Visceral fat accumulation in relation to sex hormones in obese men and women undergoing weight loss therapy

Division of Human Nutrition, Wageningen University, Wageningen, Gelderland, Netherlands
Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism (Impact Factor: 6.21). 07/1994; 78(6):1515-20. DOI: 10.1210/jc.78.6.1515
Source: PubMed


In 70 healthy obese subjects (37 men and 33 premenopausal women; aged 27-51 yr; body mass index, 28-38 kg/m2), associations between the initial amount of visceral fat and sex hormone levels were studied as well as between changes that occurred in response to a 4.2 mJ/day deficit diet for 13 weeks. Magnetic resonance imaging was used to quantify the visceral fat depot. In women, an abundance of visceral fat was significantly associated with diminished levels of sex hormone-binding globulin and free 17 beta-estradiol/free testosterone (T) ratio and to elevated levels of free T after adjustment for age and total fat mass. In men, no significant relationships could be found between visceral fat accumulation and any of the sex hormones. Mean total fat loss was 11.3 +/- 3.3 (+/- SD) kg. In women, loss of visceral fat was significantly related to rises in the sex hormone-binding globulin level and the free 17 beta-estradiol/free T ratio independent of total fat loss, whereas in men, only the association between visceral fat loss and increased estrone level reached statistical significance. In conclusion, in obese premenopausal women, visceral fat predominance seems to be related to a relatively increased androgenicity. In obese men, sex steroid levels appear not to depend on the amount of visceral fat. In obese women, but not in obese men, visceral fat loss seems to be accompanied by a relative reduction in androgenicity.

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    • "A number of intervention studies have confirmed that both diet- and surgically-induced weight losses are associated with increased testosterone, with the rise in testosterone generally proportional to the amount of weight lost (Figure 2). Table 2 lists 15 published trials that have assessed the effects of weight loss interventions on testosterone.6263646566676869707172737475 The majority of the trials was single-arm cohort studies and included small numbers of subjects. "
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    ABSTRACT: With increasing modernization and urbanization of Asia, much of the future focus of the obesity epidemic will be in the Asian region. Low testosterone levels are frequently encountered in obese men who do not otherwise have a recognizable hypothalamic-pituitary-testicular (HPT) axis pathology. Moderate obesity predominantly decreases total testosterone due to insulin resistance-associated reductions in sex hormone binding globulin. More severe obesity is additionally associated with reductions in free testosterone levels due to suppression of the HPT axis. Low testosterone by itself leads to increasing adiposity, creating a self-perpetuating cycle of metabolic complications. Obesity-associated hypotestosteronemia is a functional, non-permanent state, which can be reversible, but this requires substantial weight loss. While testosterone treatment can lead to moderate reductions in fat mass, obesity by itself, in the absence of symptomatic androgen defi ciency, is not an established indication for testosterone therapy. Testosterone therapy may lead to a worsening of untreated sleep apnea and compromise fertility. Whether testosterone therapy augments diet- and exercise-induced weight loss requires evaluation in adequately designed randomized controlled clinical trials.
    Full-text · Article · Dec 2013 · Asian Journal of Andrology
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    • "A study using coconut oil in obese women demonstrated a reduction of abdominal fat with unchanged lipid profiles providing support for similar findings in the current study [9]. This also reflected that females benefited from VCO in a manner different from males [23, 24]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Introduction. This is an open-label pilot study on four weeks of virgin coconut oil (VCO) to investigate its efficacy in weight reduction and its safety of use in 20 obese but healthy Malay volunteers. Methodology. Efficacy was assessed by measuring weight and associated anthropometric parameters and lipid profile one week before and one week after VCO intake. Safety was assessed by comparing organ function tests one week before and one week after intake of VCO. Paired t-test was used to analyse any differences in all the measurable variables. Results. Only waist circumference (WC) was significantly reduced with a mean reduction of 2.86 cm or 0.97% from initial measurement (P = .02). WC reduction was only seen in males (P < .05). There was no change in the lipid profile. There was a small reduction in creatinine and alanine transferase levels. Conclusion. VCO is efficacious for WC reduction especially in males and it is safe for use in humans.
    Full-text · Article · Mar 2011
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    • "This is especially pronounced in those with central obesity. Indeed, it has been demonstrated that a reduction in visceral obesity is associated with a concomitant elevation in SHBG concentration and reduction in androgenicity (Leenen et al. 1994). This relative hyperandrogenaemia seen in obese women may have a pathophysiological effect upon ovarian function and contribute towards menstrual disturbance and oligo-anovulation. "
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    ABSTRACT: Whilst many multiparous women are obese (body mass index >30 kg/m(2)), obesity has been associated with impaired fecundity; however, the mechanism which links obesity to reduced fertility remains to be fully elucidated. Obese women, particularly those with central obesity, are less likely to conceive per cycle. Obese women suffer perturbations to the hypothalamic-pituitary-ovarian axis, menstrual cycle disturbance and are up to three times more likely to suffer oligo-/anovulation. A fine hormonal balance regulates follicular development and oocyte maturation, and it has been observed that obesity can alter the hormonal milieu. Leptin, a hormone produced by adipocytes, is elevated in obese women, and raised leptin has been associated with impaired fecundity. Obesity impairs ovulation but has also been observed to detrimentally affect endometrial development and implantation. The expression of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is regulated, in part, by weight, and so obese women with PCOS often have a more severe phenotype and experience more subfertility. Obesity also impairs the response of women to assisted conception treatments. Weight loss through lifestyle modification or bariatric surgery has been demonstrated to restore menstrual cyclicity and ovulation and improve the likelihood of conception. In this article, we will discuss the effect of obesity upon key reproductive mechanisms and its relation to fertility treatments.
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