The Consortium to Establish a Registry for Alzheimer's Disease (CERAD). Part V. A normative study of neuropsychological battery

Bryan Alzheimer's Disease Research Center, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC 27705.
Neurology (Impact Factor: 8.29). 04/1994; 44(4):609-14. DOI: 10.1212/WNL.44.4.609
Source: PubMed


The neuropsychological tests developed for the Consortium to Establish a Registry for Alzheimer's Disease (CERAD) are currently used to measure cognitive impairments of Alzheimer's disease (AD) in clinical investigations of this disorder. This report presents the normative information for the CERAD battery, obtained in a large sample (n = 413) of control subjects (ages 50 to 89) who were enrolled in 23 university medical centers in the United States participating in the CERAD study from 1987 to 1992. We compared separately the performance of subjects with high (> or = 12) and low (< 12) years of formal education. For many of the individual cognitive measures in the highly educated group, we observed significant age and gender effects. Only the praxis measure showed a significant age effect in the low-education group. Delayed recall, when adjusted for amount of material acquired (savings), was relatively unaffected by age, gender, and level of education. Our findings suggest that the savings scores, in particular, may be useful in distinguishing between AD and normal aging.

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    • "The Buschke Selective Reminding Test measures verbal memory with delayed components[18]. The Boston Naming assesses language function by asking participants to name objects presented in pictures[17]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Background Anemia is common among patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) but its health consequences are poorly defined. The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between anemia and cognitive decline in older adults with CKD. Methods We studied a subgroup of 762 adults age ≥55 years with CKD participating in the Chronic Renal Insufficiency Cohort (CRIC) study. Anemia was defined according to the World Health Organization criteria (hemoglobin <13 g/dL for men and <12 g/dL for women). Cognitive function was assessed annually with a battery of six tests. We used logistic regression to determine the association between anemia and baseline cognitive impairment on each test, defined as a cognitive score more than one standard deviation from the mean, and mixed effects models to determine the relation between anemia and change in cognitive function during follow-up after adjustment for demographic and clinical characteristics. Results Of 762 participants with mean estimated glomerular filtration rate of 42.7 ± 16.4 ml/min/1.73 m2, 349 (46 %) had anemia. Anemia was not independently associated with baseline cognitive impairment on any test after adjustment for demographic and clinical characteristics. Over a median 2.9 (IQR 2.6–3.0) years of follow-up, there was no independent association between anemia and change in cognitive function on any of the six cognitive tests. Conclusions Among older adults with CKD, anemia was not independently associated with baseline cognitive function or decline.
    Full-text · Article · Dec 2016 · BMC Nephrology
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    • "had a negative history of persistent tinnitus, head trauma, neurologic and psychiatric disorders. In addition, older participants passed a screening test for dementia using a German version of the neuropsychological assessment battery of the Consortium to Establish a Registry for Alzheimer's Disease (CERAD-Plus) with normative values adjusted for gender, age and education (Thalmann et al., 2000; Welsh et al., 1994). "
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    ABSTRACT: Event-related potentials (ERPs) to task-irrelevant novel sounds have been shown to increase in amplitude with increasing task difficulty and might therefore reflect listening effort. Here we investigated whether this effect is similar in two groups of younger and older listeners with normal hearing. Novel sounds were presented during a speech-perception-in noise test and task difficulty was adjusted decreasing the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) relative to the individual 50% correct speech recognition SNR (easy +10dB, medium +2dB, hard 0dB). Amplitudes of the Novelty P3 and a late positive potential (LPP) were significantly larger in younger compared to older participants. Novelty P3 amplitude increased with increasing task difficulty in both age groups, but the effect was more robust in younger listeners. By contrast, LPP amplitude increases were observed only in older listeners. Novelty P3 and LPP were found to be differently affected by task difficulty in the two age groups indicating sustained and more effortful processing under challenging listening conditions in older listeners. These results confirmed the potential use of novel sounds during an auditory task as an indirect measure of listening effort in younger and older listeners, but the different focus on Novelty P3 and LPP should be taken into account. Copyright © 2015 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
    Full-text · Article · Mar 2015 · Clinical neurophysiology: official journal of the International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology
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    • "Neuropsychological assessment consisted of the German version of the CERAD-NP neuropsychological assessment battery [48] [49] [50] [51] including the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), the Trail Making Test (TMT) [52], and the Clock-Drawing Test [53] as well as the subtests logical memory and digit span of the German version of Wechsler Memory Scale (WMS-R and WMS IV) [54] [55]. Furthermore, the short version of the Geriatric Depression Scale [56] was obtained to exclude depressive symptoms. "
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    ABSTRACT: Bilingualism is associated with enhanced executive functioning and delayed onset of mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and Alzheimer's disease (AD). Here, we investigated neuropsychological differences between mono- and bilingual patients with MCI and AD as well as the respective effects of dementia on the dominant and non-dominant language of bilinguals. 69 patients with MCI (n = 22) or AD (n = 47) and 17 healthy controls were included. 41 subjects were classified as lifelong bilinguals (mean age: 73.6; SD = 11.5) and 45 as monolinguals (mean age: 78.1; SD = 10.9). Neuropsychological performance was assessed on the CERAD-NP, the clock-drawing test, and the logical memory subscale of the Wechsler Memory Scale. Neuropsychological profiles showed only minor nonsignificant differences between mono- and bilingual subjects when compared between diagnostic groups. Bilingual MCI patients scored significantly lower on the verbal fluency and picture naming task in their dominant language than bilingual controls. Bilingual AD patients showed a reduced performance in their nondominant language when compared to bilingual MCI patients and bilingual controls (main effect language dominance: verbal fluency task p < 0.001; BNT p < 0.001). Bilingual MCI and AD patients show a similar pattern of neuropsychological deficits as monolingual patients do. The dominant language appears to be compromised first in bilingual MCI patients, while severe deficits of the nondominant language develop later in the course with manifestation of AD. These findings are important for the diagnostic work up of bilingual patients and the development of improved care concepts for bilingual patients such as migrant populations.
    Full-text · Article · Feb 2015 · Journal of Alzheimer's disease: JAD
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