by the use of a nonstandardized measurement tool, the absence of a control group, the possibility of intentional deceit, and the potential for researcher bias in the collection and compilation of the data.
Article
Introduction, Rehabilitation has become an increasingly prominent tool for cancer pain management. Generally speaking, rehabilitation may be defined as the process of restoration and maximization of quality of life through enhancing function and mitigating disability. A person's function is influenced by abilities and limitations, and includes domains of physical health, emotional status, intellect/cognition, vocation and vocational activity, social activity, and role fulfillment. The burden of pain is manifested in an individual through suffering but also through impaired function, activity, and alterations in social roles and self-image. Successful pain management can improve mobility, function, and quality of life. Pain management is an important component in the successful rehabilitation of the cancer patient. Pain can limit one's function. Conversely, rehabilitation techniques help reduce and manage pain. The pain management and functional improvement goals are never exclusive and frequently coexist for cancer patients throughout the course of the disease. Functionally oriented efforts may involve the application of strengthening, coordination, balance, and other training exercises; use of therapeutic equipment; and adaptive education. This chapter focuses on interventions directed toward pain management. Some movement-based therapies are used for pain management, although their more frequently recognized benefits are strength, coordination, endurance, and balance. Rehabilitation philosophy The rehabilitation physician's expertise is based on musculoskeletal and neurological anatomy and pathophysiology. Rehabilitation has traditionally been viewed as an intervention used after a chronologically discrete onset of disability, such as may follow a cerebrovascular accident, traumatic spinal cord injury, or amputation.
Article
Music of the Soul guides the reader through principles, techniques, and exercises for incorporating music into grief counseling, with the end goal of further empowering the grieving person.
Article
Resumen Introducción El dolor lumbar es una de las principales causas de consulta en la atención médica y tiene un gran impacto socioeconómico a nivel mundial. Por esta razón se realiza este artículo de revisión; con el fin de determinar su abordaje por la Medicina Tradicional China (MTC) y, al mismo tiempo, evaluar su eficacia y seguridad. Objetivo Conocer los principales métodos terapéuticos, establecer diferencias entre estos y evaluar el abordaje ofrecido por la MTC a los pacientes con síndrome equivalente a dolor lumbar. Evaluar su efectividad y seguridad. Material y método Se realizó una búsqueda con los términos relacionados. Inicialmente se identificaron 119 artículos. Se clasificaron los más relevantes para ser objeto de estudio y caracterización. Se excluyeron los que no contaban con texto completo o no cumplían con los criterios de inclusión. Resultados Los resultados muestran como principales métodos terapéuticos desde la MTC en el paciente con dolor lumbar: acupuntura, electroacupuntura, auriculoterapia, ventosas y farmacopuntura. En estos se muestra la efectividad de estas terapias. Conclusiones En los estudios evaluados y considerados de importancia clínica para su postulación se muestra efectividad en el tratamiento de esta patología, al igual que mayor seguridad al compararse con terapias convencionales. Es por esto que la MTC puede considerarse una alternativa al tratamiento de pacientes con dolor lumbar agudo o crónico.
Data
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Background Music therapy has been used greatly in various medical procedures to reduce associated anxiety and pain. Objective to evaluate the evidence from published randomized clinical trials (RCTs) about the effect of music intervention in reducing patient's anxiety during the colposcopy. Search strategy Electronic databases included PubMed, Cochrane Library, Scopus and Web of Science were searched using the relevant MeSH terms. Selection criteria All RCTs assessing the effect of music therapy versus no music in reducing anxiety during colposcopy were considered. Eighty-five studies were identified of which five studies deemed eligible for this review. Data extraction The extracted outcomes were; anxiety, pain during and after the procedure, and satisfaction levels. They were pooled as mean difference in a fixed-effects model, using Review Manager 5.3 software for windows. Main results We found no effect of music therapy in reducing the anxiety levels when compared with the control group (SMD= -0.11, 95% CI [-0.36, 0.14], p = 0.4). No difference between music and control groups regarding pain during and after the procedure respectively (SMD= -0.20, 95% CI [-0.58, -0.18], p = 0.31) and (SMD=-0.10, 95% CI [-0.30, -0.10], p = 0.33). Conclusions Music therapy had no positive effect in reducing anxiety, pain and satisfaction levels during colposcopy.
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The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of music on non-responsive patients in a hospice setting. Non-responsive was defined as those patients who were comatose or whose terminal illness had progressed to the point that the patient did not respond to verbal stimuli. A total of 10 subjects participated in the study on two consecutive days. Data were collected on subject’s heart rate and respiration rate at the beginning of each visit, after 10 minutes of silence, and then again after 10 minutes of music. Each subject listened to a classical selection and a new age selection but only one selection was played each day. A two-way repeated measures ANOVA revealed significant differences for both HR and RR across trials but not for type of music. Heart rate and respiration rate data were also analyzed by day 1 vs. day 2. Again, both physiologic measures were significantly lowered following music with no significant differences by day. Results of this study support the continued use for music therapy with hospice patients who are verbally non-responsive.
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The purpose of this study was to determine whether relaxation and music therapy were effective in reducing stress in patients in a coronary care unit admitted with the presumptive diagnosis of acute myocardial infarction. In this experimental study, 80 patients were randomly assigned to a relaxation, music therapy, or control group. The relaxation and music therapy groups participated in three sessions over a two-day period. Stress was evaluated by apical heart rates, peripheral temperatures, cardiac complications, and qualitative patient evaluative data. Data analysis revealed that lowering apical heart rates and raising peripheral temperatures were more successful in the relaxation and music therapy groups than in the control group. The incidence of cardiac complications was found to be lower in the intervention groups, and most intervention subjects believed that such therapy was helpful. Both relaxation and music therapy are effective modalities to reduce stress in these patients.
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The effects of rhythmic input on breath period (TT) under constant metabolic drive were assessed in 10 musically trained and 10 untrained subjects. They tapped to a metronome and then to four musical segments, each for 5 min. Ten of these subjects (5 from each group) also listened to the selections without tapping. TT, beat period (TB), and phase coupling (PC) were assessed during the last 20 breaths of each presentation. TT coefficient of variation decreased significantly (P less than 0.001) in all subjects (base line = 23%; listening = 15%; listening and tapping = 10%). Significant correlation between rhythm and TT, indicating relative entrainment, was found in half of the subjects (r greater than 0.45; P less than 0.01). Significant integer TT/TB ratio and PC, both indicating tight entrainment between rhythm and breathing, were observed in 12 subjects (though not consistently in each one). These data advance the following hypothesis: musical rhythm can be a zeitgeber (i.e., pacemaker), with its ability to entrain respiration dependent on the strength of its signal relative to spurious signals from the higher neural centers that introduce noise into the central pattern generator. Tapping reinforces the zeitgeber, increasing its signal-to-noise ratio and thereby promoting entrainment.
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In a cancer setting, patients and their families often report feelings of physical and/or emotional pain. The use of songs in music therapy is effective in providing them with important means for support and tools for change. The verbal messages about people, places, feelings, events, and desires encourage resolution of issues and processing of grief. This article reviews some of the needs of cancer patients and their families and the goals and stages in music therapy. It then explores song choice themes and methods for achieving therapeutic goals. Two case studies are presented to demonstrate the work.
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THIS article is from the manuscript of an address delivered by the national chairman of the MENC Committee on Functional Music at the Functional Music Forum, March 21, at the St. Louis Biennial Convention. Dr. Gaston is professor of music education and chairman of the department at the University of Kansas, Lawrence.
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For this study the heart rates of twenty-two members of a college-level music appreciation class were recorded while students listened to the first movement of Beethoven's fifth symphony. The measurements were taken at three different times over a six-week period before, during, and after experimental treatment. Experimental treatment consisted of either audiotutorial tapes or repetitive listening sessions devised for specific musical-ability groups. The same test music was used throughout the entire study to determine the effects of learning and repetitive exposure on heart rate response. A control group had no further exposure to the test music during the study. Stable segments of the test music provoked tachycardia (elevated heart rate) in the subjects, while alternating segments produced bradycardia (lowered heart rate). Heart rate response to music was found to be linked with the presence or absence of learning.
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It is well known that patients frequently try to gain “control” over pain by using stratagems such as focussing attention on competing sensory stimuli or concentrating on simple mathematical puzzles. The purpose of the present study was to determine some of the variables involved in attempts by subjects to control experimental pain by focussing attention on auditory stimulation. The results show that (a) the rate of increase of pain intensity represents an important variable since only slowly rising pains are amenable to “control,” (b) the amount of pain tolerated by subjects is often determined by their expectation of future pain on the basis of rate of pain increase rather than by pain intensity level as such, (c) auditory stimulation together with strong suggestion that it abolishes pain provide an effective stratagem for achieving “control” over pain (thereby enabling subjects to endure it longer) although neither auditory stimulation nor suggestion alone is sufficient to increase the duration of pain tolerance. The increased pain tolerance produced by combined auditory stimulation and suggestion lends support to the concept that pain perceptions are subserved by patterns of nerve impulses that are under dynamic control of psychological processes.
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11 chronically ill hospitalized patients (mean age 58.4 yrs) in group psychotherapy completed the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory before and after completing 8 wks of music therapy (MT) to determine whether participation in MT would produce changes in Ss' trait and state anxiety. Eight control patients (mean age 61.7 yrs) in group psychotherapy received no MT. It was hypothesized that participation in MT would produce reductions in trait and state anxiety greater than that produced by group psychotherapy alone. MT sessions were aimed at stimulating participation and social interaction and encouraging the release of feelings and tension; music preferred by Ss was used to produce a client-centered approach. Results support the hypothesis, showing that MT reduced both state and trait anxiety scores. (28 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Present excerpts and analyses of case studies of terminal-cancer pediatric patients that display a variety of music therapy techniques to show how "grief work" is part of a larger therapeutic process. Topics of discussion include the applicability of music therapy; personalized confrontations with death; working through fear, pain, and separation; fears related to drug-induced hallucinations; withdrawal and apathy; isolation from the family; sensitivity to hospital routine; and fear of death. In working with pediatric cancer patients, helping professionals must seek out the healthy aspects of severely ill individuals. It is concluded that the creative life of the child must not be dismissed as secondary in times of illness, that it must share equal importance with other intellectual and physical needs. (17 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
The success of the therapeutic use of music in various institutions and other research settings has pointed to the possibilities of using music to reduce anxiety in high-anxiety subjects. Ten sections of introductory psychology students (n = 321) were randomly assigned to one of four treatment conditions or the control group. Forms A and B of the Eight State Questionnaire (8SQ) were administered in a counterbalanced fashion prior to and following the music (or no music) treatment. Results proved to be statistically nonsignificant. However, a trend was noted for sedative music to have some anxiety-reducing effects upon high state anxiety subjects. Implications of the study and a need for research investigating the effects of music on simultaneous psychological and physiological measures of anxiety were discussed.
Article
A unique environmental situation, often stressful for patient and staff alike, is found in intensive coronary care units. This study was designed to test the effectiveness of programmed taped music in reducing stress for the patient and in creating an auxiliary treatment approach for the nursing personnel. Four programs of carefully selected sequenced music were produced to be played either “free field” or through earphones. The music was chosen by the investigator. At two different intensive coronary care units, four measures were taken of the physiological, psychological, and social reactions of patients and personnel to the introduction of music of a sedative nature. The results included significant findings in the direction of decreased heart rate, greater tolerance of pain and suffering, lessened anxiety and depression in patients, and positive changes in target behaviors pre- to post-music, as reported by nurse evaluators.
Article
Examined the effects of music on perceived degree of pain relief, physical comfort, relaxation, and contentment, using 9 White patients with terminal malignant disease. Three conditions were presented: no intervention, background sound, and a personalized recording of music based on the S's preference and perception of calmness. Each condition was presented for 15 min twice daily for 2 days. Results show no significant difference in the dependent variables under the experimental conditions; however, contentment score differences approached significance. Findings highlight the efficacy of music as an intervention with the terminally ill. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
This study compared the effects on hospitalized cancer patients of live music singing and guitar playing to the effects of tape-recorded music of the same material. Subjects were 50 cancer patients ranging in age from 17 to 69. They were randomly selected and placed into the live or taped music categories. Each subject listened to 25 minutes of music. Pre- and post-music mood states were recorded on the Profile of Mood States (POMS) questionnaire. Additional post-music responses were recorded on the author's Summary Questionnaire. The live and taped pre- and post-music scores were compared. The live music subjects reported significantly less (p < .05) Tension-Anxiety and more Vigor than did the taped music subjects. In addition live music subjects reported significantly more changes in physical discomfort (p < .05), changes in mood (p < .01), and changes in mood for the better (p < .001); and recommended music sessions for others (p < .01). Results indicate the particular effectiveness of using live music to assist in relieving tension and promoting vigor. The human element inherent in live music is believed to be important.
Article
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of the therapeutic use of music as an adjunct to scheduled analgesics in the patient with cancer-related pain. The major research questions were (1) To what extent can the therapeutic use of music decrease pain and improve mood?, and (2) To what extent is the therapeutic use of music perceived as distracting, relaxing, and improving the patient's sense of control over the pain? An experimental, crossover design with repeated measures was used. The independent variable, the therapeutic use of music, was operationalized by the use of 45-minute cassette recordings of relaxing music in seven categories. The subjects chose the type of music which was most preferable and relaxing. The control intervention consisted of a 45-minute tape with a low frequency 60-cycle hum. Baseline data were collected on all individuals for 3 days. Based on random assignment, subjects were then instructed to listen to the music or the hum twice daily for 3 days. After using the assigned intervention for 3 days, subjects then crossed over into the alternate group for the next 3 days. Finally, each subject returned to a follow-up baseline period. The dependent variables, pain and mood, were measured by visual analogue scales. The McGill Pain Questionnaire was used initially to obtain a baseline, multidimensional assessment of pain. A semistructured interview was used to obtain qualitative information on the effect of the intervention. The convenience sample included 15 adult oncology outpatients, 13 female and 2 male, ranging in age from 20 to 87. Selection criteria included (1) documented cancer-related pain, (2) an ability to speak English, (3) physical and mental status which would enable the individual to participate in the study, (4) no or minimal hearing dysfunction (based on self-rating), and (5) a scheduled (vs. prn) analgesic schedule. Results indicate that the music was perceived as relaxing and distracting, but did not always increase the patient's sense of control over the pain. The effect of the music on pain varied significantly by individual, with 75% having at least some response and 47% having a moderate or great response. Results of a MANOVA indicated a significant decrease in pain from using either the music or sound, but no effect on mood. Although the mean percent change in pain for music was nearly twice that for sound, the results did not significantly differ. The results support the use of music as an independent nursing intervention to help relieve pain. Doctor of Philosophy; Sigma Theta Tau, gamma Rho Chapter, Inductee's Research Award.
Article
The purpose of this experiment was to investigate the effects of music and verbal stimuli on arousal of heart rate and self-reports of 80 graduate and undergraduate students. Subjects were all placed in one of four groups: (a) Bach's “Air on a G String,” (b) suggestions of relaxation, (c) Bach's “Air on a G String” plus verbal suggestions of relaxation, and (d) silence. Arousal was induced by the use of mental multiplication problems and recorded by two dependent measures, heart rate and self-reports assessed by movement of fingers of the left hand that were associated with states of arousal. Treatments were presented in five identical 2-minute temporal conditions which were preceded by 1 minute of arousal. Results revealed that no significant differences in heart rate were found among the four groups es treatment variables. Although no treatment condition was shown to be any more effective than another, there was a significant difference between treatment and arousal conditions on heart rate and self-reports. Analysis of the self-report data indicated that perception of arousal was significantly different between the music and music/verbal groups, and between the music and silence groups. There were no significant interaction effects on self-report between groups and arousal. However, for heart rate a significant interaction did occur between the four groups and the arousal/treatment condition.
Article
Initial observations regarding the use of music therapy at one hospital in the palliative care of patients with advanced malignant disease are presented. In the hands of a trained music therapist, music has proven to be a potent tool for improving the quality of life. The diversity of its potential is particularly suited to the deversity of the challenges - physical, psychosocial and spiritual - that these patients present.
Article
66 college students enrolled in a psychology class took their first examination of the semester, a multiple-choice test, under conditions of stimulative music, sedative music, or no music. One of the five following types of music was played during each section of the test for the two treatment groups: classical, jazz and blues, country-bluegrass, easy listening, and rock/rock and roll. Before and after each of the five sections of the test, subjects responded to a 5-item questionnaire designed to assess (a) worry about the test, (b) emotionality or physiological-affective arousal, (c) ability to concentrate, (d) expectancy of performance, and (e) like or dislike of the music. Stimulative music significantly increased both worry and emotionality while sedative music had no effect on anxiety relative to that of the control group. Test performance was not affected by the music.
Article
The purpose of this experimental crossover study was to evaluate to what extent the therapeutic use of music would decrease pain in patients with cancer who were receiving scheduled analgesics. Baseline data were collected for three days. Subjects then were assigned randomly to listen to their preference of seven types of relaxing music or a control (a 60-cycle hum) twice daily for three days. Then they crossed over into the alternate group for the next three days. Finally, each subject returned to a follow-up baseline period. Pain, the dependent variable, and mood, which was proposed as an intervening variable, were measured by visual analogue scales. The convenience sample included 15 outpatients with cancer, 12 female and 3 male, ages 20 through 87. Results of the McGill Pain Questionnaire (MPQ), a reliable and valid multidimensional instrument administered upon entry into the study, indicated that the study sample was comparable to other samples of patients with cancer who were in pain. There was an inconsistent relation between pain and mood. The effect of the music on pain varied by individual; 75% had at least some response and 47% had a moderate or great response. Multivariate Analysis of Variance (MANOVA) indicated a statistically significant decrease in pain from using either the music or sound, but there was no effect on mood. Although the mean percentage of change in pain for music was twice that for sound, the results did not differ statistically. The findings support the use of music as an independent nursing intervention to relieve pain.
Article
A combination of pharmacological and nonpharmacological methods of pain control probably yield the most effective pain relief for the patient. The nurse may make a significant contribution to pain control by being able to offer a variety of nonpharmacological methods of pain relief that the patient may use in combination with the more traditional methods of analgesia or local anesthesia. Recent research supports some of the older methods of nonpharmacological pain control such as distraction, especially humor; relaxation using the patient's own memory of peaceful events; and cutaneous stimulation, especially use of cold. Cutaneous stimulation may even be effectively used at sites other than the site of pain. Specific examples of these techniques are presented.
Article
The following investigation studied the physiological and emotional responses to taped music programs of patients in coronary and surgical Intensive Care Units (ICU). Previous studies have investigated physiological or psychological impact individually, but rarely explored the effects simultaneously. The results of this study support music therapy as a nursing intervention which supports the holistic care of the critically ill patient.
Article
Music therapy is a nonpharmacologic method that can be used to treat pain and suffering. Music therapy aims to promote relaxation, alteration in mood, a sense of control and self expression. Music therapy techniques are individually devised, consideration given to patient's physical, emotional and psychological needs, coping abilities and prior musical experiences. Active involvement is encouraged to facilitate cognitive and emotional expression as well as involvement in pain management.
Article
Cancer involves change in individuals and families. Family practitioners are in a unique position to meet the needs of families where cancer is present. By coordinating differing therapeutic interventions and developing therapeutic support within the community the physical, psychological, social and spiritual needs of those who are dying, and the needs of their families, can be met.
Article
THE human cardiac pacemaker behaves as a nonlinear oscillator, whose period can be varied over a certain range by sympathetic and parasympathetic control. We have been able to vary the heart rate of human subjects non-invasively by causing an entrainment of the sinus rhythm with external auditory stimuli. This presumably acts through the nervous control mechanisms, and results from a neural coupling into the cardiac centres of the brain. It represents, therefore, a new adjunct to the `instrumental learning' control of autonoinic activity, and, unlike the latter, does not require the determined effort of the subject.
Article
The study investigated the effect of music (musical preferences of subjects) on the pain of selected post-operative patients during the first 48 hours. The subjects were 24 female gynaecologic and/or obstetric patients who made the control and experimental sample, paired accordingly by age, type of surgery, educational background and previous operative experience(s). The measurement of the experimental variable was done using an Overt Pain Reaction Rating Scale (OPRRS) devised by the writer. Analgesics received, arterial blood pressures, pulse rates, and respiratory rates were also used to test the hypothesis. Significant differences were found between the groups of post-operative patients in their musculo-skeletal, and verbal pain reactions during the first 58 hours at the 0.05 level. The blood pressures showed significance only at the 0.07 level. The pulse rate during the second 24-hour period was significant at the 0.01 level; however, no significance was shown during the first 24-hour period. The respiratory rate was insignificant during the first 48-hour post-operative period. The raw data on pain-relieving medications received by the sample indicated a difference, but this was not statistically significant. The conceptual framework of the study was based on the concept of distraction following the 'Gate Control Theory' of pain by Melzack & Wall (1965). The recommendation arrived at is to use music as a nursing measure for post-operative patients.
Article
A procedure involving music and noise has been effective in suppressing pain in 5000 dental operations. The music promotes relaxation, and the noise (the main agent) directly suppresses pain. The dental procedure and results are described, and an explanatory hypothesis is suggested.
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