Evaluation of T-lymphocytes in esophageal mucosal biopsies
Department of Pathology, Beth Israel Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts. Modern Pathology
(Impact Factor: 6.19).
We previously demonstrated that in esophageal mucosal biopsies, intraepithelial cells with irregular nuclear contours (CINC) as well as mononuclear cells with round nuclei are T-lymphocytes and we suggested that they may be an independent marker of esophagitis. To investigate this hypothesis, we evaluated Hematoxylin and eosin-stained biopsy specimens from 201 consecutive patients (115 female, 86 male; mean age: 52 years) that showed either no accepted features of esophagitis (n = 122) or changes typical of esophageal reflux (n = 79). The number of intraepithelial CINC and mononuclear cells in the most densely populated high power field were counted. Twenty-two of these biopsies were also stained with UCHL-1 (T-lymphocyte marker) and L-26 (B-lymphocyte marker). All medical records were reviewed to determine clinical and endoscopic findings of esophagitis, which were then compared with the histologic results for correlations. The immunohistochemical results confirmed that the majority (> 95%) of CINC and mononuclear cells were T-lymphocytes, and the sum of CINC and mononuclear cells represents best the number of T-lymphocytes. The number of T-lymphocytes was significantly correlated with that of eosinophils (R = 0.24, P = 0.0008) but not with neutrophils (R = 0.069, P = 0.33). They were greater in number, although not significantly so, in the specimens with histologic evidence of esophagitis than those without (12.7 +/- 8.9 versus 11.3 +/- 7.7, P = 0.23).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
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ABSTRACT: During the initial period after the Chernobyl accident, large amounts of radioactive iodine were released in fallout, resulting in serious exposure to the thyroid gland in the residents of areas around the nuclear power station. Beginning in 1990, a definite increase in the incidence of thyroid cancer was noted in children of the Republic of Belarus.
Morphologic and clinical features of 84 cases of post-Chernobyl thyroid carcinoma in Belarussian children from 5 to 14 years of age are reported. The latent period for tumor development was 4-6 years, with a mean of 5.8 years.
Papillary carcinoma was found in 83 patients and medullary carcinoma in one. Besides typical papillary carcinoma (14%), solid (34%), follicular (33%), mixed (10%), and diffuse sclerosing (9%) variants were observed. The follow-up period ranged from 8 months to 2.5 years. One patient died, local recurrence developed in 2, and cervical lymph node metastases developed in 10. To date, the incidence of local recurrence or metastatic disease after surgery was significantly higher in patients 5-8 years of age and in residents of areas nearest to the Chernobyl station.
Post-Chernobyl pediatric thyroid carcinoma is characterized by a short latency, a higher proportion of tumors arising in young children, and an almost equal sex ratio. Microscopically, these tumors were usually aggressive, often demonstrating intraglandular tumor dissemination (92%), thyroid capsular and adjacent soft tissue invasion (89%), and cervical lymph node metastases (88%). Papillary carcinoma was diagnosed in 99% of cases, with an unusually high frequency of solid growth patterns. Morphologic changes in nonneoplastic thyroid tissue were present in 90% of the glands, and the most specific findings were vascular changes and perifollicular fibrosis.
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ABSTRACT: The diagnostic usefulness of intraepithelial cells with irregular nuclear contours (CINC) (squiggle cells) in esophageal biopsies was investigated in 76 children (range age: 6 months-12 years) with gastroesophageal reflux disease. A further 20 subjects (range age: 10 months-11 years) served as controls. Based on the microscopic changes of the esophagus, according to traditional histological criteria, four groups of patients were identified; esophagitis was severe in 27, moderate in 20, mild in 21, and 8 patients had no clear-cut evidence of microscopic esophagitis. Data are given as mean +/- SD. Intraepithelial CINC had an immunohistochemical profile consistent with T lymphocytes. Patients with severe esophagitis had a CINC density (number per high-power filed) (9.0 +/- 3.5) significantly higher than patients with mild esophagitis (7.0 +/- 3.0) and those without evidence of microscopic esophagitis (6.5 +/- 1.9) (P < 0.05), but not different from those with moderate esophagitis (8.0 +/- 3.6); in all patients groups the CINC density was higher than in controls (2.2 +/- 0.3) (P < 0.01). The percentage of reflux at 24-hr intraesophageal pH monitoring was higher in severe esophagitis patients (11.4 +/- 6.0) as compared to the other groups (moderate: 7.8 +/- 6.3; mild: 6.5 +/- 3.6; no microscopic esophagitis: 6.3 +/- 2.0; P < 0.05). There was no correlation between CINC density and the amount of intraesophageal acid exposure in all patients. Furthermore, 27 of our patients had a normal intraesophageal acid exposure at the prolonged pH test (24-hr % of reflux < or = 4.5): the CINC density was significantly higher in them than in the controls.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
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ABSTRACT: Histologic changes indicative of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) are found on both sides of the squamocolumnar junction (Z-line). In the gastric cardia, inflammation is found as part of GERD in the absence of Helicobacter pylori or other causes of gastritis (carditis). The squamous mucosa is the location most likely to show inflammatory changes, such as neutrophils or eosinophils, close to the Z-line, whereas traditional reactive changes in the squamous mucosa are found only in biopsies taken at least 3 cm above the Z-line. Endoscopic criteria for GERD have a morphologic counterpart in capillary congestion and hemorrhage into the papillae, which have largely been ignored by pathologists as secondary to biopsy trauma. A biopsy protocol that maximizes the chances of detecting changes of GERD is suggested. The traditional definition of Barrett's esophagus as requiring 3 cm of glandular mucosa extending into the esophagus is no longer tenable. However, even the concept of short-segment Barrett's esophagus, in which less than 3 cm of intestinalized mucosa is present, often as tongues, is being challenged because random biopsies immediately distal to the Z-line may also show intestinal metaplasia when Barrett's esophagus is unsuspected endoscopically. Moreover, it is difficult or impossible to determine whether these changes indicate the earliest lesion of Barrett's esophagus or intestinal metaplasia in native cardiac mucosa. It is suggested that Barrett's esophagus be redefined as intestinal metaplasia in the lower esophagus. It is presently unclear whether patients with such minimal Barrett's epithelium are at increased risk for adenocarcinoma or require surveillance. Successful therapy for GERD results in healing of disease in squamous mucosa and may result in regression of Barrett's epithelium. In the stomach it may be associated with temporary regression of H. pylori and associated inflammation, migration of H. pylori into the oxyntic mucosa, hypertrophy and hyperplasia of parietal cells, and a variant of fundic gland polyps. Some patients may be at risk for accelerated atrophic gastritis if inflammation is present before therapy.
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