Article

Generalised Listeria monocytogenes infection in a dog

Authors:
To read the full-text of this research, you can request a copy directly from the authors.

Abstract

A 6-year-old Doberman bitch was presented for an acute onset of circling, hemiparesis and depression. Clinical examination revealed conjunctivitis, abdominal pain, anaemia, decreased facial sensation, decreased jaw, tongue and pharyngeal tone, decreased conscious proprioception, decreased flexor withdrawal reflexes, and abnormal hemiwalking and hemistanding. Pancytopaenia was evident on haematological evaluation. Bone marrow cytology revealed a bacterial infection. Cerebrospinal fluid analysis was normal. Despite antibiotic treatment, the dog died. On autopsy, widespread multifocal inflammatory lesions were found to be present in the lungs, liver, spleen, meninges, lymph nodes, adrenal glands and kidneys. Listeria monocytogenes was isolated in pure culture from these organs and tissues. Histopathological examination showed numerous gram-positive intracellular rod-shaped bacteria seen in all the above-mentioned organs.

No full-text available

Request Full-text Paper PDF

To read the full-text of this research,
you can request a copy directly from the authors.

... Survey studies of splenic diseases in this species have reported a prevalence of splenitis ranging from 0.9% to 8%. 7,20 Among its causes, splenitis was described in only single case reports associated with fungal, 2,5,14,25,34,45,46,52 protozoan, 3,18,29,39 or bacterial 1,2,6,12,17,31,40,42,48 infections. ...
... 27 Lesions of the spleen of dogs with leishmaniasis are characterized by thickening of trabecular regions, granulomatous reaction and hemorrhagic areas, atrophy of lymphoid follicles and marginal zone, abundant macrophages with amastigotes in the cytoplasm, and perisplenitis. 36,39,50 Considering bacterial splenitis, dogs with Staphylococcus spp., 1 Mycobacterium avium Mycobacterium tuberculosis, 6,17,26,31 Listeria monocytogenes, 42 Bartonella henselae, and Bartonella vinsonii, 40 Clostridium spp., 2 Bacillus anthracis, 28 Burkholderia pseudomallei, 48 and multiple bacterial infection 11 have been described; in these cases, histologic lesions of the spleen are generally pyogranulomatous 6,40 or neutrophilic. 2 Splenic abscesses, likely due to bacterial infection, have been described in some dogs. ...
Article
Full-text available
Splenitis is uncommonly reported in dogs. Herein, the authors describe its prevalence, clinical findings and outcomes, histologic patterns, and causes. Splenic samples of dogs diagnosed with splenitis between 2005 and 2013 were collected and stained with hematoxylin and eosin, Gram, green-Gram, Giemsa, periodic acid–Schiff, and Ziehl-Neelsen. Samples were processed for polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to detect bacteria, fungi, and protozoa (Leishmania infantum, Hepatozoon canis). Thirty-three of 660 splenic samples (5%) had splenitis. Clinical findings and outcomes were available in 19 dogs (58%); 49% had weakness, 33% had fever, and 84% survived. The most frequent inflammatory patterns included purulent splenitis (27%), pyogranulomatous splenitis (24%), and neutrophilic perisplenitis (15%). One dog had a putative diagnosis of primary splenitis; in 8 dogs, microorganisms were identified histologically or by PCR in the spleen without obvious comorbidities. Twenty-four dogs (73%) had concurrent diseases; a permissive role in the development of splenitis was suspected in 21 of these cases. Histologic examination identified the cause of splenitis in 10 dogs. Bacteria were identified by PCR in 23 cases, but the bacteria were confirmed histologically in only 6 of these. Leishmania was detected with PCR in 6 dogs. Leishmania was identified in 1 dog and H. canis in another histologically, but both were PCR negative. Fungi were identified in 8 spleens by PCR and in 1 by histology. This study suggests that splenitis is uncommon in dogs and is frequently associated with systemic diseases. Prognosis is favorable in most cases. Identification of bacteria, fungi, and protozoa in the spleens of affected dogs with PCR should be interpreted cautiously, because the findings are not confirmed histologically in many cases.
... In the present investigation, the prevalence of these bacteria was higher as L. monocytogenes and other Listeria species were found in 65% and 55% of the analysed products. So far as known, a low prevalence of Listeria has been detected in dogs' faeces (Weber, Potel, Schäfer-Schmidt, Prell, & Datzmann, 1995) and few clinically manifest infections caused by L. monocytogenes have been documented (Palerme et al., 2016;Pritchard et al., 2016;Schroeder & van Rensburg, 1993), one of which was a case of abortion in a bitch fed raw meat products (Weber & Plagemann, 1991). Yersinia enterocolitica is another microorganism frequently isolated from raw meat, and dogs can be subclinically infected with serotypes that are pathogenic to their species but also to humans (LeJeune & Hancock, 2001). ...
Article
Feeding raw‐meat‐based diets to companion animals has become a widespread practice, and many owners are now accustomed to buying frozen ingredients online. The goals of this study were to assess the microbiological quality of raw‐meat dog foods obtained from specialized websites and to evaluate the effects of storage at different temperatures for a few days. Twenty‐nine raw dog food products were processed for quantitative bacteriology (i.e. total viable count, TVC; Escherichia coli; faecal coliforms, FC) and sulphite‐reducing clostridia, and analysed for the presence of Salmonella spp., Listeria monocytogenes, Yersinia enterocolitica and Clostridium difficile. Every sample was examined right after the delivery (T0), after 24 to 48 hr and after 72 hr, both at 2°C and 7°C. At T0, the mean score for the TVC was 5.9 × 106 cfu/g (SD = 4.8 × 107 cfu/g), while those for E. coli and FC were 1.1 × 104 cfu/g (SD = 2.5 × 105 cfu/g) and 3.3 × 103 cfu/g (SD = 6.5 × 104 cfu/g) respectively. The samples stored at 2°C had a significant increase of all parameters (TVC: p < .01; E. coli: p = .03; FC: p = .04) through time. Noteworthy differences between the analyses performed at 2°C and 7°C were found for TVC (p < .01), being the samples considerably more contaminated at higher temperatures. No sample tested positive for Salmonella spp., while L. monocytogenes was isolated from 19 products, Y. enterocolitica from three products and Clostridium perfringens and C. difficile from four and six products respectively. The microbiological quality of raw‐meat dog foods sold online appears to be poor, carrying considerable amounts of potentially zoonotic bacteria and reaching greater levels of bacterial contaminations if not kept at proper refrigeration temperatures and fed soon after defrosting.
... Listeriosis case reports are more extensively written for humans than animals [5][6][7]. There are isolated case reports of dogs contracting listeriosis [8][9][10], however none of the cases involve osteomyelitis. Osteomyelitis caused by listeriosis has been reported in several human cases [11,12]. ...
... Listeriosis and Toxoplasmosis are worldwide infectious zoonoses seen among humans and animals which are especially economically important. It is clearly known that dogs have a potential risk in the transmission of these infections (Dubey, 2008;Schroeder et al., 1993;Oni et al., 1989). Listeriosis, which is quite common in the nature, is seen as sporadic and endemic infections among domestic animals and sometimes human beings in many countries all over the world. ...
Article
Full-text available
AB S T RA C T Nowadays it is known that animal sourced infections may have serious threats against human health. In our study, we aimed to determine the molecular positivity of Listeriosis and Toxoplasmosis among shelter dogs in different animal shelters around Istanbul and to describe the role of dogs in the transmission of these zoonoses. Blood samples from 100 dogs were collected and Tag-Man probe based Real Time PCR (qPCR) analyses of the samples were conducted regarding to the high sensitivity and characteristics of this technique and the results were evaluated according to the gender and age of the dogs. According to our results, it is found that 12 dogs (12%) out of 100 are L. monocytogenes positive and 19 dogs (19%) are T. gondii positive. It is seen that seropositivity among the 0-2 ages group is high in both zoonoses and also according to gender L. monocytogenes is high among the females and T. gondii is high among the male dogs. We think that these results may be a serious risk for the people living in this city and optimal protective cautions should be taken. We estimate that our study will contribute the data about the prevalence of these zoonoses not only in our country but also all around the world.
... Viral agents known to induce (meningo-) encephalitis in canines comprise Rhabdoviridae [12], Paramyxoviridae [13,14], Herpesviridae [15], Parvoviridae [5,16], Flaviviridae [5], Arboviridae [17], Bornaviridae [18] and Circoviridae [19]. Protozoal and bacterial agents, like Toxoplasma gondii, Neospora caninum, Encephalitozoon cuniculi and Listeria monocytogenes can occasionally induce widespread non-suppurative meningoencephalitis also in canines [8,20,21]. Next to infectious agents, non-infectious causes have been considered as well to explain unclear encephalitis in canines [6,22]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Next to various known infectious and non-infectious causes, the aetiology of non-suppurative encephalitis in red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) often remains unclear. Known causes in foxes imply rabies, canine distemper, toxoplasmosis, Aujeszky's disease, as well as parvovirus, adenovirus, circovirus and flavivirus infections. In this study, particular attention was paid on bornaviruses, since red foxes are predators of bicoloured white-toothed shrews, a reservoir of Borna disease virus 1 (BoDV-1). In addition, foxes are known to be highly susceptible for viruses of the order Mononegavirales. Methods: Analyses for the presence of anti-BoDV-1 antibodies, BoDV-1-RNA and antigen were performed on 225 blood and 59 brain samples, from a total of 232 red foxes. Foxes originated from BoDV-1 endemic and non-endemic German areas. Additional investigations for the presence of rabies, canine distemper, toxoplasmosis, Aujeszky's disease, parvovirus, adenovirus and flavivirus infections were carried out on 16 red foxes with non-suppurative (meningo-) encephalitis. A metagenomic analysis was used on three representative brain samples displaying encephalitis. Results: Among 225 foxes, 37 displayed anti-BoDV-1 antibodies with titres ranging between 1:40 and 1:2560, regardless of geographic origin. In 6 out of 16 foxes with encephalitis, canine distemper virus was detected. No evidence of any of the other investigated agents was found in the 16 fox brains with encephalitis. Metagenomics revealed no infectious agents, except for one already known canine distemper case. Conclusion: Red foxes can exhibit BoDV-1 specific antibodies without association with geographic origin or encephalitis due to bornavirus infection. The encephalitis pattern was highly conspicuous for a viral infection, but remained unclear in 10 out of 16 foxes. Thus, presently unknown infectious and non-infectious causes need to be considered and further investigated, especially since foxes also tend to occur in human proximity.
... 5 However, there are few documented cases of canine listeriosis. 4,10,13,14,17,19 As with most reports of listeriosis in companion animals, the source of infection in this case remains unknown. L. monocytogenes contaminates food largely through contamination of the environment and equipment at food processing facilities. ...
Article
Full-text available
Listeria monocytogenes, a well-described neurologic, gastrointestinal, and potential abortion-causing agent in humans, is rarely associated with disease in companion animals. A case of urinary tract infection associated with an atypical, weakly hemolytic L. monocytogenes strain is described in a diabetic dog. The serotype of the L. monocytogenes isolate was determined to be 1/2a (3a), with the multilocus genotyping pattern 2.72_1/2a. A nucleotide substitution (Gly145Asp) was detected at residue 145 in the promoter prfA region. This residue is within the critical helix-turn-helix motif of PrfA. The source of the L. monocytogenes strain remains unknown, and the dog recovered after a 4-week course of cephalexin (30 mg/kg orally twice daily).
... Human listeriosis cases have been reported throughout the world, including Africa, Oceania, South America, North America, Europe, and Asia (Ariza-Miguel et al. 2015;Barbosa et al. 2015;Hmaied et al. 2014;Huang et al. 2015;Lomonaco et al. 2015;Najjar et al. 2015;Negi et al. 2015;Ramdani-Bouguessa and Rahal 2000;Scallan et al. 2015a;Scallan et al. 2015b). Similarly, animal listeriosis cases caused by L. monocytogenes have also been reported throughout the world, including Africa (Akpavie and Ikheloa 1992;Meredith and Schneider 1984;Schroeder and van Rensburg 1993), South America (Headley et al. 2013;Headley et al. 2014), North America (Wiedmann et al. 1997;Wiedmann et al. 1994;Wiedmann et al. 1999;Woo-Sam 1999), Asia (Gu et al. 2015;Malik et al. 2002), Oceania (Fairley and Colson 2013;Fairley et al. 2012), and Europe (Rocha et al. 2013;Vela et al. 2001;Wagner et al. 2005). Animal listeriosis cases due to L. ivanovii has been recorded in different continents, including Oceania (McAuley et al. 2014;Sergeant et al. 1991), North America (Alexander et al. 1992), Europe (Gill et al. 1997;Kimpe et al. 2004), South America (Hofer et al. 2000), and Asia (Chand and Sadana 1999). ...
Article
Full-text available
The genus Listeria is currently comprised of 17 species, including 9 Listeria species newly described since 2009. Genomic and phenotypic data clearly define a distinct group of six species (Listeria sensu strictu) that share common phenotypic characteristics (e.g., ability to grow at low temperature, flagellar motility); this group includes the pathogen Listeria monocytogenes. The other 11 species (Listeria sensu lato) represent three distinct monophyletic groups, which may warrant recognition as separate genera. These three proposed genera do not contain pathogens, are non-motile (except for Listeria grayi), are able to reduce nitrate (except for Listeria floridensis), and are negative for the Voges-Proskauer test (except for L. grayi). Unlike all other Listeria species, species in the proposed new genus Mesolisteria are not able to grow below 7 °C. While most new Listeria species have only been identified in a few countries, the availability of molecular tools for rapid characterization of putative Listeria isolates will likely lead to future identification of isolates representing these new species from different sources. Identification of Listeria sensu lato isolates has not only allowed for a better understanding of the evolution of Listeria and virulence characteristics in Listeria but also has practical implications as detection of Listeria species is often used by the food industry as a marker to detect conditions that allow for presence, growth, and persistence of L. monocytogenes. This review will provide a comprehensive critical summary of our current understanding of the characteristics and distribution of the new Listeria species with a focus on Listeria sensu lato.
... The adrenal gland can be directly infected by pathogens, including viruses, fungi, and bacteria (2). In dogs, there are reports of adrenal infection with canine herpesvirus (11), Listeria monocytogenes (44), Aspergillus deflectus (39), Neospora caninum (34), Trypanosoma cruzi (4), and Leishmania sp. (27,51). ...
Article
Full-text available
This report describes a case of visceral leishmaniasis characterized by adrenalitis with intralesional Leishmania sp. amastigotes in a 16 year-old maned wolf (Chrysocyon brachyurus). The animal had been previously diagnosed as infected with Leishmania infantum by serology and xenodiagnosis. The only organ in which amastigotes were detected by histopathology and immunohistochemistry was the adrenal gland, which presented multifocal infiltration of lymphocytes, plasma cells and macrophages containing intracytoplasmic amastigotes. The animal had no other lesions of visceral leishmaniasis, except for renal and splenic amyloidosis and pancreatitis that may be associated with the disease. Importantly, the maned wolf had an intratubular seminoma in the testis, which to the best of our knowledge is the first reported case of testicular tumor in this species.
... Notably, L. monocytogenes has also been isolated from clinically healthy monogastric mammals [55,82]. Listeriosis in monogastric mammals is typically manifested as septicemia [55,89]. Abortion, meningoencephalitis and other manifestations such as conjunctivitis are also possible, but their relative frequency differs by animal species [55,90]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Listeriosis is a leading cause of hospitalization and death due to foodborne illness in the industrialized world. Animal models have played fundamental roles in elucidating the pathophysiology and immunology of listeriosis, and will almost certainly continue to be integral components of the research on listeriosis. Data derived from animal studies helped for example characterize the importance of cell-mediated immunity in controlling infection, allowed evaluation of chemotherapeutic treatments for listeriosis, and contributed to quantitative assessments of the public health risk associated with L. monocytogenes contaminated food commodities. Nonetheless, a number of pivotal questions remain unresolved, including dose-response relationships, which represent essential components of risk assessments. Newly emerging data about species-specific differences have recently raised concern about the validity of most traditional animal models of listeriosis. However, considerable uncertainty about the best choice of animal model remains. Here we review the available data on traditional and potential new animal models to summarize currently recognized strengths and limitations of each model. This knowledge is instrumental for devising future studies and for interpreting current data. We deliberately chose a historical, comparative and cross-disciplinary approach, striving to reveal clues that may help predict the ultimate value of each animal model in spite of incomplete data.
... Pets may have access to food while the food preparer is occupied elsewhere, and such occurrences were observed on video. Pets may carry human pathogens (1,8,11,14), and the interaction of pets with their owners, food, or food-preparation surfaces could lead to contamination of food. ...
Article
Full-text available
Poor food-handling and hygiene practices in domestic kitchens are thought to be the cause of a significant amount of foodborne illness. Food-handling practices were studied by video observation in 40 home kitchens in Melbourne, Australia. Participant households included those of single people, couples, and families from a range of socioeconomic backgrounds. The kitchens were continuously video monitored for 1 or 2 weeks during 1997 and 1998. Infrequent hand washing; poor hand-washing technique; lack of hand washing prior to food preparation; inadequate cleaning of kitchen surfaces; involvement of pets in the kitchen; touching of the face, mouth, nose, and/or hair during food preparation; and lack of separate hand and dish towels were the most common unhygienic practices observed. Prior to video surveillance, participant households answered a food-safety questionnaire that related to preparation and handling of food. These answers were contrasted with the actual practices observed in each household. There was a significant variance between stated (answers provided in response to the questionnaire) and observed (via video monitoring) food-handling and hygiene practices. The results of this study raise concerns about consumer food-handling and hygiene practices in Australian domestic kitchens. A continuous and increased effort in the education of the public in the area of hygienic food preparation is indicated.
... The first case of listeriosis in a dog was described in 1947 when the bacterium, at that time named Listerella monocytogenes, was isolated from the brain of a sixmonth-old cocker spaniel showing clinical signs of disorder (Chapman 1947). There has also been at least one case of abortion (Weber and Plagemann 1991), one case of septicaemia with encephalomyelitis (Schroeder and van Rensburg 1993) and one case of a cutaneous form (Loncarevic and others 1999) associated with L monocytogenes in dogs. ...
Article
Background: Canine myocarditis can result from infection with bacteria Listeria monocytogenes. Case report: A 14-week-old female entire Staffordshire Bull Terrier was assessed for lethargy, inappetence and dyspnoea. Radiographs and echocardiography revealed fluid within the pericardial space, a plaque of marked hyperechogenicity within the right ventricular free wall, marked right atrial dilation and myocardial systolic dysfunction. Histopathology of the myocardium was consistent with severe pyogranulomatous myocarditis, with gram stain revealing gram-positive bacilli, consistent with a Listerial infection. Bacterial culture of the myocardium yielded a light growth of Listeria monocytogenes. Conclusion: To the best of the authors' knowledge, this is the first case of canine myocarditis caused by Listeria monocytogenes to be described and should be included as a differential diagnosis of myocarditis. Further, it prompts the consideration of potential zoonotic risks for veterinarians treating dogs with pericardial effusions.
Chapter
Owing to the ease by which it can be safely and effectively sampled and its common involvement in many veterinary diseases, the spleen is a commonly sampled tissue, particularly in small animal veterinary medicine. While the cytologic findings in many splenic aspirates reveal a number of nonspecific, benign pathologies, sampling of the spleen can be useful in the diagnosis of many round cell neoplasms, mesenchymal neoplasms, metastatic neoplasia, and infectious disease.
Article
Full-text available
Background Listeria monocytogenes is one of the commonly isolated foodborne pathogens which cause illness, and listeriosis is a disease caused by this pathogen in human beings. Pets that consume contaminated pet food diets can be colonized by L. monocytogenes without showing clinical signs making the pets a possible source of contamination in the household. This study aimed to detect and enumerate the presence of L. monocytogenes in pet food diets, namely cat and dog food. Result A total of 32 samples consisting of wet food (25%), dry food (25%), treats (25%), and leftover household samples (25%) were examined for this study. The pet food diets were sampled from pet food shops, grocery stores, and households located in Kuching and Kota Samarahan. The analysis was conducted using the most probable number–polymerase chain reaction (MPN-PCR). According to the results obtained from MPN-PCR, none of the samples were contaminated by L. monocytogenes. Conclusion Being the first biosafety assessment of L. monocytogenes in pet food in Malaysia, this study can contribute to the building of a database regarding the potential contamination of pet food diets by L. monocytogenes.
Article
A 3.6-year-old neutered female labrador retriever was presented with one month’s history of left hindlimb lameness and a five-day history of anorexia. A severe osteolytic and osteoproductive polyostotic bone lesion affecting the proximal aspect of the tibia and the distal aspect of the femur was seen on radiographs. Histopathological evaluation confirmed cellulitis, myositis, neutrophilic osteomyelitis and bone necrosis and culture revealed a pure growth of β-haemolytic Listeria species. To the authors' knowledge this is the first report of osteomyelitis caused by Listeria species in a dog without any identified primary cause of infection.
Chapter
Characteristics of the BacteriumSources of the BacteriumBacterial Virulence FactorsPathogenesisHost-Pathogen Interactions in ListeriosisConclusions References
Article
An 11-year-old, male castrated, Boston Terrier was presented to the North Carolina State University College of Veterinary Medicine Small Animal Emergency Service with a 2-day history of progressive ataxia, left-sided head tilt, and anorexia. The dog had previously been diagnosed with chronic lymphoid leukemia and suspected immune-mediated destruction of his bone marrow precursor cells, possibly due to therapy with immunosuppressive dosages of prednisone and azathioprine. During the physical examination, abnormal findings included an increased body temperature and horizontal nystagmus. Diagnostic investigations included a computed tomography (CT) scan, which confirmed bilateral otitis media, and a blood culture, which was positive for Listeria monocytogenes serotype 4b (epidemic clone 1). Upon treatment with ampicillin/sulbactam, enrofloxacin, and minocycline, the dog became normothermic and the neurologic signs improved. L monocytogenes serotype 4b (epidemic clone 1) has been associated with outbreaks of human listeriosis originating from food contamination. Although rare case reports of Listeria spp. infection in dogs exist, an actual infection with the epidemic clone 1 strain has never before been reported in a dog. It should be included in the differential diagnoses in immunocompromised dogs with clinical signs of septicemia.
Article
A five-year-old, intact male, 31 kg, mixed breed dog was presented with progressive ataxic gait in the pelvic limb and reluctance to ambulate of one week duration. The thoracic vertebral region was severely painful on palpation. Pus at the tip of prepuce and perineal hernia were observed. Survey radiographs and computed tomography showed lysis of the endplates of T1-T2 and T5-T7 with irregular bony proliferations of the ventral aspect compatible with multiple discospondylitis. The enlarged prostate with multifocal hypoechoic cysts observed on ultrasonography was confirmed as a suppurative inflammation. Urine cultures yielded growth of Listeria monocytogenes and Escherichia coli. Three months after institution of treatment, the dog showed normal gait and sound general condition. This report shows diffuse discospondylitis related with cystitis and prostatic abscess.
Article
Listeria monocytogenes can cause disease and death in humans and a large variety of animal species. Canine listeriosis seems, however, to be rare. In the present report, L. monocytogenes was isolated as a pure culture from the gallbladder of a dog with liver insufficiency. The animal suffered from auto-immune-mediated polyarthritis and had therefore been treated with prednisolone for several months. The L. monocytogenes isolate tested positive in PCR for the virulence genes inlA, inlB, hly, actA, sigB and prfA and expressed functional, full-length internalin. This is the first reported case of a dog with a L. monocytogenes infection of the gallbladder. Bacterial persistence in the gallbladder of pet animals may constitute a health hazard for their owner.
Article
Listeria monocytogenes is a Gram positive, facultative intracellular pathogen with the capacity to cause food poisoning outbreaks as well as severe illness in vulnerable human population groups. In this paper the faecal carriage rate of Listeria monocytogenes in domestic dogs in Isfahan city, determined from 92 faecal samples by bacteriological methods. Listeria monocytogenes was isolated from only one of the samples examined (1.08%). The serotype of isolated bacteria was 1/2b. It was concluded that stray dogs could be a reservoir of the organism as well as a source of human listeriosis in Iran. This is the first report on the isolation of Listeria monocytogenes from domestic dogs in Isfahan city.
Article
Zusammenfassung BARF (Biologisch Artgerechte Rohfütterung) ist in Deutschland ein zunehmender Trend in der Ernährung von Hunden. In diesem Artikel werden allgemeine Informationen zu dieser Fütterungsmethode dargestellt, wie Prinzipien des Barfens, Zusammensetzung einer typischen BARF-Ration und Beweggründe der Besitzer. Risiken bei BARF-Rationen bestehen insbesondere in der potenziellen Übertragung von Parasiten, Bakterien und Viren durch rohes Fleisch auf den Hund, wobei einige davon auch zoonotisches Potenzial aufweisen. Häufig besteht bei BARF-Rationen zudem eine Unteroder Überversorgung der Hunde mit verschiedenen Nährstoffen. Dies betrifft insbesondere das Mengenelement Kalzium und die Spurenelemente Kupfer, Zink und Jod, die Vitamine A und D sowie ein häufig inadäquates Kalzium-Phosphor-Verhältnis der Ration. Dies kann bei mittelbis langfristiger Verfütterung zu klinisch manifesten Krankheitssymptomen führen. Daher sollte Hundebesitzern, die ihre Hunde barfen, stets eine Rationsüberprüfung und gegebenenfalls Rationsoptimierung durch einen entsprechend spezialisierten Tierarzt angeraten werden.
Chapter
In contrast to most pathogenic bacteria, Listeria monocytogenes is psychrotrophic, capable of multiplying at low temperatures. In an era when food production and food storage heavily rely on refrigeration, this ability to grow (albeit slowly) in a cold environment has opened a new ecological niche for L. monocytogenes. Because of the severity of certain clinical manifestations (infections of the central nervous system, septicemia, and abortion), the high case-fatality rate (up to 30 % of cases), and the long incubation time, human listeriosis is now a zoonosis of major public health concern. L. monocytogenes causes invasive illness mainly in certain well-defined high-risk groups, including immunocompromised persons, pregnant women, neonates, and the elderly. However, listeriosis can occur in otherwise healthy individuals, particularly during an outbreak. The evolvement of silage as a dominant feed for ruminants constitutes another key factor, responsible for the emergence of listeriosis as a relevant animal disease. L. monocytogenes has been isolated from numerous species of mammals, birds, fish, crustaceans, and insects. Nevertheless, the primary habitats of L. monocytogenes are considered to be the soil and decaying vegetable matter, in which it survives and grows saprophytically.
Article
The aetiology of dermatitis in dogs is often complex, and primary or secondary bacterial infections are common. In this report we describe a case where Listeria monocytogenes was proposed to be the bacteriological cause of a pyoderma in a 4-year-old Giant Schnauzer. The infection manifested as a cutaneous listeriosis with multiple pustulae on the dog’s back. The dog was treated with clindamycin and recovered within 1 week. The source of infection was suggested to be a carcass or the faeces of a wild animal, or a decomposed placenta from an infected animal.
Chapter
IntroductionCharacteristicsSources of InfectionVirulence FactorsPathogenesisHost–Pathogen Interactions in ListeriosisPrevention and TreatmentConclusion References
Article
Self-esteem and optimism have been associated with appraisal and outcomes in a variety of situations. The degree to which the contribution of self-esteem and optimism to outcomes over time is accounted for by the differences in threat (primary) or resource (secondary) appraisal has not been established in persons with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). To examine the longitudinal relationship of personality (self-esteem and optimism) on primary and secondary appraisal and outcomes of well-being, mood, CD4+ T-lymphocyte count, and selected activities. Men (n = 56) and women (n = 42) infected with HIV completed eight self-report measures twice over 18 months. Hierarchical Multiple Regressions were used to examine the relationship of personality variables on appraisals and outcomes. The mediating effects of primary and secondary appraisals were explored. Self-esteem uniquely accounted for 6% of the variance in primary appraisal and 5% in secondary appraisal. Optimism accounted for 8% of the unique variance in secondary appraisal. Primary and secondary appraisal mediated differently between personality and outcome variables. A strong predictor of well-being, mood disturbance, and activity disruption at Time 2 was participants' initial level of these variables. Socioeconomic status was a strong predictor of mood. Self-esteem and optimism are important but different resources for adapting to HIV disease. Strategies for reducing threats and increasing resources associated with HIV may improve an individual's mood and sense of well-being.
Article
The American diet is among the safest in the world; however, diseases transmitted by foodborne pathogens (FBPs) still pose a public health hazard. FBPs are the second most frequent cause of all infectious illnesses in the United States. Numerous anecdotal and clinical reports have demonstrated that central nervous system inflammation, infection, and adverse neurological effects occur as complications of foodborne gastroenteritis. Only a few well-controlled clinical or experimental studies, however, have investigated the neuropathogenesis. The full nature and extent of neurological involvement in foodborne illness is therefore unclear. To our knowledge, this review and commentary is the first effort to comprehensively discuss the issue of FBP induced neurotoxicity. We suggest that much of this information supports the role of a theoretical model, the neuro-immune-endocrine system, in organizing and helping to explain the complex pathogenesis of FBP neurotoxicity.
ResearchGate has not been able to resolve any references for this publication.