Article

Impact of myristic acid versus palmitic acid on serum lipid and lipoprotein levels in healthy women and men

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Abstract

The cholesterol-raising effect of dietary saturated fatty acids is largely accounted for by lauric, myristic, and palmitic acids. Dairy fat is a major source of myristic acid, and palm oil is especially rich in palmitic acid. Myristic acid is suspected of being much more cholesterolemic than palmitic acid, but direct comparisons have been lacking. We therefore fed 36 women and 23 men three diets that differed from each other in palmitic, oleic, and myristic acid content by about 10% of total energy. We used palm oil, high-oleic acid sunflower oil, and a specially produced high-myristic acid fat to achieve these differences. Each diet was consumed for 3 weeks in random order. Mean serum cholesterol was 4.53 mmol/L on the high-oleic acid diet, 4.96 mmol/L on the palmitic acid diet, and 5.19 mmol/L on the myristic acid diet (P < .0001 for all comparisons). Myristic acid raised low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol by 0.11 mmol/L, high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol by 0.12 mmol/L, and apolipoprotein (apo) A-I by 7.2 mg/dL relative to palmitic acid; increases relative to oleic acid were 0.50 mmol/L for LDL cholesterol, 0.15 mmol/L for HDL cholesterol, 6.0 mg/dL for apoB, and 8.9 mg/dL for apoA-I (P < .01 for all comparisons). The HDL cholesterol and apoA-I levels on the palmitic and oleic acid diets were the same. None of the responses differed significantly between woman and men. Myristic acid and palmitic acid both caused high LDL cholesterol and apoB levels and low HDL to LDL ratios.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

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... Myristic acid (MA) can be found in human cellular membranes but is present in slightly less amount than PA or stearic acid [36]. MA is also the third most common FA in the human diet [37], and in recent years it has been identified as a predictor of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis. The effect of PA and MA on the human body was investigated [37,38] and their synergistic effect was suggested. ...
... MA is also the third most common FA in the human diet [37], and in recent years it has been identified as a predictor of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis. The effect of PA and MA on the human body was investigated [37,38] and their synergistic effect was suggested. Zock et al. demonstrated the action of these two FA by giving volunteers a special diet. ...
... Zock et al. demonstrated the action of these two FA by giving volunteers a special diet. [37] They showed that both MA and PA increased total cholesterol in the human body, but the MA effect on cholesterol-raising was 1.5 times greater than for PA. Martinez et al. also described the influence of these two FA presented in the diet on the human body. ...
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Endothelial cells (EC) in vivo buffer and regulate the transfer of plasma fatty acid (FA) to the underlying tissues. We hypothesize that inflammation could alter the functionality of the EC, i.e., their capacity and uptake of different FA. The aim of this work is to verify the functionality of inflamed cells by analyzing their ability to uptake and accumulate exogenous saturated FA. Control and inflammatory human microvascular endothelial cells stimulated in vitro with two deuterium-labeled saturated FA (D-FA), i.e., palmitic (D31-PA) and myristic (D27-MA) acids. Cells were measured both by spontaneous and stimulated Raman imaging to extract detailed information about uptaken FA, whereas coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering and fluorescence imaging showed the global content of FA in cells. Additionally, we employed atomic force microscopy to obtain a morphological image of the cells. The results indicate that the uptake of D-FA in inflamed cells is dependent on their concentration and type. Cells accumulated D-FA when treated with a low concentration, and the effect was more pronounced for D27-MA, in normal cells, but even more so, in inflamed cells. In the case of D31-PA, a slightly increased uptake was observed for inflamed cells when administered at higher concentration. The results provide a better understanding of the EC inflammation and indicate the impact of the pathological state of the EC on their capacity to buffer fat. All the microscopic methods used showed complementarity in the analysis of FA uptake by EC, but each method recognized this process from a different perspective.
... Among the 44 included RCTs, 36 were conducted in a crossover design and 8 in a parallel design. The most common interventions investigated were the dietary substitution of palmitic acid with a mixture of UFAs (n = 20) (26, 27, 29-31, 34, 35, 37, 40, 41, 44-46, 51, 54-58, 67), followed by the replacement of palmitic with oleic acid (18:1n-9) (n = 10) (32,33,36,47,(49)(50)(51)(52)(53)62), the substitution of palmitic with stearic acid (n = 5) (16,28,43,48,56), and the substitution of stearic acid with a mixture of UFAs (n = 4) (26,38,39,42,56). The number of participants included in the studies ranged from 6 to 101 (42,59,60), and intervention duration varied between 14 and 112 d (26,42,64,67). ...
... In particular, findings from 4 RCTs suggested that the dietary replacement of medium-chain SFAs with UFAs may not have any impact on TC concentrations (59)(60)(61)63). However, decreased TC and LDL-cholesterol concentrations were reported after replacing dietary myristic acid with either palmitic (53,65) or oleic acid (53,63 ...
... In particular, findings from 4 RCTs suggested that the dietary replacement of medium-chain SFAs with UFAs may not have any impact on TC concentrations (59)(60)(61)63). However, decreased TC and LDL-cholesterol concentrations were reported after replacing dietary myristic acid with either palmitic (53,65) or oleic acid (53,63 ...
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Little is known of the impact of individual saturated fatty acids (SFAs) and their isoenergetic substitution with other SFAs or unsaturated fatty acids (UFAs) on the prevention of cardiometabolic disease (CMD). This systematic literature review (POSPERO registration: CRD42020084241) assessed the impact of such dietary substitutions on a range of fasting CMD risk markers, including lipid profile, markers of glycemic control and inflammation, and metabolic hormone concentrations. Eligible randomized controlled trials (RCTs) investigated the effect of isoenergetic replacements of individual dietary SFAs for at least 14 days on one or more CMD risk markers in humans. Searches of PubMed, Embase, Scopus and Cochrane CENTRAL databases on 14th February 2021 identified 44 RCTs conducted in participants aged 39.9y (SD 15.2). Studies’ risk of bias was assessed using the Cochrane Risk of Bias tool 2.0 for RCTs. Random-effect meta-analyses assessed the effect of at least three similar dietary substitutions on the same CMD risk marker. Other dietary interventions were described in qualitative syntheses. We observed reductions in low-density lipoprotein cholesterol concentrations after the replacement of palmitic acid (C16:0) with UFA (-0.36 mmol/L, 95%CI [-0.50, -0.21], I2 = 96.0%, n = 18 RCTs) or oleic acid (C18:1) (-0.16 mmol/L, 95% CI [-0.28, -0.03], I2 = 89.6%, n = 9 RCTs), with a similar impact on total cholesterol and apolipoprotein B concentrations. No effects on other CMD risk markers, including high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, triacylglycerol, glucose, insulin, or C-reactive protein concentrations, were evident. Similarly, we found no evidence of a benefit from replacing dietary stearic acid with UFA on CMD risk markers (n = 4 RCTs). In conclusion, the impact of replacing dietary palmitic acid with UFA on lipid biomarkers is aligned with current public health recommendations. However, due to the high heterogeneity and limited studies, relationships between all individual SFAs and biomarkers of cardiometabolic health need further confirmation from RCTs.
... A strong link exists between MA and CVD as well. For example, human interventional studies showed that a diet rich in MA resulted in hypercholesterolemia [19][20][21]. A number of animal studies have also shown that MA is hypercholesterolemic [22,23]. ...
... Of note, HDL is known for its role in promoting cardiovascular health. Further, Zock et al. have shown that a diet rich in MA increased LDL cholesterol and reduced the HDL to LDL ratio in human subjects [21]. An increase in both LDL and HDL cholesterol was also noted in human subjects [19]. ...
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Saturated fatty acids (SFAs) are considered to be detrimental to human health. One of the SFAs, myristic acid (MA), is known to exert a hypercholesterolemic effect in mice as well as humans. However, its effects on altering adipose tissue (AT) inflammation and systemic insulin resistance (IR) in obesity are still unclear. Here, we sought to determine the effects of a high fat (HF) diet supplemented with MA on obesity-associated metabolic disorders in mice. Wild-type C57BL/6 mice were fed a HF diet in the presence or absence of 3% MA for 12 weeks. Plasma lipids, plasma adipokines, AT inflammation, systemic IR, glucose homeostasis, and hepatic steatosis were assessed. The body weight and visceral adipose tissue (VAT) mass were significantly higher in mice receiving the HF+MA diet compared to HF diet-fed controls. Plasma total cholesterol levels were marginally increased in HF+MA-fed mice compared to controls. Fasting blood glucose was comparable between HF and HF+MA-fed mice. Interestingly, the plasma insulin and HOMA-IR index, a measure of insulin resistance, were significantly higher in HF+MA-fed mice compared to HF controls. Macrophage and inflammatory markers were significantly elevated in the AT and AT-derived stromal vascular cells upon MA feeding. Moreover, the level of circulating resistin, an adipokine promoting insulin resistance, was significantly higher in HF+MA-fed mice compared with HF controls. The insulin tolerance test revealed that the IR was higher in mice receiving the MA supplementation compared to HF controls. Moreover, the glucose tolerance test showed impairment in systemic glucose homeostasis in MA-fed mice. Analyses of liver samples showed a trend towards an increase in liver TG upon MA feeding. However, markers of oxidative stress and inflammation were reduced in the liver of mice fed an MA diet compared to controls. Taken together, our data suggest that chronic administration of MA in diet exacerbates obesity-associated insulin resistance and this effect is mediated in part, via increased AT inflammation and increased secretion of resistin.
... It has been recommended that diets for the treatment of hypercholesterolemia should contain low myristic and palmitic acids. These were recommended after treating healthy men and women with dietary myristic acid or palmitic acid (10% total energy) for 3 weeks and these fats both had increased LDL-C and apo-B levels and decreased HDL-C/LDL-C ratios (Zock et al., 1994). However, their livers lipid contents were not studied. ...
... The main increase in the lipid contents in the HFD was an increase from 13.5% to 40.9% for palmitic acid and from 24.1 to 29.8 for oleic acid as well as a decrease in PUFA content in an HFD from 55.2% to 14.7% as compared to that in the LFD ( Zock et al, 1994;$ Guillou et al, 2010;¥ Grundy, 1994;δ Temme et al., 1996. Cbns, carbons; DHA, decoosahexaenoic acid (ervonic acid); DPA, decosapentaenoic acid; MUFA, monounsaturated fatty acid; ...
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Non‐alcoholic fatty liver diseases (NAFLD) is manifested in the absent of alcohol abuse. This disease is the major cause of liver failure and death among adults and children worldwide, including South Africa. Its increasing prevalence urges the need of therapeutic intervention. The main objectives of this study were to investigate the following: (1) The effect of 38.9% high fat diet (HFD)‐induced insulin resistance and fatty liver in male Wistar rats, (2) The efficacy of aqueous extracts from Sutherlandia frutescens leaves and Prunus africana bark and metformin in the treatment of HFD‐induced insulin resistance and fatty liver. Male Wistar rats were fed on HFD (the HF group)or normal rat chow (the LF group) for 12 weeks. Even though the HFD‐fed rats had developed insulin resistance by week 12, fatty liver developed by week 16. After week 12, the HF group was divided into four groups of 6‐7 rats each and three of those groups were gavaged with either 0.125 mg P. africana extract/kg bwt/day (the HF+Pa group) or 50 mg S. frutescens extract kg bwt/day (the HF+Sf group) or 16 mg metformin/ kg bwt/day (HF+Met group), while kept on the same diet for an additional of 4 weeks, to investigate whether two medicinal plant extracts and metformin can prevent HFD to induce fatty liver or not. After 16 weeks, the liver histological images revealed that the HF group developed fatty liver in the form of both microsteatosis and macrosteatosis. Fatty live was confirmed by significant increased liver total lipid (TL) and activities of glucose‐6‐phosphate dehydrogenase (cG6PD) and xanthine oxidase (XO), mitochondrial NADH oxidase (mNOX) and by a decrease (P<0.05) in the activities of the homogenate superoxide dismutase (hSOD) and mitochondrial complex II in the HF group, when compared to the LF group. Since the activities of mCS and cACL enzymes were not changed in the HF group, hence increased cG6PD activity in the HF group indicates that there was increased NADPH demand for lipid accumulation from activated NEFAs taken up by the liver from circulation and for maintenance of the NADPH‐dependent antioxidants and oxidants, respectively. The obtained data also show that mitochondria of the HFD‐fed rats adapted to an increase in energy availability, thereby compensation through decreasing complex II activity, to allow electron flux from β‐oxidation to respiratory chain in the HF group. Liver TL content was significantly decreased in the rats treated with metformin and P. africana extract, but not in the rats treated with S. frutescens when compared to the HF group (P < 0.05). However, the TL content remained >5% per liver weight in all treated groups. The present study demonstrates that these two plant extracts and metformin have different glucogenic and lipogenic effects from that presented by HFD alone when compared to the LFD alone. In conclusion, metformin and P. africana extract can attenuate HFD‐induced fatty liver without changing the dietary habits. Hence S. frutescens extract is less effective in the prevention of HFD‐induced fatty liver. A change in the dietary habits is recommended to be considered during the use of these three remedies in the treatment of HFD‐induced insulin resistance and fatty liver. All three treatments enhanced antioxidant capacity, and may improve insulin resistance and fatty liver mediated by the present HFD through different mechanism of actions in the liver.
... High IR amplifies the degree of effect of myristic acid (14:0) and palmitic acid (16:0) on NAFLD. A cross-sectional study of 320 participants including 240 NAFLD and 80 healthy individuals showed that myristic acid (14:0) was positively associated with NAFLD (42); A small study in 59 participants reported that myristic acid (14:0) and palmitic acid (16:0) powerfully raise serum total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels in a human trial involving dietary SFAs (43). Martí nez showed that the consumption of diets enriched in both myristic acid (14:0) and palmitic acid (16:0) could cause NASH related to lipodystrophy (44). ...
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Introduction: This study aimed to explore relationships between long-chain saturated fatty acids (LSFAs) and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D); and whether insulin action had an interactive effect with LSFAs on NAFLD progression. Methods: From April 2018 to April 2019, we extracted the electronic medical records of 481 patients with T2D who meet the inclusion and exclusion criteria from the Second Affiliated Hospital of Dalian Medical University. Ultrasound was used to estimate NAFLD at admission. Logistic regression analysis were used to estimate odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI). The additive interaction was carried out to estimate interactions between LSFAs and insulin resistance (IR) in NAFLD patients with T2D. Results: Myristic acid (14:0) and palmitic acid (16:0) were positively associated with the risk of NAFLD (OR for myristic acid (14:0): 7.516, 3.557-15.882 and OR for palmitic acid (16:0): 4.071, 1.987-8.343, respectively). After adjustment for traditional risk factors, these associations were slightly attenuated but still highly significant. Co-presence of myristic acid (14:0)>72.83 μmol/L and IR>4.89 greatly increased OR of NAFLD to 9.691 (4.113-22.833). Similarly, co-presence of palmitic acid (16:0)>3745.43μmol/L and IR>4.89 greatly increased OR of NAFLD to 6.518(2.860-14.854). However, stearic acid (18:0) and risk of NAFLD have no association. Moreover, there was no association between very-long-chain SFAs (VLSFAs) and risk of NAFLD. Discussion: Myristic acid (14:0) and palmitic acid (16:0) were positively associated with the risk of NAFLD in T2D patients in China. High IR amplified the effect of high myristic acid (14:0) and high palmitic acid (16:0) on NAFLD.
... It has been reported that C12:0, C14:0 and C16:0, which make up two-thirds of the SFAs content of the diet, increase blood cholesterol levels, while stearic acid (C18:0) does not affect blood cholesterol levels (Denke and Grundy 1992;Zock et al. 1994;Grundy 1997;Yakan and Ünal 2010;Lukic LW low slaughter weight, HW high slaughter weight SM semimembranosus, ST semitendinosus, TB triceps brachii SFA total saturated fatty acids, MUFA total monounsaturated fatty acids, PUFA total polyunsaturated fatty acids, UFA total unsaturated fatty acids, DFA total desirable fatty acids, NV nutritive value, AI atherogenic index, TI thrombogenic index, CLAs conjugated linoleic acids (cis9-trans11 CLA + trans10-cis12 CLA) a ,b ...
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This research was performed to detect tissue fatty acid (FA) composition and conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) content in Anatolian buffaloes at different muscle types (MTs) and slaughter weights (SWs). The research was carried out on a private commercial livestock farm in Tokat. The research’s animal material comprised 20 Anatolian buffalo calves with approximately 100 kg body weights, weaned at about 150 days of age. Before the experiment started, the calves were randomly divided into two slaughter groups (SW) as low weight (LW=225 kg) and high weight (HW=325 kg). Ten calves from each of the two experimental groups, which were intensively fed, were slaughtered in two different weights. After the slaughtering, FA composition and CLA content of the Semimembranosus (SM), Semitendinosus (ST), and Triceps brachii (TB) muscle tissues of the animals were examined. The study determined that palmitoleic acid (C16:1) and stearic acid (C18:0) were affected by MTs and oleic acid (C18:1) and α-linolenic acid (C18:3 n-3) were affected by SW (P < 0.05). The highest CLA was in the ST muscle type (0.298) and the LW group (0.289) of the SW groups (P > 0.05). With the increase of SW (in LW and HW groups), n-6/n3 (SM: 7.783 and 6.533; ST: 8.115 and 7.859; TB: 8.416 and 8.215) (P > 0.05) and PUFA ratio decreased (P < 0.05). The SW increase raised the SFA ratio in the SM muscle (P < 0.05) while lowering it in the TB muscle (P > 0.05). Again, with the increase in SW, AI and TI values increased in SM and ST muscles, while the same index values decreased in TB muscle (P > 0.05). In conclusion, when considering the PUFA/SFA ratio and the beneficial effects of CLAs on human health, ST in the MT and LW groups in SW, and thus ST and LW in MT and SW were prominent in Anatolian buffaloes.
... In our cohort, myristic acid (14:0) intake was not associated with dyslipidemia and diabetes, while we found a positive association with hypertension. Although this molecule has been reported to play a role in post-translational protein changes and pathways that regulate several metabolic processes [33], data from the literature on its actual effect on metabolic health are not univocal: some studies reported potential beneficial effects from increasing HDL-C, such as reducing triglycerides levels, improving long-chain omega-3 levels in plasma phospholipids [34] and obesity-associated insulin resistance [35] and increasing LDL-C and apoB levels [36]. Among LCSFAs, in our study, stearic acid (18:0) was associated with a lower risk of diabetes and hypertension. ...
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Background: Dietary fats, and especially saturated fatty acid (SFA), have been blamed for being the culprit in the dramatic increase in obesity and its associated diseases. However multiple systematic reviews and recent meta-analyses do not support the association between SFA and cardiovascular diseases. Thus, the objective of this study was to test whether specific types and subtypes of dietary fats are associated with metabolic outcomes in a cohort of Italian adults. Methods: Nutritional and demographic data of 1936 adults living in the south of Italy were examined. Food frequency questionnaires (FFQs) were administered to assess the intake of total dietary fat and each specific class of dietary fat, such as SFA, monounsaturated fatty acid (MUFA) and polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA). The intake of fatty acids was also examined according to the carbon-chain length of each individual class. Cases of hypertension, type-2 diabetes and dyslipidemias were collected from previous doctor-confirmed diagnosis records (or direct measurement of blood pressure). Results: After adjustment for potential confounding factors, individuals reporting higher intakes of total and saturated fats were associated with lower likelihood of having hypertension (odds ratio (OR) = 0.57, 95% CI: 0.35, 0.91 and OR = 0.55, 95% CI: 0.34, 0.89, respectively). Moreover, higher intake of short-chain saturated fatty acids (SCSFAs) and medium-chain saturated fatty acids (MCSFAs) was inversely associated with dyslipidemia and diabetes (OR = 0.43, 95% CI: 0.23, 0.82 and OR = 0.25, 95% CI: 0.09, 0.72, respectively). Among MUFAs, C18:1 was inversely associated with hypertension and diabetes (OR = 0.52, 95% CI: 0.30, 0.92 and OR = 0.21, 95% CI: 0.07, 0.67, respectively), while C14:1 intake was inversely associated only with hypertension (OR = 0.57, 95% CI: 0.37, 0.88). In contrast, C20:1 intake was associated with dyslipidemia (OR = 3.35, 95% CI: 1.33, 8.42). Regarding PUFA, C18:2 and 20:5 were inversely associated with hypertension (OR = 0.33, 95% CI: 0.18, 0.60 and OR = 0.30, 95% CI: 0.10, 0.89, respectively). Conclusions: The consumption of SFA does not seem to be harmful to cardio-metabolic health and, on the contrary, SCSFA may exert beneficial effects. Further studies are needed to clearly validate the results of the present study.
... Some studies have stated many impacts of SFAs on human health. It has been concluded that lauric acid (C12:0) as well as myristic acid (C14:0), raise plasma total cholesterol concentrations, the first due to an increase in LDL cholesterol while the latter due to a rise of both LDL and HDL cholesterol concentrations [37,38] . However, according to Mensink [39] and Lawrence [40] , the ratio of total cholesterol to HDL cholesterol is a more specific marker of coronary artery diseases than the value of LDL cholesterol. ...
... Nekatere raziskave so pokazale, da ima uživanje lavrinske kisline potencialno nevtralni učinek na srčno-žilno zdravje, saj poviša tako slabi (LDL) kot dobri (HDL) holesterol (Eyres idr., 2016). Poleg omenjenih srednje verižnih nasičenih maščob, kokosovo olje vsebuje tudi miristicijsko kislino (8 %), ki predstavlja enako kemijsko formo nasičene maščobe, kot jo običajno najdemo v mesu, mleku in njunih izdelkih, ki pa značilno poviša LDL holesterol, vsebuje pa tudi palmitinsko kislino (8 %, običajno jo najdemo v jajčnem rumenjaku, mesu in kakavu), ki prav tako sestavlja zdravju potencialno škodljivo nasičeno maščobo v kokosovem olju (Zock, de Vries in Katan, 1994). Koristi uživanja kokosovega olja se pogosto nadaljujejo tudi v primeru nadomeščanja rastlinskih olj pri pripravi jedi, saj so nasičene maščobe pri kuhanju ali cvrtju odporne na oksidacijo in polimerizacijo, kjer lahko ta procesa proizvajata potencialno kancerogene snovi (Srivastava idr., 2010) 4 . ...
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Nowadays, we are bombarded on every step with numerous superfoods by salespeople, the media, magazines and social media, which attach them almost magical-like qualities for the human health. In Slovenia, one of such foods is currently also coconut oil, which is regarded by many as a superfood, while its regular consumption is associated with the prevention against numerous modern chronic diseases. Coconut oil is also associated with weight loss and an antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory and antiviral effect. The market offers various food preparations from coconut as a natural plant food, such as coconut flour, beverages, but�ter and virgin or refined oil. Numerous athletes, recreationists and enthusiasts of a healthy and active lifestyle use coconut oil as a part of a healthy diet. Due to non-transparent contradictory information on whether coconut oil is a healthy, “magical” or unhealthy food, the authors will present a relative scientific overview on studies of the influence of consuming coconut oil on the human health, especially in relation to cardiovascular health and the loss of excess weight. By doing so, we wish to increase the readers’ ability to make an informed choice about their eating behavior.
... The Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) recommends reducing the amount of SFA for human consumption [94]. Among all SFA, myristic (C14:0) and palmitic (16:0) acids are considered to be the most harmful in human food [95,96]. ...
Article
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Camelina seed or seed processing derivatives, i.e., cake, are cheap alternative protein feed ingredients for meat type poultry. Camelina is an oilseed crop containing 36.8% oil in seeds, while in the cake the oil content accounts for 6.4–22.7%. If compared with other Brassicaceae family plants, camelina is distinguished by a unique fatty acid composition, because the content of α-linolenic fatty acid (C18:3n-3; ALA) varies from 25.9 to 36.7% of total fatty acids. The total tocopherol content in camelina oil and cake are, respectively, 751–900 and 687 mg/kg. Addition of camelina to poultry nutrition increases the amount of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) in poultry meat and liver. The content of ALA in chicken muscles increases by 1.3–4.4, 2.4–2.9 and 2.3–7.2 times after supplementing chicken diets with, respectively, camelina cake (8–24%), seed (10%), and oil (2.5–6.9%) in comparison with the control group. Camelina cake (5–25%), seed (10%) and oil (2.5–4%) inclusion in chicken diets results in 1.5–3.9 times higher total n-3 PUFA content in muscles and liver. Meanwhile, supplementation of chicken diets with camelina oil (4–6.9%), seed (5–10%) and cake (5–25%) results in, respectively, a 1.8–8.4, 1.6–1.9 and 1.3–2.9 times lower n-6/n-3 PUFA ratio in muscles, and 3.29 times lower n-6/n-3 PUFA ratio in the liver. After inclusion of different amounts of camelina cake in chicken diets, a healthy for human nutrition n-6/n-3 PUFA ratio from 1.6 to 2.9 was found in chicken muscles.
... and 0.62 mmol/L were observed. One of the notable facts was observed in another clinical trial that soybean oil was superior to corn oil and olive oils in decreasing the serum cholesterol level in a four-week trial because of the high percentages of polyunsaturated fatty acids present on soybean oil (Zock, et al., 1994). ...
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Oil blending can be regarded as a modern way of natural enhancement. This technique brings out excellent results in the modification of positive traits. The object of the present review article is to illustrate the importance of balanced dietary polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA). The ideal dietary ratios of omega-6 to omega-3 essential fatty acids emphasize naturally modifying the edible oils through blending. In this natural modification, no chemical or practically complex procedures were adopted, i.e., Hydrogenation, interesterification, and fractionation. Careful oil blending can also provide the exact or nearly the same ratios of PUFA as recommended by Global health-related organizations. This review article will discuss the possible issues related to the quality of edible oils, which directly influence health, storage, and cooking attributes. It will also highlight their natural solutions by blending withmany different oil mixtures linked to the superior chemical, physical, and nutritional functions of PUFA, mainly omega-3 and omega-6. Moreover, the discussion highlights blending outcomes and provides details about the mechanism, global intake recommendations, and the importance of this innovative technique in achieving milestones in the future of food technology.
... Ruminant trans-fatty acids that account for 4% of fat in dairy food appear insufficient to increase LDL cholesterol, although when consumed in greater amount will raise LDL cholesterol, as would industrially hydrogenated vegetable oils [47]. Robust RCTs have shown almost similar increments in LDL cholesterol with myristic and palmitic fatty acids, and substantially greater increase when compared to oleic acid [48]. In fact, it has been suggested that myristic acid may be the most potent LDL cholesterol raising fatty acid in milk fat [49]. ...
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Purpose of Review The majority of international guidelines for cardiovascular disease (CVD) prevention recommend moderate intake of low fat or fat-free products, and limiting full fat dairy food because of its high saturated fatty acid content. Recent equivocal observational studies and greater understanding of the complex nature of dairy foods has led to reappraisal for some types of dairy foods. Recent Findings Current guidelines from major cardiovascular societies have differed; interpretation of major observational studies has been inconsistent. Apart from the adverse effect of butter, consumption of more complex dairy products notably fermented varieties, yogurt in particular, appears to be inversely associated with outcomes of CVD and type 2 diabetes (T2D). Reduced fat in dairy food appears advantageous but is no longer a unanimous view although is preferred for people at increased CVD risk and dyslipidemia. Summary Changed evidence has led to new advice regarding consumption of some dairy foods. The apparent beneficial effects of cheese, fermented milk, and yogurt allow for increased consumption of nutritious staple foods. Reduced fat yogurt may be desirable as part of diets for individuals with CVD or T2D.
... Partially hydrogenated vegetable oil is the source of trans fatty acids that are related to health disorders when consumed for a long time [54,55]. In addition, even though a coffee creamer is labelled as non-dairy, it may still contain milk-derived proteins such as casein and sodium-caseinate as stated on the label of a commercial non-dairy creamer. ...
... Similarly, the glycerin and vegetable oils inclusion in the diets of bulls finished in feedlot had little influence on individual saturated fatty acids percentage in the subcutaneous fat, except for the increase of pentadecanoic and margaric fatty acid. According Zock et al. (1994) lauric, myristic and palmitic fatty acid increase serum total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein levels, whereas stearic, oleic and linoleic fatty acids decrease serum total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein levels. Carvalho et al. (2014) did not observe changing in saturated fatty acids when the glycerin was included up to 18% in the diets of young bulls finished in feedlot. ...
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This work was carried out to study the glycerin and cashew and castor oils inclusion as natural additives on fatty acid composition of perirenal fat, subcutaneous fat and muscle Longissimus thoracis of Purunã bulls finished in feedlot for 252 days. A total of 32 Purunã bulls (11-12 ± 2.0 months; 202.8 ± 14.4 kg) were finished in feedlot with 4 diets (n = 8): CONT – basal diet; VOIL – basal diet and inclusion of vegetable oils (3 g/animal/day); GLYC – basal diet and inclusion of glycerin (20.1% glycerin in DM basis); GLVO – basal diet and inclusion of glycerin (20.1% glycerin in DM basis) and vegetal oils (3 g/animal/day). Glycerin inclusion reduced SFA, MUFA and PUFA levels in the diets. Glycerin and vegetable oils inclusion in the diets of bulls finished in feedlot did not change (P > 0.05) lauric, myristic, palmitic, docosanoic, n-7-tetradecenoic, palmitoleic, n-11 trans-vaccenic, oleic, n-7 cis-vaccenic, cis-9, t11 – CLA, n-3 docosapentaenoic and n-3 docosahexaenoic fatty acids levels in perirenal fat, subcutaneous fat and Longissimus thoracis muscle of bulls finished in feedlot. However, glycerin inclusion in the diets increased (P < 0.05) pentadecanoic, margaric and n-9, cis-10 heptadecanoic fatty acids levels when compared of perirenal fat, subcutaneous fat and Longissimus thoracis muscle of bulls fed CONT and VOIL diets. On the other hand, glycerin inclusion decreased (P < 0.05) linoleic fatty acid in perirenal fat, subcutaneous fat and Longissimus thoracis muscle in comparison of CONT and VOIL diets. Glycerin and vegetables oils inclusion in the diets did not alter (P > 0.05) SFA and MUFA levels in perirenal fat from bulls fed four diets. The PUFA, n-6 and n-3 levels and PUFA:SFA and n-6:n-3 ratios were similar (P > 0.05) between perirenal fat of bulls fed CONT and VOIL diets and greater (P < 0.05) when compared of perirenal fat from bulls fed GLYC and GLVO diets. SFA, MUFA levels and n-6 and n-3 ratios were similar (P > 0.05) among all diets. PUFA and MUFA levels in fat subcutaneous and n-6:n3 ratio were similar (P > 0.05) between GLYC and GLVO diets, but greater than CONT and GLYC diets. Total fatty acids sum levels in Longissimus thoracis muscle were similar (P > 0.05) among bulls from all diets, except the lowest levels in bulls from GLYC and GLVO diets in comparison to CONT and VOIL diets. In conclusion glycerin inclusion in the diets modifies fatty acids in fat and muscle of bulls finished in feed-lot.
... However, in both plasma and liver, the individual SFAs palmitic, myristic, and pentadecyclic acid were present in lower proportions of the total FAs in rats fed the HF compared with the HC diet. These data indicate that diets higher in carbohydrate increase circulating concentrations of SFAs, in particular myristic and palmitic acid, whose dietary intake is known to increase LDL-cholesterol concentrations in humans (40,41). Notably, we found that the proportion of margaric acid (17:0) in plasma and liver was higher in HF-compared with HC-fed rats. ...
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Background Low-carbohydrate diets are suggested to exert metabolic benefits by reducing circulating triacylglycerol (TG) concentrations, possibly by enhancing mitochondrial activity. Objective We aimed to elucidate mechanisms by which dietary carbohydrate and fat differentially affect hepatic and circulating TG, and how these mechanisms relate to fatty acid composition. Methods Six-week-old, ∼300 g male Wistar rats were fed a high-carbohydrate, low-fat [HC; 61.3% of energy (E%) carbohydrate] or a low-carbohydrate, high-fat (HF; 63.5 E% fat) diet for 4 wk. Parameters of lipid metabolism and mitochondrial function were measured in plasma and liver, with fatty acid composition (GC), high-energy phosphates (HPLC), carnitine metabolites (HPLC-MS/MS), and hepatic gene expression (qPCR) as main outcomes. Results In HC-fed rats, plasma TG was double and hepatic TG 27% of that in HF-fed rats. The proportion of oleic acid (18:1n–9) was 60% higher after HF vs. HC feeding while the proportion of palmitoleic acid (16:1n–7) and vaccenic acid (18:1n–7), and estimated activities of stearoyl-CoA desaturase, SCD-16 (16:1n–7/16:0), and de novo lipogenesis (16:0/18:2n–6) were 1.5–7.5-fold in HC vs. HF-fed rats. Accordingly, hepatic expression of fatty acid synthase (Fasn) and acetyl-CoA carboxylase (Acaca/Acc) was strongly upregulated after HC feeding, accompanied with 8-fold higher FAS activity and doubled ACC activity. There were no differences in expression of liver-specific biomarkers of mitochondrial biogenesis and activity (Cytc, Tfam, Cpt1, Cpt2, Ucp2, Hmgcs2); concentrations of ATP, AMP, and energy charge; plasma carnitine/acylcarnitine metabolites; or peroxisomal fatty acid oxidation. Conclusions In male Wistar rats, dietary carbohydrate was converted into specific fatty acids via hepatic lipogenesis, contributing to higher plasma TG and total fatty acids compared with high-fat feeding. In contrast, the high-fat, low-carbohydrate feeding increased hepatic fatty acid content, without affecting hepatic mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation.
... Myristic acid (C14:0) is the most potent cholesterol-raising SF followed by palmitic acid and lauric acid [42]. A major source of myristic acid is dairy fat, which is found in butter and milk [43]. These results emphasized the different effects of animal-and plant-derived SF on lipid profiles. ...
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The health effects of saturated fat, particularly tropical oil, on cardiovascular disease are unclear. We investigated the effect of tropical oil (palm and coconut oils), lard, and other common vegetable oils (soybean and rice bran oils) that are widely used in tropical and Asian countries on lipid profiles. We performed an umbrella review of meta-analyses and systematic reviews. Electronic databases (Medline, Scopus, Embase, and Cochrane) were searched up to December 2018 without language restriction. We identified nine meta-analyses that investigated the effect of dietary oils on lipid levels. Replacement of polyunsaturated fatty-acid-rich oils (PUFAs) and monounsaturated FA-rich oils (MUFAs) with palm oil significantly increased low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-c), by 3.43 (0.44-6.41) mg/dL and 9.18 (6.90-11.45) mg/dL, respectively, and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-c), by 1.89 (1.23-2.55) mg/dL and 0.94 (-0.07-1.97) mg/dL, respectively. Replacement of PUFAs with coconut oil significantly increased HDL-c and total cholesterol -by 2.27 (0.93-3.6) mg/dL and 5.88 (0.21-11.55) mg/dL, respectively-but not LDL-c. Substituting lard for MUFAs and PUFAs increased LDL-c-by 8.39 (2.83-13.95) mg/dL and 9.85 (6.06-13.65) mg/dL, respectively-but not HDL-c. Soybean oil substituted for other PUFAs had no effect on lipid levels, while rice bran oil substitution decreased LDL-c. Our findings show the deleterious effect of saturated fats from animal sources on lipid profiles. Replacement of unsaturated plant-derived fats with plant-derived saturated fats slightly increases LDL-c but also increases HDL-c, which in turn may exert a neutral effect on cardiovascular health.
... Both behenic acid and palmitic acid are saturated fatty acids (SFA) widely found in plants that have been shown to raise cholesterol in humans (Zock et al., 1994;Cater and Denke, 2001). Among them, it was confirmed that lipid synthesis involved in the mTOR/S6K1/SREBP-1c pathways are mainly related to palmitic acid in HepG2 cells (Zhou et al., 2018). ...
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Bacterial metabolites exhibit a variety of biologically active compounds including antibacterial and antifungal activities. It is well known that Bacillus is considered to be a promising source of bioactive secondary metabolites. Most plant pathogens have an incredible ability to mutate and acquire resistance, causing major economic losses in the agricultural field. Therefore, it is necessary to use the natural antibacterial compounds in microbes to control plant pathogens. This study was conducted to investigate the bio-active compounds of Bacillus megaterium L2. According to the activity guidance of Agrobacterium tumefaciens T-37, Erwinia carotovora EC-1 and Ralstonia solanacearum RS-2, five monomeric compounds, including erucamide ( 1 ), behenic acid ( 2 ), palmitic acid ( 3 ), phenylacetic acid ( 4 ), and β-sitosterol ( 5 ), were fractionated and purified from the crude ethyl acetate extract of B. megaterium . To our knowledge, all compounds were isolated from the bacterium for the first time. To understand the antimicrobial activity of these compounds, and their minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) (range: 0.98∼500 μg/mL) were determined by the broth microdilution method. For the three tested pathogens, palmitic acid exhibited almost no antibacterial activity (>500 μg/mL), while erucamide had moderate antibacterial activity (MIC = 500 μg/mL). Behenic acid showed MICs of 250 μg/mL against T-37 and RS-2 strains with an antibacterial activity. β-sitosterol showed significant antimicrobial activity against RS-2. β-sitosterol showed remarkable antimicrobial activity against RS-2 with an MIC of 15.6 μg/mL. In addition, with the antimicrobial activity, against T-37 (62.5 μg/mL) and against EC-1 (125 μg/mL) and RS-2 (15.6 μg/mL) strains notably, phenylacetic acid may be interesting for the prevention and control of phytopathogenic bacteria. Our findings suggest that isolated compounds such as behenic acid, β-sitosterol, and phenylacetic acid may be promising candidates for natural antimicrobial agents.
... Glucosinolates, tocopherols and sterols are another component of seed oil. Myristic and palmitic acid might be cholesterolemic [44]. Therefore, the triglyceride-raising effects of C. spinosa fruits may be due to the presence of large amounts of fatty acids in the seeds. ...
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Capparis spinosa (CS) is known as a hypoglycemic medication in many countries. This study was designed to reveal the protective effects of the hydro-ethanolic extract of CS (HECS) fruit against diabetes and oxidative stress in type 2 diabetic rats (T2D). T2D was induced in 4 groups of adult male Sprague Dawley rats, using high fat diet (HFD) and low dose of streptozotocin (STZ). The four groups of diabetic rats were orally gavaged with HECS (200 & 400 mg/kg), metformin (50 mg/kg) or vehicle for 28 days. Two non-diabetic groups were assigned as normal control and HECS treated ones (400 mg/kg). The glucose intolerance, HOMA-IR score, HbA1c level, antioxidative status and expression of genes involved in hepatic gluconeogenesis and lipogenesis were determined. Although HECS had no significant effect on decreasing of HOMA-IR score and HbA1c, it significantly decreased glucose intolerance as well as oxidative stress by reduction of hepatic lipid peroxidation and increase of antioxidant enzymes levels in diabetic rats. Also, HECS treated diabetic rats showed a significant enhanced dyslipidemia, increased weight gain and sera insulin level. In addition, HECS significantly decreased hepatic phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK), increased acetyl CoA carboxylase and non-significantly decreased hepatocyte nuclear factor-4α (HNF-4α) as a transactivator of PEPCK at mRNA expression level in diabetic rats. This study indicated the anti-oxidative and anti-diabetic effects of C. spinosa fruit extract and confirmed its traditional usage as a remedy for T2D.
... Various effects of SFAs on human health have been studied through some studies, and it has been shown that both lauric acid (C12: 0) and myristic acid (C14: 0) raise total plasma cholesterol concentrations and this is due to an increase in low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and high both LDL and HDL concentrations (Denke and Grundy, 1992) and Zock et al., 1994). The fatty acid composition of vegetable oils consists of a mixture of saturated fatty acids (SFAs) and unsaturated fatty acids (UNFAs) classified according to the number of unsaturated bonds as monounsaturated (MUFAs) or polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs). ...
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This study was designed to determine fatty acids composition in some Egyptian vegetable oils namely virgin olive, sunflower, corn, and sesame seed oils. Obtained results using gas chromatography (GC) showed that these oils are a good source of monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs) because the highest of Monounsaturated Fatty Acids (MUFAs) that reported being 63.62% in virgin olive oil, sunflower oil 28.04, corn oil 28.21 and sesame oil 43.3%, respectively. Also, n-3 PUFA represented by α-linolenic acid (ALA, C18:3, n-3) were virgin olive oil, sunflower oil, corn oil and sesame oil at the ratio of 0, 27%, 0.53%, 0.54% and 0.4%, while n-6 PUFA virgin olive, sunflower, corn, and sesame oils were represented by linoleic (LA, C18:2, n-6) at the ratio of 24.65%, 57.36%, 57.00% and 41.33%. Virgin olive oil and Sunflower oil had high amount of free radical scavenging capacity (IC50؛516.32 mg and 2278.643, respectively). While Sesame oil and corn oil had relatively low capacity (IC50؛2459.42 mg and 132179.8 mg, respectively) in compared with ascorbic acid (IC50:10 μ/ml). The highest amount of phenolic compounds was 1.3095g GAE/100g in virgin olive oil, while the lowest oil one in phenolic compounds was sunflower oil reported by 0.1641g GAE/100g. Antibacterial activity has not been detected in the all analyzed vegetable oils.
... When viewed individually, dietary intake of especially myristic (C14:0) and palmitic (C16:0) acids increase LDL cholesterol (64,65). Stearic acid (C18:0), however, has a limited LDL cholesterol−raising effect (64,66,67,73,74). Some possible mechanisms for the neutral effect of stearic acid on LDL cholesterol have been proposed. ...
Article
SFAs play the leading role in 1 of the greatest controversies in nutrition science. Relative to PUFAs, SFAs generally increase circulating concentrations of LDL cholesterol, a risk factor for atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD). However, the purpose of regulatory mechanisms that control the diet-induced lipoprotein cholesterol dynamics is rarely discussed in the context of human adaptive biology. We argue that better mechanistic explanations can help resolve lingering controversies, with the potential to redefine aspects of research, clinical practice, dietary advice, public health management, and food policy. In this paper we propose a novel model, the homeoviscous adaptation to dietary lipids (HADL) model, which explains changes in lipoprotein cholesterol as adaptive homeostatic adjustments that serve to maintain cell membrane fluidity and hence optimal cell function. Due to the highly variable intake of fatty acids in humans and other omnivore species, we propose that circulating lipoproteins serve as a buffer to enable the rapid redistribution of cholesterol molecules between specific cells and tissues that is necessary with changes in dietary fatty acid supply. Hence, circulating levels of LDL cholesterol may change for nonpathological reasons. Accordingly, an SFA-induced raise in LDL cholesterol in healthy individuals could represent a normal rather than a pathologic response. These regulatory mechanisms may become disrupted secondarily to pathogenic processes in association with insulin resistance and the presence of other ASCVD risk factors, as supported by evidence showing diverging lipoprotein responses in healthy individuals as opposed to those with metabolic disorders such as insulin resistance and obesity. Corresponding with the model, we suggest alternative contributing factors to the association between elevated LDL cholesterol concentrations and ASCVD, involving dietary factors beyond SFAs, such as an increased endotoxin load from diet–gut microbiome interactions and subsequent chronic low-grade inflammation that interferes with fine-tuned signaling pathways.
... It majorly observed to cause not good effect over human health. A study revealed that impact of myristic acid C14:0 and lauric acid C12:0 cause an increase in the total plasma cholesterol concentration the first due to rise of both HDL and LDL cholesterol concentration, while latter due to rise in LDL cholesterol 7,8 . ...
Article
Fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum) a native to Southern Europe, Mediterranean region and Western Asia has been used as a spice all over the world to increase the sensory quality to the food. It is also known for its medicinal properties such as anti-diabetic, anti-carcinogenic, hypocholesterolemic and immunological activities and can also be used as a food stabilizer and emulsifying agent. The ash, protein, moisture and fiber content of defatted fenugreek seed powder obtained were 9%, 23.04%, 3.8%, 25.47% respectively. So, this study is systematically intended to determine the fatty acid composition, to be best among the different solvents used are the ethanol, petroleum ether, acetone and hexane for the extraction of the fenugreek seed oil and to analyze its susceptibility to oxidation. This study was carried out to investigate and examine the results such as acid value, peroxide value, saponification value, iodine value and the physical properties such as the color value and the refractive index of the seed oil. The results stipulate that the oil extracted using the solvent hexane had better quality and yield. Linoleic acid (41.97%) followed by alpha-linolenic acid (29.33%) and cis-9 oleic acid (12.95%) was found as the primary fatty acids present in the oil extracted using hexane. Along with these fatty acids, the PUFA content of hexane oil (71.30%) was also observed to be in a good range. So, on comparing these results with codex standards, it revealed that it can be considered as edible oil with further purifications.
... The plasma cholesterol concentration has been reported to increase if oils with a combined myristic and palmitic acid content of 25% are consumed (Zock, De Vries & Katan, 1994). The combined content of these fatty acids in the crude and refined M. oleifera oil is of ~7% in both cases. ...
Article
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El aceite de Moringa oleifera está compuesto principalmente de ácido oleico, linoleico y α-linolénico, también contiene fosfolípidos y otros componentes minoritarios, como enzimas, alcaloides y glucosinolatos, compuestos que pueden generar características no deseadas y/o toxicidad, sin embargo, éstos pueden eliminarse mediante un proceso de refinación. El objetivo de este trabajo fue evaluar el efecto de la refinación química sobre la toxicidad aguda, la composición de ácidos grasos, y las propiedades fisicoquímicas del aceite de semilla de M. oleifera de una variedad mexicana, para ésto, el aceite se extrajo por prensado mecánico de las semillas para someterse a refinación química. Al aceite crudo y refinado se les determinó toxicidad aguda probada en un modelo murino, así como también el perfil de los ácidos grasos, los índices de yodo, saponificación y peróxido, además de la acidez, y capacidad antioxidante. Los resultados mostraron que el aceite de semilla de M. oleifera no presentó toxicidad aguda en el intervalo de 300-2,000 mg/kg; por lo que podría ser utilizado para consumo humano. El proceso de refinación no tuvo efecto significativo (p < 0.05) sobre el contenido del ácido oleico (69%), linoleico (0.74%) y α-linolénico (1.97%). Después del proceso de refinación, aumentó el valor del índice de yodo y de saponificación, mientras que el índice de peróxido, la acidez, el contenido de β-caroteno y la capacidad antioxidante disminuyeron.
... Lauric and palmitic acids are hypercholesterolemic and lauric acid raises total cholesterol concentrations more than palmitic acid, which is partly due to a stronger rise in HDL cholesterol (Temme et al., 1996). Both myristic acid and palmitic acid caused high LDL cholesterol and apoB levels and low HDL to LDL ratio (Zock et al., 1994), and myristic acid resulted in increase in postprandial HDL TAG higher than stearic acid (Tholstrup et al., 2003). In our trial, lauric, palmitic and myristic acids were in line with the finding of Ghosh et al. (2016), lower than those of conventional foods of animal origin like beef, veal, lamb and also of coconut oil (Ghosh et al., 2016). ...
Article
The aim of the research was to propose the larvae of honeybee queens, discarded from royal jelly production as possible dietary supplement in animal nutrition. To this purpose, the chemical characteristics, chitin content, amino acid, fatty acid and mineral profile (including toxic elements) were determined on pooled samples of queen bee larvae. Queen bee larvae meal is rich in chitin, protein, essential amino acids, and in some essential mineral such as phosphorous and magnesium; it is also relatively poor in fat, and with negligible levels of toxic elements such as Cd, Pb, As and Hg. However, its fatty acid profile showed a very low amount of polyunsaturated fatty acids, and the meal was poor of Ca and other trace elements when compared to the most common insect meals used in animal nutrition. Queen bee larvae have a standard nutrition based on royal jelly and this could represent a great advantage to use in animal production. However, the collection of queen bee larvae does not allow to give high quantities of final product due both the low amount of larvae collected (an average 58.9 g/hive/month) and the relatively low yield in meal (an average 23.12%) recorded. Thus, the queen bee larvae meal cannot be considered as an alternative protein source in animal production but could represent a potential feed supplement to include at low doses to exploit the possible activities of gut microbiota modulator due to the high levels of chitin.
... Reducing the dietary palmitic and myristic acid decreased the risk for CHD [32], whereas high consumption of myristic acid was correlated with high mortality due to CHD [33], presumably through the effect of myristic, palmitic and stearic acids on increased platelet aggregation [34]. Palmitic, dodecanoic and myristic acids are the major cholesterol-raising saturated fatty acids [35] and diets rich in these metabolites result in high LDL-cholesterol level and low HDL/LDL cholesterol [36]. Plasma levels of myristic acid are negatively associated with HDL-cholesterol in a population characterized with obesity and metabolic syndrome [37]. ...
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Aortic valve stenosis (AVS) is a prevalent condition among the elderly population that eventually requires aortic valve replacement. The lack of reliable biomarkers for AVS poses a challenge for its early diagnosis and the application of preventive measures. Untargeted gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS) metabolomics was applied in 46 AVS cases and 46 controls to identify plasma and urine metabolites underlying AVS risk. Multivariate data analyses were performed on pre-processed data (e.g. spectral peak alignment), in order to detect changes in metabolite levels in AVS patients and to evaluate their performance in group separation and sensitivity of AVS prediction, followed by regression analyses to test for their association with AVS. Through untargeted analysis of 190 urine and 130 plasma features that could be detected and quantified in the GC-MS spectra, we identified contrasting levels of 22 urine and 21 plasma features between AVS patients and control subjects. Following metabolite assignment, we observed significant changes in the concentration of known metabolites in urine (n = 14) and plasma (n = 15) that distinguish the metabolomic profiles of AVS patients from healthy controls. Associations with AVS were replicated in both plasma and urine for about half of these metabolites. Among these, 2-Oxovaleric acid, elaidic acid, myristic acid, palmitic acid, estrone, myo-inositol showed contrasting trends of regulation in the two biofluids. Only trans-Aconitic acid and 2,4-Di-tert-butylphenol showed consistent patterns of regulation in both plasma and urine. These results illustrate the power of metabolomics in identifying potential disease-associated biomarkers and provide a foundation for further studies towards early diagnostic applications in severe heart conditions that may prevent surgery in the elderly.
... Considering that, in patients, palmitic acid showed a significant correlation with ApoCIII (P < 0.001; R 2 = 0.244) (see Supplemental Table 4) and is the most common SFA, accounting for 20%-30% of the total FAs in the human body as well as in this study (see Table 2), a second set of experiments was repeated using palmitic acid instead of myristic acid. According to previous information on a possible neutral role of MUFAs (25,26), parallel experiments were performed using oleic acid, the most common MUFA. Dynamic changes in APOC3 mRNA after incubation of HepG2 cells with different amounts of myristic acid, palmitic acid, and oleic acid were observed ( Figure 3A), as well as changes in ApoCIII protein concentrations ( Figure 3B). ...
Article
Background: In the settings of primary and secondary prevention for coronary artery disease (CAD), a crucial role is played by some key molecules involved in triglyceride (TG) metabolism, such as ApoCIII. Fatty acid (FA) intake is well recognized as a main determinant of plasma lipids, including plasma TG concentration. Objectives: The aim was to investigate the possible relations between the intakes of different FAs, estimated by their plasma concentrations, and circulating amounts of ApoCIII. Methods: Plasma samples were obtained from 1370 subjects with or without angiographically demonstrated CAD (mean ± SD age: 60.6 ± 11.0 y; males: 75.8%; BMI: 25.9 ± 4.6 kg/m2; CAD: 73.3%). Plasma lipid, ApoCIII, and FA concentrations were measured. Data were analyzed by regression models adjusted for FAs and other potential confounders, such as sex, age, BMI, diabetes, smoking, and lipid-lowering therapies. The in vitro effects of FAs were tested by incubating HepG2 hepatoma cells with increasing concentrations of selected FAs, and the mRNA and protein contents in the cells were quantified by real-time RT-PCR and LC-MS/MS analyses. Results: Among all the analyzed FAs, myristic acid (14:0) showed the most robust correlations with both TGs (R = 0.441, P = 2.6 × 10-66) and ApoCIII (R = 0.327, P = 1.1 × 10-31). By multiple regression analysis, myristic acid was the best predictor of both plasma TG and ApoCIII variability. Plasma TG and ApoCIII concentrations increased progressively at increasing concentrations of myristic acid, independently of CAD diagnosis and gender. Consistent with these data, in the in vitro experiments, an ∼2-fold increase in the expression levels of the ApoCIII mRNA and protein was observed after incubation with 250 μM myristic acid. A weaker effect (∼30% increase) was observed for palmitic acid, whereas incubation with oleic acid did not affect ApoCIII protein or gene expression. Conclusions: Plasma myristic acid is associated with increased ApoCIII concentrations in cardiovascular patients. In vitro experiments indicated that myristic acid stimulates ApoCIII expression in HepG2 cells.
... According to Ogungbenle and Anisulowo (2014), palmitic acid consumption constitutes a very significant risk factor for coronary heart disease. Myristic, palmitic and lauric acids are considered strong hypercholeromic agents of all the saturated acids (Zock et al., 1994). It is therefore important that humans consume fats and oils that contain less of these fatty acids. ...
Article
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Shea butter is a significant source of fat in the diet of many rural dwellers in northern Ghana. It is produced from the seeds of shea tree and its suitability as dietary fat or use in cosmetic industry is greatly influenced by its physicochemical properties and fatty acid composition. The aim of this study was to determine the physicochemical properties and fatty acid profile of shea butter sold in Tamale Central market and to compare the qualities with other edible oils. The samples of shea butter were analyzed for refractive index, unsaponifiable matter, saponification, iodine, acid and peroxide values and fatty acid composition. Physicochemical properties of shea butter obtained in this study were refractive index of 1.5 at 25oC, saponification value (198 mg/KOH/g), iodine value (45.6 I2g/100g), unsaponifiable matter (19.8 %), acid value (3.2 mgKOH/g) and peroxide value (9.84 meq/kg). The predominant unsaturated fatty acids were: oleic (36.3%), linoleic (5.4%) and alpha linoleic (0.14%). The most dominant saturated fatty acids found were stearic (52.4%) and palmitic acids (3 %), arachidic (1.5%). Data suggests that shea butter sold in Tamale compared favourably with shea butter from countries within the West African sub region and Uganda and also to other edible oils. The implication of all these is that shea butter is a good cooking oil and is safe for human consumption.
... Temme et al. (1997) reported that myristic acid increased low density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol of healthy human. A similar result was reported by Zock et al. (1994) who found that myristic acid increased LDL cholesterol, apoB, and low HDL to LDL ratio. Thus, reducing broiler meat myristic acid may be beneficial for consumers. ...
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This study aimed to examine the effect of turmeric and garlic inclusion to fermented Sauropus androgynus-bay leaves (FSBL) containing diet on fat deposition, and chemical composition of broiler meats. Two hundred 15-day-old female broilers were distributed into 5 treatment groups with 4 replications as follows. Control feeds with commercial feed additive (T0); Feeds with 1.25% FSBL (T1); Feed with FSBL plus 1 g turmeric (T2); Feed with FSBL plus 2 g garlic (T3); Feed with FSBL plus 1 g of turmeric and 2 g garlic (T4). It was shown that the fat deposition in the abdomen was significantly affected (P<0.01). Furthermore, the inclusion of turmeric and garlic to FSBL containing diet did not affect fat, protein, moisture and ash contents, but increased arginine, methionine and histidine (P<0.01). The addition of turmeric and/or garlic to the FSBL containing diet significantly influenced lauric acid, myristic acid, linolenic acid, cis-11-eicosenoic acid, cis-4,7,10,13,16,19-docosahexaenoic acid (P<0.05), n-3 fatty acid and n-6/n-3 fatty acid ratio (P<0.01). In conclusion, turmeric plus garlic supplementation improved amino acid profiles and changed fatty acid profiles. The possible interaction should be considered when we formulated feed additive from medicinal plant mixtures
... NAC treatment shifts the maternal lipidome to a more metabolically favorable profile and decreases serum lauric, myristic, palmitoleic, and linolenic acid. Both lauric and myristic acid are major contributors to the increase in cholesterol caused by dietary saturated FAs (35). NAC increased hepatic levels of C 24:0 ceramide , believed to be protective against development of glucose intolerance and hepatic insulin resistance (36), while it decreased C 18:0 , which has previously been linked to obesity and insulin resistance (37). ...
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An adverse maternal in utero environment can program offspring for increased risk for metabolic disease. The aim of this study was to determine whether N-acetylcysteine (NAC), an anti-inflammatory antioxidant, attenuates programmed susceptibility to obesity and insulin resistance in high fat diet (HFD) offspring. CD1 female mice were acutely fed a standard breeding chow or HFD. NAC was added to the drinking water (1g/kg) of the treatment cohorts from embryonic day 0.5 (e0.5) until the end of lactation. NAC treatment normalized HFD-induced maternal weight gain and oxidative stress, improved the maternal lipidome and prevented maternal leptin resistance. These favorable changes in the in utero environment normalized postnatal growth, decreased white adipose tissue (WAT) and hepatic fat, improved glucose and insulin tolerance and antioxidant capacity, reduced leptin and insulin and increased adiponectin in HFD offspring. The lifelong metabolic improvements in the offspring were accompanied by reductions in pro-inflammatory gene expression in liver and WAT and increased thermogenic gene expression in brown adipose tissue (BAT). These results, for the first time, provide a mechanistic rationale for how NAC can prevent the onset of metabolic disease in the offspring of mothers who consume a typical Western HFDs.
... Pada penelitian terdahulu, asam miristat menaikkan kadar HDL sebanyak 9%, lebih tinggi dibanding asam lemak lain. 15 Faktor lain yang menyebabkan peningkatan kadar LDL setelah masa intervensi adalah stres. Stres pada subjek penelitian diakibatkan oleh penimbangan berat badan yang dilakukan setiap hari, pemberian suspensi otak sapi dan yoghurt koro pedang melalui sonde, proses pengambilan darah, serta peningkatan suhu udara selama penelitian yang ditandai dengan penurunan berat badan dan asupan makan terutama setelah pengambilan darah dan kenaikan suhu ruang. ...
Article
Latar Belakang: Penyakit kardiovaskuler merupakan penyebab utama kematian di dunia. Koro pedang merupakan polong-polongan yang berpotensi menurunkan kadar kolesterol darah. Pengolahan yoghurt dapat meminimalisir zat antinutrisi koro pedang dan meningkatkan aktivitas penurun kolesterol koro pedang. Penelitian ini bertujuan mengetahui pengaruh yoghurt koro pedang terhadap kadar LDL dan HDL serum tikus Sprague Dawley dislipidemia.Metode: Penelitian ini berjenis true experimental dengan pre-post test with randomized control group design. Subjek penelitian adalah tikus jantan Sprague Dawley dislipidemia yang diberi yoghurt koro pedang dosis 2.1 ml dan 4.5 ml selama 21 hari. Kadar LDL dan HDL diukur dengan metode enzimatik. Hasil: Pemberian yoghurt koro pedang 2.1 ml/hari dan 4.5 ml/hari meningkatkan kadar LDL secara tidak bermakna (p>0.05) sebesar 5.41% dan 0.01%. Peningkatar LDL pada kelompok kontrol lebih besar, yaitu sebesar 8.55%. Kadar HDL mengalami peningkatan tidak bermakna (p>0.05) sebesar 29.95% pada dosis pemberian 2.1 ml/hari dan 32.67% pada dosis 4.5 ml/hari sementara kadar HDL kelompok kontrol mengalami penurunan sebesar 2.26%.Simpulan: Pemberian yoghurt koro pedang meningkatkan kadar HDL namun tidak mampu menurunkan kadar LDL. Yoghurt koro pedang bahkan meningkatkan kadar LDL tikus meskipun kenaikan kadar LDL kelompok perlakuan lebih rendah dibandingkan dengan kelompok kontrol.
... 48,49 Further, we excluded studies using patients and participants prescribed oral contraceptives from our study. 33,50,51 It has been reported that oral contraceptives significantly affect lipid metabolism and can increase TC and TG levels, 52 which was demonstrated by Cochrane review. 15 We observed no significant differences in reported TC and LDL-c levels in our results based on the inclusion of studies using PO and UFAs. ...
Article
Background and objectives: The precise association between palm oil consumption and lipid-related cardiovascular disease risk remains unclear. A systematic review was thus performed to assess whether palm oil consumption has a negative effect on plasma lipid-related cardiovascular disease marker levels. Methods and study design: In June 2018, the electronic bibliographic databases PubMed, EMBASE (Ovid), the Cochrane Library (Ovid) and the Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure were searched and a total of 11 eligible dietary intervention articles involving 961 volunteers were selected. Both random and fixed effect models were used to calculate pooled weighted mean differences (WMD). Results: A total of 11 articles involving 547 participants met the inclusion criteria. The pooled analysis revealed that palm oil increased the concentration of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (WMD: 0.15 mmol/L; p<0.00001). Palm oil consumption had no significant effects on blood total cholesterol (WMD: -0.01 mmol/L; p=0.82) and LDL-c (WMD: -0.05mmol/L; p=0.10) and triglyceride concentrations (WMD: 0.00 mmol/L; p=0.96), relative to the effects of unsaturated fatty acid consumption. Subgroup analyses revealed that palm oil has a beneficial effect on High-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels when more than 30% of total dietary energy was constituted by fat. Conclusions: This review revealed that palm oil does not induce increases in cardiovascular disease risk risk-related biomarkers relative to unsaturated fatty acids. Furthermore, larger-scale samples of human dietary intervention trials are required to increase the accuracy of meta-analyses.
... Dairy fat consists of around 60% SFAs [20,21], which are mostly long-chain SFAs including lauric acid, myristic acid, palmitic acid, and stearic acid. Compared with unsaturated FAs, myristic acid, palmitic acid, and stearic acid increase LDL cholesterol and apolipoprotein B concentrations and the LDL-to-HDL ratio [22,23]. Compared with other SFAs, stearic acid tended to lower LDL cholesterol [6,23]. ...
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Purpose of Review: Due to inconsistent findings on dairy consumption and CVD and all-cause mortality, we performed a narrative literature review to the current literature on dairy and its association with CVD. Recent Findings: Due to their complex biochemistry, dairy consumption is a rather heterogeneous exposure. Multiple pathways have been proposed from dairy consumption and CVD. Current guidelines advocate for consumption of low-fat dairy products particularly milk, cheese, and yogurt, although the evidence for this is scant. Randomized clinical trials and large prospective studies on lipid-related cardiometabolic disease risk factors are consistent with results from most meta-analyses of prospective cohort studies, which suggest null or inverse relationship between CVD risk and mortality with dairy consumption although there is no clear dose response relationship. Summary: Most of current evidence suggests that dairy products are neutral or positive effect on human cardiovascular diseases.
... It is involved in the mechanism participates of regulation of LDL and contributes to the accumulation of LDL cholesterol in plasma. 30 Therefore, for the reasons mentioned above, it is recommended to limit the consumption of this fat. Stearic acid is one of those fatty acids that plays an important role in development of the tenderness and juiciness of meat. ...
Article
This study is aimed to observe changes in fatty acid profiles by ToF‐SIMS in breast muscle tissues of broilers. Four different groups were identified. The source of fat in group I was soy oil (rich in linoleic acid, ω‐6), group II received linseed oil (ω‐3), and the third group was fed a mixture of the two mentioned oils. Broilers in the control group were fed with beef tallow, used in mass commercial production. The results reveal that the use of vegetable oils in animal nutrition determines the lipid profile of fatty acids. ToF‐SIMS measurements showed that the lipid profile of muscle fibers and intramuscular fat reflect the composition of fats used as feed additives. In both structures the ratio of ω‐6/ω‐3 fatty acids which is most favorable for human health were found in the groups in which a mixture of vegetable oils and a supplement of linseed oil were used.
... The contribution of myristic acid to human nutrition is still a debate topic until now. Indeed, Zock et al. (1994) indicated that it would increase total plasma cholesterol and LDL cholesterol levels, whereas Rioux et al. (2002) had suggested that myristic acid played a major functional part in the cell, being involved in protein acylation processes. In colostrum, C12:0 and C15:0 FAs values (3.34±0.08%, ...
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Colostrum could provide significant fatty acids (FAs) essential for the development of living organisms. Yet to date, only a few works was performed to evaluate the composition of this important resource. In order to enrich data availability on the first milk, the objective of this work was to study bovine colostrum by comparing its composition in FAs with that of cow’s mature milk. In this study, colostrum was sampled in warm season during the first day of postpartum from imported Prim’Holstein cows, and comparing it with mixed milk produced from a dairy-farm located in Tipaza region, northern Algeria. The proportion of saturated short-chain fatty acids was higher in mature milk than in colostrum (P<0.05). Medium and long chain saturated fatty acids present greater contents (P<0.01) in colostrum, with predominance (P<0.01) of myristic (C14:0) and palmitic (C16:0) acids. Among monounsaturated fatty acids, oleic acid (C18:1 n-9) revealed more elevated proportions (P<0.05) in milk. Polyunsaturated fatty acids were more marked (P<0.01) in colostrum, with high linoleic acid (C18:2 n-6) levels, while α-linolenic acid (C18:3 n-3) contents were weaker. The n-6/n-3 ratio as well as the atherogenicity index (AI) values confirmed that both were to the advantage of bovine colostrum. Even though the AI is significantly higher in colostrum, the value (1.89±0.01) obtained nevertheless remains lower than those previously reported. Keywords: Bovine colostrum, fatty acids, lactation, mammary secretion, postpartum
... According to Downey and Rimmer (1993), low content of saturated fatty acids is desirable for edible uses, and higher levels of linoleic acid and oleic acid are considered good for oil quality. Although higher levels of saturated fatty acids contribute functionality in food systems, they also contribute negatively to serum cholesterol profiles (Zock et al., 1994). Cotton seed oil can be partially hydrogenated, which reduces the level of 18:2 and improves the oil's stability, but the process also forms undesirable trans-fatty acids that raise serum low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels (Sacks and Katan, 2002). ...
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A two-year study was carried out at Sids Agricultural Research Station, Beni Sweif government, ARC, Egypt, during 2015/2016 and 2016/2017 seasons to evaluate seed, protein and oil yields, as well as oil quality of Egyptian cotton under different cropping systems. The treatments were the combinations between four winter cropping systems (double cropping systems of Egyptian clover and cotton, relay intercropping cotton with faba bean, onion or wheat) and three summer cropping systems (sole cotton, intercropping cowpea or sesame with cotton) compared in a split plot design with three replications. The legumes had positive effects on seed cotton yield and 100-seed weight, meanwhile these traits were negatively affected by intercropping cotton with wheat. Intercropping cowpea with cotton did not significantly affect seed cotton yield and 100-seed weight, meanwhile these traits were negatively affected by intercropping sesame with cotton. The interaction was significant for 100-seed weight in the second season only. The legumes significantly increased protein and oil yields of cotton plants, while wheat or onion significantly increased plamitic and stearic acids in cotton seed oil. Sole cotton significantly increased saturated fatty acids in cotton seed oil, while sesame or cowpea significantly increased oleic and linoleic acids in cotton seed oil. The interaction was significant for seed protein and oil contents, as well as, saturated and unsaturated fatty acids in cotton seed oil. Intercropping cowpea with cotton after Egyptian clover cutting achieved high seed cotton, protein and oil yields per ha with good percentage of unsaturated fatty acids of edible oil.
... Recent reviews of studies on the effect of palm oil intake on plasma lipid profile have observed that many of these studies have not been taken into account when analyzing results for the position of the FA in the TG [48,[66][67][68]. Another little-studied but no less important aspect is the effect that the most saturated oils used in the studies exert on lipoprotein oxidation. ...
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Internationally recognized Spanish experts in the food industry, nutrition, toxicology, sustainability, and veterinary science met in Madrid on July 2018 to develop a consensus about palm oil (PO) as a food ingredient. Their aim was to provide a useful, evidence-based point of reference about PO. Scientific evidence about the role of PO in food safety, nutrition and sustainability was analyzed. Main conclusions were: (1) RSPO foundation responded to the environmental impact of palm crops. The Amsterdam Declaration pursues the use of 100% sustainable PO in Europe by 2020. Awareness about choosing sustainable products will help to maintain local economies and environments in the producing countries; (2) evidence shows that a moderate intake of PO within a healthy diet presents no risks for health. No evidence justifies any change fat intake recommendations; (3) food industry is interested in assuring safe, sustainable and high-quality products. The use of certified sustainable PO is increasing; and (4) there is no evidence associating PO consumption and higher cancer risk, incidence or mortality in humans. Tolerable daily intake (TDI) for toxic contaminants (2-and 3-monochloropropanediols (MCPDs), glycidyl esters (GEs)) have been established by JECFA and EFSA. Consequently, the European Commission has modified the Contaminants Regulation for GEs and it is still working on 3-MCPDs’.
... Lauric acid and myristic acid mainly account for approximately half of the fatty acid content in coconut milk, coconut oil, and palm kernel oil. As previously reported, a high intake of lauric acid increases very low-density lipoprotein cholesterol concentrations in healthy young women [22], and a high intake of myristic acid and palmitic acid lead to high LDL cholesterol and apolipoprotein B levels, with low HDL-to-LDL ratios in humans [23]. Among the saturated fatty acids, stearic acid and palmitic acid are known to have harmful physiological impacts. ...
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D-allulose, which has 70% of the sweet taste of sucrose but nearly no calories, has been reported to inhibit the absorption of lipids and suppress body weight gain in obese mice. Fats in non-dairy creamer consist of highly saturated fatty acids, which can cause various lipid disorders when consumed over a long period. We investigated whether D-allulose supplementation alleviates the effects of a non-dairy creamer-enriched high-fat diet on lipid metabolism. High-fat diets enriched with non-dairy creamer were administered to C57BL/6J mice with or without D-allulose supplementation for eight weeks by the pair-feeding design. Lipid metabolic markers were compared between the non-dairy creamer control group (NDC) and non-dairy creamer allulose group (NDCA). Body, adipose tissue, and liver weights, and fasting blood glucose levels, were significantly lower in the NDCA group than in the NDC group. Fecal fatty acid and triglyceride levels were significantly higher in the NDCA group than in the NDC group. Supplementing a non-dairy creamer-enriched high-fat diet with D-allulose improved overall lipid metabolism, including the plasma and hepatic lipid profiles, hepatic and adipose tissue morphology, and plasma inflammatory adipokine levels in mice. These results suggest that D-allulose can be used as a functional food component for preventing body fat accumulation from a high-fat diet that includes hydrogenated plant fats.
Article
Background We sought to determine the associations between individual nonesterified fatty acids (NEFAs) and disability and mobility limitation. Methods We studied 1 734 participants in the Cardiovascular Health Study (CHS), an ongoing population-based cohort study of community-living older American adults. We measured 35 individual NEFA species in fasting serum samples obtained at the 1996–1997 clinic visit. Using yearly assessments of activities of daily living and self-reported mobility, we identified participants with incident disability or mobility limitation during 15 years of follow-up. Cox proportional hazards regression models were used to determine the associations between per SD increment in the individual NEFAs and incident disability and mobility limitations with adjustment for potential confounding factors. Results Higher concentrations of total and a broad range of individual NEFA species were associated with risk of disability and mobility limitation (disability: HR per SD of total NEFA [SD = 174.70] = 1.11, 95% CI = 1.04–1.18, p = .001; mobility limitation: HR per SD of total NEFA = 1.09, 95% CI = 1.02–1.16, p = .01). Among individual saturated NEFAs (SFAs), myristic (14:0) and palmitic (16:0) acids were significantly associated with higher risk of both disability and mobility limitations, but longer-chain FAs were not. Most individual monounsaturated (MUFA), n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), and trans FAs were positively significantly associated with higher risks of both disability and mobility limitation. In contrast, most n-3 PUFA species were not associated with disability or mobility limitation. Conclusions Higher risks of disability and mobility limitation were observed for proinflammatory intermediate-chain SFAs, MUFAs, n-6 PUFAs, and trans FAs. Our findings indicated no significant association for anti-inflammatory n-3 PUFAs.
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This study aims to determine the fatty acid (FA) composition and compare FA-based nutritional indices/ratios of colostrum and milk obtained on the 30th, 60th, and 90th day of lactation from 27 Murrah and 18 “Murrah × Carabao” crossbred buffaloes. The major saturated FA (SFA) in colostrum and milk is palmitic acid (C16:0), comprising 32–33% by weight of total FAs. Other important SFAs – myristic acid (C14:0), stearic acid (C18:0), and lauric acid (C12:0) – were lower (P < 0.05) in colostrum than in milk. Oleic acid (C18:1-n9c), a monounsaturated fatty acid (MUFA), is the second most abundant FA in colostrum (28.5%) and milk (18.0–18.8%). Arachidonic acid (C20:4-n6, AA) is the dominant polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) in colostrum (0.92%) and milk (0.42–0.45%). Conjugated linoleic acid (C18:2-c9t11, CLA) was higher in colostrum (0.64%) than in milk (0.14–0.16%). Colostrum and milk had a very low PUFA/SFA ratio (0.02–0.06: 1). The linoleic acid (C18:2-n6, LA) to α-linolenic acid (C18:3-n3, ALA) ratio was higher in colostrum (3.21: 1) than in milk (0.62–1.55: 1). The omega-6 (LA and AA) to omega-3 [ALA and docosahexaenoic acid (C22:6-n3, DHA)] or n-6/n-3 ratio was more balanced for milk (1.76-2.34: 1) than colostrum (3.37: 1). Colostrum had lower atherogenicity (2.53 vs. 4.50–4.66), lower thrombogenicity (2.68 vs. 4.48–4.59), and higher health-promoting index (0.39 vs. 0.21–0.22) than milk. The hypocholesterolemic/hypercholesterolemic (h/H) ratio was higher for colostrum (0.64: 1) than milk (0.34–0.36: 1). Except for AA, the FA composition of colostrum and milk were not significantly different between Murrah and “Murrah × Carabao” crosses (P > 0.05). © 2022, Department of Science and Technology. All rights reserved.
Article
Cardiovascular diseases rank first in mortality worldwide. Platelets have been considered the main cardiovascular risk factor since they play an important role, in atherosclerosis and the development of acute thrombotic events. The hyperactivation of platelets leads to platelet aggregation and the formation of clogs, blocking the passage of blood to the different organs and tissues. Blood obstruction contributes to blood vessel stenosis, ischemia, and heart attack. At present, it is vital to find new targets for the development of safer and more effective antiplatelet agents. A diet rich in bioactive compounds can help in the prevention of cardiovascular events since it has been shown that some of these metabolites can reduce the risk of atherosclerosis and atherothrombotic disease by inhibiting platelet aggregation. This review aims to collect and discuss the largest amount of information reported updated on the cardioprotective and antiplatelet activities of the different bioactive compounds extracted from natural products. The compounds were divided into different groups (phenolic acids, flavonoids, carotenoids (lycopene and B-carotenes), and sulfides.
Chapter
High-oleic (HO) oils are defined as edible oils that contain at least 70% oleic acid per serving. Oils that meet this definition include both trait-enhanced (i.e., high-oleic sunflower or soybean) and naturally occurring high-oleic acid variants (i.e., olive oil). This chapter reviews the health aspects of HO oils with an emphasis on cardiovascular risk factors because this has been the predominant focus of clinical research. Evidence from clinical trials shows that replacing saturated fat with HO oils lowers total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol in a dose-dependent manner. On the basis of the cholesterol-lowering effect, the US Food and Drug Administration approved a qualified health claim for HO oils related to coronary heart disease risk. Current research is examining oleic acid metabolites and their association with energy expenditure and fat metabolism. Overall, the evidence supports incorporating HO oils, as a replacement for saturated fat, into healthy dietary patterns for general health and cardiovascular disease risk reduction.
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In this study, milk fat replacement in labneh by using some vegetable oils virgin olive, corn, sunflower oil, and sesame oils. These oils have many health, nutritional benefits, and high content of unsaturated fatty acids. oils were used at ratio 1-2%. Fatty acids composition for oils and labneh treatments were determined by using Gas Liquid Chromatography. Virgin olive oil contains oleic acid (omega-9), linoleic acid (omega-6) and linolenic acid (omega-3) reported 62.90%, 24.65% and 0.27%, respectively. While sunflower oil contains oleic acid (omega-9), linoleic acid (omega-6) and linolenic acid (omega-3) reported 27.48%, 57.36% and 0.53%, respectively. In addition, corn oil contains oleic acid (omega-9), linoleic acid(omega-6) and linolenic acid (omega-3) reported 27.50%, 57.00 and 0.54%, respectively. While sesame oil contains oleic acid (omega-9), linoleic acid (omega-6) and linolenic acid (omega-3) reported 42.00%, 41.33% and 0.40%, respectively. Replacement milk fat raise labneh content of unsaturated fatty acids when we compared results with control treatment. This study aimed to produce anew labneh product with many health and nutritional benefits.
Article
Review of scientific literature on the evidence of the relationship between palm oil (PO) and its components on human health, on the mechanisms of cholesterol control and risks for development of cardiovascular diseases. Natural interest in PO increased when it became evident that its physical properties make PO a natural substitute for partially hydrogenated vegetable oils containing trans fatty acids which have adverse effect on the human health. PO contains both saturated and unsaturated fats which makes it comparable with other vegetable oils, like olive, sunflower or soybean oils. Comparison with other vegetable oils did not show significant differences in of LDL, HDL or total cholesterol levels. Comparison of diets rich in PO with diets rich in trans fatty acids shows improvement of lipid profiles in groups with PO and serves as basis for replacement of trans fatty acids in food with PO and its fractions. In addition to fatty acids content, PO contains several phytonutrients including 4 forms of tocopherols and tocotrienols, carotenoids, sterols, and some others. Most of these compounds are considered beneficial for human health, mainly on account of their antioxidant activity. It is concluded that PO is safe component of food, when we pay attention to the rather high content of saturated fats in it.
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The physiological effects of coconut oil, butter, and safflower oil on lipids and lipoproteins have been compared in moderately hypercholesterolemic individuals. Twenty eight participants (13 men, 15 women) followed three 6-week experimental diets of similar macronutrient distribution with the different test fats providing 50% total dietary fat. Total cholesterol and low density lipoprotein cholesterol were significantly higher (P < 0.001) on the diet containing butter [6.8 +/- 0.9, 4.5 +/- 0.8 mmol/l] (mean +/- SD), respectively than on the coconut oil diet (6.4 +/- 0.8; 4.2 +/- 0.7 mmol/l) when levels were significantly higher (P < 0.01) than on the safflower diet (6.1 +/- 0.8; 3.9 +/- 0.7 mmol/l). Findings with regard to the other measures of lipids and lipoproteins were less consistent. Apolipoprotein A-I was significantly higher on coconut oil (157 +/- 17 mg/dl) and on butter (141 +/- 23 mg/dl) than on safflower oil (132 +/- 22 mg/dl). Apolipoprotein B was also higher on butter (86 +/- 20 mg/dl) and coconut oil (91 +/- 32 mg/dl) than on safflower oil (77 +/- 19 mg/dl). However gender differences were apparent. In the group as a whole, high density lipoprotein did not differ significantly on the three diets whereas levels in women on the butter and coconut oil diet were significantly higher than on the safflower oil diet. Triacylglycerol was higher on the butter diet than on the safflower and coconut oil diets but the difference only reached statistical significance in women. Cholesteryl ester transfer activity was significantly higher on butter than safflower oil in the group as a whole and in women.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
Article
Background and objectives: Current guidelines recommend reducing intake of diets rich in saturated fats and replacing it with diets rich in unsaturated fats. Palm oil contains a high amount of saturated fatty acids, but its effect on serum lipid levels is unclear. The study aimed to compare the effects of palm oil consumption with other edible oils rich in monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs) and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) on serum lipid profiles. Methods and study design: We searched Medline, Embase, Cochrane Central Registry of Controlled Trials and CINAHL. Clinical trials were eligible if they compared palm oil-rich diets with diets rich in MUFAs or PUFAs. We pooled results of included studies using a random effects model and assessed the quality of the evidence and certainty of conclusions using the GRADE approach. Results: Intake of palm oil intake compared to oils rich in MUFA was associated with increased levels of total cholesterol (TC) [mean difference (MD)=0.27 mmol/L; 95% CI 0.08 to 0.45], LDL-C (MD=0.20 mmol/L; 95% CI 0.02 to 0.37) and HDL-C (MD=0.06 mmol/L; 95% CI 0.02 to 0.10). Similarly, for comparison with oils rich in PUFAs, palm oil showed increased in TC (MD=0.38 mmol/L; 95% CI 0.14 to 0.62), LDL-C (MD= 0.44 mmol/L; 95% CI 0.01 to 0.88) and HDL-C (MD=0.08 mmol/L; 95% CI 0.03 to 0.13). For both comparisons, there were no significant effects on triglycerides. Conclusions: Even though palm oil increases marginally the level of serum lipids, the evidence is mostly of low to moderate quality.
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An important criterion to consider in genetic evaluations is the extent of genetic connectedness across management units (MU), especially if they differ in their genetic mean. Reliable comparisons of genetic values across MU depend on the degree of connectedness; the higher the connectedness, the more reliable the comparison. Traditionally, genetic connectedness was calculated through pedigree-based methods; however, in the era of genomic selection, this can be better estimated utilizing new approaches based on genomics. Most procedures consider only additive genetic effects, which may not accurately reflect the underlying gene action of the evaluated trait, and little is known about the impact of non-additive gene action on connectedness measures. The objective of this study was to investigate the extent of genomic connectedness measures, for the first time, in Brazilian field data by applying additive and non-additive relationship matrices using a fatty acid profile dataset from seven farms located in the three regions of Brazil, which are part of the three breeding programs. Myristic acid (C14:0) was used due to its importance for human health, and reported presence of non-additive gene action. The pedigree included 427,740 animals and 925 of them were genotyped using the Bovine high-density genotyping chip. Six relationship matrices were constructed, parametrically and non-parametrically capturing additive and non-additive genetic effects from both pedigree and genomic data. We assessed genome-based connectedness across MU using the prediction error variance of difference (PEVD) and the coefficient of determination (CD). PEVD values ranged from 0.540 - 1.707, and CD from 0.146 - 0.456. Genomic information consistently enhanced the measures of connectedness compared to the numerator relationship matrix by at least 63%. Combining additive and non-additive genomic kernel relationship matrices or a non-parametric relationship matrix increased the capture of connectedness. Overall, the Gaussian kernel yielded the largest measure of connectedness. Our findings showed that connectedness metrics can be extended to incorporate genomic information and non-additive genetic variation using field data. We propose that different genomic relationship matrices can be designed to capture additive and non-additive genetic effects, increase the measures of connectedness, and to more accurately estimate the true state of connectedness in herds.
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The current study determined the natural angiogenic molecules using an unbiased metabolomics approach. A chick chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) model was used to examine pro-and antiangiogenic molecules, followed by gas chromatography−mass spectrometry (GCMS) analysis. Vessel formation was analyzed quantitatively using the angiogenic index (p < 0.05). At embryonic day one, a white streak or circle area was observed when vessel formation begins. GCMS analysis and database search demonstrated that angiogenesis may initiate when oleic, cholesterol, and linoleic acids increased in the area of angiogenic reactions. The gain of function study was conducted by the injection of cholesterol and oleic acid into a chick embryo to determine the role of each lipid in angiogenesis. We propose that oleic acid, cholesterol, and linoleic acid are natural molecules that set the platform for the initiation stage of angiogenesis before other proteins including the vascular endothelial growth factor, angiopoietin, angiotensin, and erythropoietin join as the angiome in sprout extension and vessel maturation.
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Lifestyle modifications in the form of diet and exercise are generally a first-line approach to reduce hypertensive risk and overall cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk. Accumulating research evidence has revealed that consumption of non- and low-fat dairy products incorporated into the routine diet is an effective means to reduce elevated blood pressure and improve vascular functions. However, the idea of incorporating whole-fat or full-fat dairy products in the normal routine diet as a strategy to reduce CVD risk has been met with controversy. The aim of this review is to review both sides of the argument surrounding saturated fat intake and CVD risk from the standpoint of dairy intake. Throughout the review, we examined observational studies on relationships between CVD risk and dairy consumption, dietary intervention studies using non-fat and whole-fat dairy, and mechanistic studies investigating physiological mechanisms of saturated fat intake that may help to explain increases in cardiovascular disease risk. Currently available data have demonstrated that whole-fat dairy is unlikely to augment hypertensive risk when added to the normal routine diet but may negatively impact CVD risk. In conclusion, whole-fat dairy may not be a recommended alternative to non- or low-fat dairy products as a means to reduce hypertensive or overall CVD risk.
Chapter
Consumer preferences, labeling mandates, and dietary health concerns are driving changes to ingredient selection within the food industry. Many conventional oilseeds are being selected or genetically modified to improve the seed oil fatty acid composition ranging from raising/lowering saturates or unsaturates to incorporating new fatty acids abundant in other species. Most of these new oils have significant improvements over their commodity oil counterparts. This article reviews the most common and commercially viable new oilseed varieties providing trait‐modified oils developed within the last 10–15 years.
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Antibiotics are essential in many life‐threatening diseases. On the other hand, improper use of antibiotics can be disastrous. Cell morphological changes were observed in the ciprofloxacin‐treated cells starting at 48 hours. Changes in cell morphology were continuously observed up to 14 days, which showed gradual morphological changes from monocyte to plaque‐like cells at day 12, and foam cell, which is an intermediate stage in atherosclerosis was observed at day 8, which was confirmed with Oil Red O staining. Flow cytometry data revealed that oxidized LDL (oxyLDL)‐induced cells showed 60.16% of CD64 (proinflammatory macrophage markers) and no expression of CD23 (anti‐inflammatory macrophage markers), whereas ciprofloxacin‐treated cells expressed 67.97% of CD64 and 13.78% of CD23. Chemokine antibody array analysis revealed that ciprofloxacin exposed cells showed a proinflammatory role (ENA78, Eotaxin1, Eotaxin2, IP‐10, MIG, MIP‐3β, SDF‐1β, TECK, CXCL16, and Fractalkine). Liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry (LC‐MS/MS) revealed that myristic acid was incorporated into a protein with 68 kDa molecular mass in exposing oxyLDL‐induced monocytes with ciprofloxacin, which could be a reason for the observed foam cells and in vitro plaque formation. As myristic acid primes atherosclerosis, it is better to limit the intake of antibiotics like ciprofloxacin for common illness, specifically the high‐risk patients, which may contribute to atherosclerosis. Ciprofloxacin treated cells after 48 hour, lead to different cell morphologies including the formation of foam cell and plaque like cells, it also expressed M1 specific chemokines which is pro‐inflammatory in nature and the LC‐ MS/MS study of this protein also revealed the association of Myristic acid. As Myristic acid primes atherosclerosis, it is better to limit the intake of antibiotics like ciprofloxacin for common illness, specifically the high risk patients, which may contribute to atherosclerosis
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The effect of additional dietary trans fatty acids (7% energy) on plasma lipids was assessed in a double-blind comparison of four separate diets: 1, enriched with butter fat (lauric-myristic-palmitic); 2, oleic acid-rich; 3, elaidic acid-rich; 4, palmitic acid-rich. The total dietary period was 11 weeks and comprised normal foods plus specific fat supplements. In 27 mildly hypercholesterolemic men, total and LDL cholesterol were significantly lower during the 3-week oleic acid-rich diet, and were similar during the other three diets. For the four diets LDL cholesterol levels were in mg/dl: 1, 163; 2, 151; 3, 165; 4, 161. HDL cholesterol was significantly higher with the palmitic acid-rich diet, 42 mg/dl, compared with elaidic acid, 38 mg/dl, which in turn was not lower than with oleic acid, 38 mg/dl. Plasma elaidic acid concentration rose seven-fold with the trans fatty acid diet but did not increase the vulnerability of LDL to oxidative change. The elaidic acid-rich diet led to significant elevations in the level of Lp[a] compared to all the other test diets. The Lp[a] level increased to 296 +/- 220 U/l in the elaidic acid-rich period from 235 +/- 182 (mean +/- SD) in the first ("butter") period (P less than 0.001) compared with 249 +/- 204 in the palmitic acid period (P less than 0.001) and 236 +/- 201 in the oleic acid period (NS).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
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These studies examine the regulation of plasma low density lipoprotein (LDL)-cholesterol levels by varying quantities of dietary saturated and polyunsaturated triacylglycerols. At a constant load of 0.12% cholesterol and 20% triacylglycerol, substitution of polyunsaturated for saturated triacylglycerols caused LDL receptor activity to increase from 25% to 80% of control and reduced the LDL-cholesterol production rate from nearly 200% to 155%. These changes caused the plasma LDL-cholesterol concentration to decrease from nearly 190 to 50 mg/dl. When the dietary content of each triacylglycerol alone was incrementally increased, the saturated lipid suppressed receptor activity while the polyunsaturated triacylglycerol increased receptor-dependent LDL transport. The magnitude of these effects was quantitatively similar, although oppositely directed. However, the saturated triacylglycerol also caused a dose-dependent increase in the LDL-cholesterol production rate and markedly increased the plasma LDL-cholesterol level while the polyunsaturated lipid did not affect either of these. These independent effects were also evident in experiments where it was found that substituting polyunsaturated triacylglycerol for saturated lipid increased receptor activity significantly more than did simply reducing the dietary content of saturated triacylglycerol. Thus, these studies show that triacylglycerols containing saturated or polyunsaturated fatty acids have effects on the major processes that regulate the plasma LDL-cholesterol level that are qualitatively and quantitatively distinct.
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Three species of monkey (rhesus, cebus, and squirrel) were rotated through five purified diets containing 31% energy as various fat blends (P:S between 0.1 and 1.0) for 12-wk periods to compare the impact of specific dietary fatty acids on plasma lipids and lipoproteins. As 12:0 + 14:0 was replaced by 16:0, a significant decrease occurred in total and LDL cholesterol, whereas slight increases in total cholesterol and the LDL-HDL ratio occurred when 16:0 replaced 18:2. Hegsted and Keys regression equations provided a good fit for the observed data, but the predicted total cholesterol response was perfect (r = 0.995) for both equations when 16:0 was considered neutral. Thus, under these conditions 16:0 was less cholesterolemic than 12:0 + 14:0 and only slightly cholesterolemic compared with 18:2.
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Diets that reduce atherosclerosis risk lower levels of HDL cholesterol (HDL-C), but the significance of this is unclear. To better understand the mechanism of this phenomenon we studied the turnover of HDL apolipoproteins A-I and A-II in 13 subjects on two contrasting metabolic diets. Upon changing from high to low intake of saturated fat and cholesterol the mean HDL-C decreased 29% from 56 +/- 13 (SD) to 40 +/- 10 mg/dl, while apo A-I levels fell 23% from 139 +/- 22 to 107 +/- 22 mg/dl (both P less than 0.001). Mean apo A-II levels did not change. The fractional catabolic rate (FCR) of apo A-I increased 11% from 0.228 +/- 0.048 to 0.254 +/- 0.063 pools/d, while its absolute transport rate (TR) decreased 14% from 12.0 +/- 2.7 to 10.3 +/- 3.4 mg/kg per d (both P = 0.005). The decrease in HDL-C and apo A-I levels correlated with the decrease in apo A-I TR (r = 0.79 and 0.83, respectively; P less than 0.001), but not with the increase in apo A-I FCR (r = -0.04 and -0.02, respectively). In contrast, within each diet the HDL-C and apo A-I levels were inversely correlated with apo A-I FCR both on the high-fat (r = -0.85 and -0.77, P less than 0.001 and = 0.002, respectively) and low-fat diets (r = -0.67 and -0.48, P = 0.012 and 0.098, respectively) but not with apo A-I TR. In summary, diet-induced changes in HDL-C levels correlate with and may result from changes in apo A-I TR. In contrast, differences in HDL-C levels between people on a given diet correlate with and may result from differences in apo A-I FCR. Therefore, the mechanism of dietary effects on HDL levels differs substantially from the mechanism explaining the differences in levels between individuals on a fixed diet. In assessing coronary heart disease risk, it may be inappropriate to conclude that diet-induced decreases in HDL are equivalent to low HDL within a given diet.
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Twenty patients consumed a liquid diet in which the predominant fatty acids were either saturated (Sat), monounsaturated (Mono), or polyunsaturated (Poly). The fats in these three diets comprised 40% of total calories and consisted of palm oil, high-oleic safflower oil, and high-linoleic safflower oil, respectively. During the third and fourth week of each dietary period, multiple samples of blood were taken and were analyzed for plasma total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG), and cholesterol in lipoprotein fractions (VLDL-C, LDL-C, and HDL-C). Twelve of the patients had normal TG levels; in these patients, both Mono and Poly diets caused statistically significant and equal lowerings of plasma LDL-C, but the Poly diet lowered HDL-C levels more frequently than did the Mono diet. Neither diet changed the level of plasma TG. The proportions of total protein and the various lipid components in isolated fractions (VLDL, IDL, LDL, HDL) were not altered by the two diets. Eight patients had hypertriglyceridemia; these individuals showed considerable variability in response to Mono and Poly diets. Although there was a trend towards reductions in TC and LDL-C levels by both types of unsaturated fats, the changes were inconsistent; furthermore, HDL-C concentrations were low on the Sat diet and were unaffected by either the Mono or the Poly diet. The results of this study show that oleic acid is as effective as linoleic acid in lowering LDL-C levels in normo-triglyceridemic patients, and oleic acid seemingly reduces HDL-C levels less frequently than does linoleic acid. Neither type of unsaturated fat had striking effects on lipoprotein levels of hypertriglyceridemic patients.
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The fluctuations of serum lipid and lipoprotein concentrations within one cycle were studied both in women using and not using oral contraceptives. High-density lipoprotein cholesterol decreased significantly from 1.47 mmol/l (57 mg/100 ml) to 1.30 mmol/l (50 mg/100 ml) during one contraceptive cycle in eight women and rose again to the initial value during the pill-free days. The mean concentration of total cholesterol also fell significantly as a result of the decrease of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and of a not significant decrease of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol. The mean serum triglyceride concentration did not change significantly. The fluctuations in the concentration of serum lipids and lipoproteins in 10 women not using oral contraceptives were smaller than in the women using oral contraceptives and no significant changes in the concentrations were found during one cycle. Thus, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol concentration decreases during each contraceptive cycle. The time of blood sampling during the cycle is, therefore, of vital importance in interpreting the effect of oral contraceptives on high-density lipoprotein cholesterol. In women not using oral contraceptives blood can be sampled on random days during the cycle.
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Three species of monkey (rhesus, cebus, and squirrel) were rotated through five purified diets containing 31% energy as various fat blends (P:S between 0.1 and 1.0) for 12-wk periods to compare the impact of specific dietary fatty acids on plasma lipids and lipoproteins. As 12:0 + 14:0 was replaced by 16:0, a significant decrease occurred in total and LDL cholesterol, whereas slight increases in total cholesterol and the LDL-HDL ratio occurred when 16:0 replaced 18:2. Hegsted and Keys regression equations provided a good fit for the observed data, but the predicted total cholesterol response was perfect (r = 0.995) for both equations when 16:0 was considered neutral. Thus, under these conditions 16:0 was less cholesterolemic than 12:0 + 14:0 and only slightly cholesterolemic compared with 18:2.
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How does the healthy organism regulate cholesterol metabolism? The answer to this question was obtained, inter alia, by studies on patients with a genetic disease, familial hypercholesterolemia. Michael S. Brown and Joseph L. Goldstein recognized thereby the key role of the receptor for the cholesterol-transport protein LDL. The receptor is a well-characterized protein; studies afforded insights into endocytosis and the pathway by which the receptors enter and leave the cell. Genetic defects in the LDL receptors give rise to an accumulation of cholesterol in plasma and premature arteriosclerosis.
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Estimates of the effects of specific dietary saturated fatty acids on circulating lipids have been limited by the composition of available natural fats and oils. Semisynthetic fats have been used to expand the range of variation of particular fatty acids. A series of such products in which lauric, myristic, palmitic, or stearic acids were randomly transesterified with olive, safflower, or MCT oils have been used as test fats in human feeding studies. Although both lauric and stearic acids were hypercholesterolemic under these conditions, they are less so than myristic and palmitic acids. The contrast in the behavior of stearic acid to its almost complete ineffectiveness in a natural product (cocoa butter) suggests that, in addition to the known effects related to both chain length and saturation, the position of a fatty acid on the glyceride molecule also influences its metabolism.
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• This report of an expert panel of the National Cholesterol Education Program provides new guidelines for the treatment of high blood cholesterol in adults 20 years of age and over. Total cholesterol levels are classified as follows: <200 mg/dL —"desirable blood cholesterol"; 200 to 239 mg/dL—borderline—high blood cholesterol; ≥240 mg/dL—high blood cholesterol. The guidelines detail which patients should go on to have lipoprotein analysis, and which should receive cholesterol-lowering treatment on the basis of their low density lipoprotein (LDL)—cholesterol levels and status with respect to other coronary heart disease risk factors. Dietary therapy is the primary cholesterol-lowering treatment. The report specifies the LDL-cholesterol levels at which dietary therapy should be started and the goals of therapy, and provides detailed guidance on the nature of the recommended dietary changes. If, after six months of intensive dietary therapy, LDL-cholesterol exceeds specified levels, drug treatment should be considered. (Arch Intern Med 1988;148:36-69)
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For many dietary changes satisfactory prediction of the average change in the serum cholesterol level of man in mg./100 ml., is given by Δ Chol. = 1.35(2ΔS − ΔP) + 1.5ΔZ where S and P are percentages of total calories provided by glycerides of saturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids in the diet and Z2 = mg. of dietary cholesterol/1000 Cal. This formula fails, however, when the dietary change involves large amounts of cocoa butter and discrepancies also appear with beef tallow or hydrogenated coconut oil diets. Controlled dietary experiments at the University of Minnesota and at 2 other centers, provide 63 sets of comparisons of serum cholesterol averages for groups of men on each of 2 chemically characterized diets. Least-squares analysis indicates that stearic acid, as well as saturated fatty acids containing fewer than 12 carbon atoms, have little or no effect on serum cholesterol in man. The equation, Δ Chol. = 1.2(2ΔS′ − ΔP) + 1.5ΔZ, yields good correlation (r = 0.93) with the observed values in these 63 sets of data. This formulation also resolves heretofore puzzling discrepancies in the literature.
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This paper reviews epidemiological studies on the relationship between diet and high density lipoproteins (HDL), with emphasis on the authors' studies of boys and men from different countries and with different dietary habits. Sera were collected from boys (ages 7 to 9 years) and men (ages 33 to 48 years) in 20 countries, and these were analyzed in one standardized laboratory. In boys, total and HDL cholesterol changed in parallel, from low values in populations in developing countries with low-fat, high-carbohydrate diets to high values in affluent populations. The correlation between HDL and total cholesterol was 0.90 (n = 16 populations). A similar trend was seen in groups of vegetarian and omnivorous boys within one region. Detailed analyses of individual diets of boys in five countries showed a negative relation between carbohydrate intake and HDL cholesterol both for group means (r = -0.99, n = 5) and for individual boys within one country (r = -0.26 to 0.04, n = 109 to 133 boys per country). In these boys, differences in obesity and physical activity were slight, and unrelated to differences in HDL. Total cholesterol rose with saturated fat intake (r = 0.87 for five population means; r = 0.07 to 0.26 within population groups). In adult men, total and HDL cholesterol also tended to rise simultaneously with affluence. However, the relation was much weaker (r = 0.60, n = 13 population groups).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
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Composition of major plasma lipoproteins was studied in 14 normal women during different phases of the menstrual cycle for three consecutive months. The results were compared to measurements in ten normal age-matched men for a comparable period, to delineate possible sex differences in lipoprotein metabolism in young adults. Blood samples were obtained every 3--5 days after a 14-hr overnight fast and processed for determinations of total plasma cholesterol, LDL- and HDL-cholesterol, and apoproteins B and A-1. In premenopausal women, a significant, 10%--25% cyclical suppression of total plasma cholesterol, LDL-Chol, and LDL-apoB occurred during the luteal phase, which was significantly lower than unchanging concentrations found in men at any time interval. HDL-Chol remained in a significantly higher fixed concentration range in the female subjects as compared to the men. These sex differences in lipoprotein metabolism may have relevance to the reduced susceptibility of premenopausal women to atherosclerosis.
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The effects of lauric acid (C12:0) on plasma lipids and lipoproteins were compared with the effects of palmitic acid (C16:0) and oleic acid (C18:1) in a metabolic-diet study of 14 men by using liquid-formula diets fed for 3 wk each in random order. Lauric acid was supplied in a synthetic high-lauric oil, palmitic acid was provided by palm oil and oleic acid in oleic-rich sunflower seed oil. The high-lauric oil resulted in higher concentrations of plasma total cholesterol (4.94 +/- 0.75 mmol/L [mean +/- SE]) and LDL cholesterol (3.70 +/- 0.57 mmol/L) when compared with high-oleic sunflower oil (4.44 +/- 0.54 and 3.31 +/- 0.44 mmol/L, respectively), but did not raise total and LDL cholesterol concentrations as much as did palm oil (5.17 +/- 0.65 and 3.93 +/- 0.51 mmol/L, respectively). No differences were noted in plasma triglycerides or HDL cholesterol. Lauric acid raises total and LDL cholesterol concentrations compared with oleic acid, but is not as potent for increasing cholesterol concentrations as is palmitic acid.
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When the intake of dietary cholesterol in the hamster is constant, feeding the saturated 14:0 fatty acid (n-tetradecanoic acid) elevates the plasma low density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol concentration from 72 to 204 mg/dl, while the monounsaturated 18:1 fatty acid (cis-9-octadecenoic acid) lowers this level to 28 mg/dl. The 14:0 fatty acid lowers the hepatic cholesteryl ester concentration from 12 to 5 mg/g, while the abundance of this fatty acid in the ester fraction is increased 13-fold. Hepatic LDL receptor activity is depressed to 41% of control, while the LDL cholesterol production rate is increased to 132%. These changes account for the 3-fold increase in the plasma LDL cholesterol concentration. In contrast, feeding the 18:1 fatty acid increases hepatic cholesteryl ester concentration to 21 mg/g, and the abundance of this acid in the esters is increased 1.4-fold. Hepatic receptor activity is increased to 145%, while the production rate is suppressed to 68% of control. These changes account for the decrease in plasma LDL cholesterol level to 28 mg/dl. Despite these marked changes in LDL metabolism, however, the 14:0 and 18:1 fatty acids cause no change in net cholesterol balance across the liver. These results suggest that there are two fundamentally different mechanisms regulating hepatic LDL metabolism. One involves changes in net sterol balance across the liver brought about by alterations in the rate of cholesterol or bile acid absorption across the intestine, while the second is articulated through a redistribution of the putative sterol regulatory pool within the hepatocyte that is dictated by the type of long-chain fatty acid that reaches the liver.
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Forty-eight healthy male students ate an average American diet (AAD) with 37% of calories from fat and 16% from saturated fatty acids for 3 wk. During the next 7 wk, one-third of the students continued to eat the AAD, one-third switched to a 30%-fat diet with 9% saturated fatty acids (Step 1 diet), and one-third switched to a 30%-fat diet with 14% saturated fatty acids (Sat diet). The Step 1 group had a significant reduction in plasma total cholesterol (TC) (0.36 +/- 0.37 mmol/L) compared with the AAD group (0.07 +/- 0.39 mmol/L) and the Sat group (0.08 +/- 0.25 mmol/L). The Sat group did not differ from the AAD group. Changes in low-density-lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol paralleled changes in total cholesterol. High-density-lipoprotein cholesterol fell significantly in the Step 1 group (0.11 +/- 0.08 mmol/L) compared with the AAD group. Plasma triglycerides did not differ between groups at the end of the randomized periods. In summary, reduction of dietary fat intake from 37% to 30% of calories did not lower plasma total and LDL cholesterol concentrations unless the reduction in total fat was achieved by decreasing saturated fatty acids.
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The plasma concentration of cholesterol carried in low density lipoproteins is principally determined by the level of LDL receptor activity (Jm) and the LDL-cholesterol production rate (Jt) found in animals or man. This study delineates which saturated fatty acids alter Jm and Jt and so increase the plasma LDL-cholesterol level. Jm and Jt were measured in vivo in hamsters fed a constant level of added dietary cholesterol (0.12%) and triacylglycerol (10%), where the triacylglycerol contained only a single saturated fatty acid varying in chain length from 6 to 18 carbon atoms. After feeding for 30 d, the 12:0, 14:0, 16:0, and 18:0 fatty acids, but not the 6:0, 8:0, and 10:0 compounds, became significantly enriched in the liver total lipid fraction of the respective groups fed these fatty acids. However, only the 12:0, 14:0, and 16:0 fatty acids, but not the 6:0, 8:0, 10:0, and 18:0 compounds, suppressed Jm, increased Jt, and essentially doubled plasma LDL-cholesterol concentrations. Neither the 16:0 nor 18:0 compound altered rates of cholesterol synthesis in the extrahepatic organs, and both lowered the hepatic total cholesterol pool. Thus, the different effects of the 16:0 and 18:0 fatty acids could not be attributed to a difference in cholesterol delivery to the liver. Since these changes in LDL kinetics took place without an apparent alteration in external sterol balance, the regulatory effects of the 12:0, 14:0, and 16:0 fatty acids presumably are mediated through some change in a putative intrahepatic regulatory pool of sterol in the liver.
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The subtle effects of the stereochemistry of acyl glycerols are apparent from the cited studies. It is not adequate to simply measure the fatty acid composition of dietary lipids or chylomicrons generated from them. To understand the importance of stereospecific acyl glycerols, simplification of the systems is necessary because of the incredible diversity found among dietary triacylglycerols. By feeding simple analogues corresponding to major triacylglycerols found in oils and fats it should be possible to determine the absorption, uptake into the mucosa, resynthesis into chylomicrons, and the stereospecificity that remains. Hydrolysis and uptake of these defined chylomicron triacylglycerols into adipose tissue or muscle could be followed and stereospecificity again determined in depot fats. Finally, the composition of the remnants, particularly the core and surface, and of the bound apoproteins needs to be related to their plasma residence time, hepatic removal, and deposition in nonhepatic tissues such as spleen, bone marrow, and arterial intima. Since increased serum cholesterol and atherogenicity in animals have been related to different dietary fats, some of the effects noted here, that is the retention of certain kinds of remnants in plasma, may lead to increased serum cholesterol and atherogenesis. We must study the metabolism of a few key stereospecific triacylglycerols in more detail to increase our understanding of their effects on hypercholesterolemia and atherogenesis.