Mycobacterial spindle-cell pseudotumor of the spleen
A case of spindle-cell pseudotumor of the spleen due to nontuberculous mycobacteria in a patient with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) is described. The patient was a 55-year-old, human immunodeficiency virus-positive Haitian man who died of acute neurologic complications while on treatment for central nervous system toxoplasmosis. At autopsy, an enlarged multinodular spleen was noted. Histologic examination revealed coarse nodules of splenic parenchyma replaced by a dense spindle cell proliferation, admixed with scattered inflammatory cells. Immunostains showed strong cytoplasmic positivity of the spindle cells with MAC 387, HAM 56, and alpha-1-antichymotrypsin antibodies and negative staining for actin, vimentin, and S-100 protein antibodies. Ziehl-Neelsen stains revealed numerous elongated acid-fast bacilli within the cytoplasm of the cells that were occasionally lying free within the interstitium. The organisms also had a strongly positive reaction with antibodies to desmin intermediate filaments. Mycobacterial spindle-cell pseudotumor should be included in the differential diagnosis of conditions affecting the spleen in patients with AIDS.
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